Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration. The test is limited to a three-month average because the lifespan of a red blood cell is four months (120 days). However, since RBCs do not all undergo lysis at the same time, HbA1C is taken as a limited measure of 3 months. It is formed in a non-enzymatic glycation pathway by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. HbA1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl component of hemoglobin. The origin of the naming derives from Hemoglobin type A being separated on cation exchange chromatography. The first fraction to separate, probably considered to be pure Hemoglobin A, was designated HbA0, the following fractions were designated HbA1a, HbA1b, and HbA1c, respective of their order of elution. There have subsequently been many more sub fractions as separation techniques have improved. Normal levels of glucose produce a normal amount of glycated hemoglobin. As the average amount of plasma glucose increases, the fraction of glycated hemoglobin increases in a predictable way. This serves as a marker for average blood glucose levels over the previous three months before the measurement as this is the lifespan of red blood cells. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. A trial on a group of patients with Type 1 diabetes found that monitoring by caregivers of HbA1c led to changes in diabetes treatment and improvement of metabolic control compared to monitoring only of blood or urine glu Continue reading >>
Is 117 Mg/dl Blood Sugar From A Glucose Test Normal?
Here we will look at a 117 mg/dL blood sugar level from a Glucose test result and tell you what it may mean. Is 117 mg/dL blood sugar good or bad? Note that blood sugar tests should be done multiple times and the 117 mg/dL blood sugar level should be an average of those numbers. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, there is a Fasting Glucose Test and a Random Glucose Test. Below you can see what different results may mean. Fasting Glucose Test 70 - 100 mg/dL = Normal 101 - 125 mg/dL = Prediabetes 126 and above = Diabetes Therefore, according to the chart above, if the 117 mg/dL blood sugar level was from a Fasting Glucose Test, then it may indicate prediabetes. Random Glucose Test Below 125 mg/dL = Normal 126 - 199 mg/dL = Prediabetes 200 and above = Diabetes If the test result of a 117 mg/dL blood sugar level was from a Random Glucose Test, then the result would indicate it to be in the normal range. Is 118 mg/dL Blood Sugar from a Glucose test normal? Go here for the next blood sugar level on our list. Continue reading >>
How Can I Prevent Diabetes?
Q: My doctor told me that my fasting blood glucose was 117, I need to lose 100 pounds, I should eat more healthfully, and I should start exercising. Then he walked out of the office without giving me a prescription. How can I prevent diabetes? A: A fasting blood glucose of 100-125 mg/dl likely means you have pre-diabetes. Your blood glucose is higher than normal but not high enough to diagnose diabetes. There is a silver lining. Research shows that if you follow a healthful eating plan (especially limiting how much fat you eat and getting plenty of fiber), be active about 30 minutes five days a week, and lose just 5-7 percent of your starting body weight, you can delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes without going on a medication. It is worth noting that research in people with pre-diabetes has shown that several of the blood-glucose-lowering medications are effective in delaying or preventing type 2 diabetes. At this point, none of the medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating type 2 are approved for treating pre-diabetes. Keep in mind that pre-diabetes and type 2 are progressive. Over time, about 70 percent of people with pre-diabetes develop type 2, particularly if they don't make healthful lifestyle modifications. Most people with type 2 diabetes require some blood-glucose-lowering medication. Your main goal should be to control your weight and blood glucose. If you do need to take blood-glucose-lowering medicine, take it without shame or guilt. To learn more about diabetes and to get the support you will need to achieve your goals, find health-care providers who know about diabetes. Also request a referral from your provider to a diabetes education program. Find a diabetes education program in your area through the American Continue reading >>
“normal” Blood Sugar Levels May Still Mean You Have Prediabetes
FPG between 91 and 99 mg/dl is a strong independent predictor of type 2 diabetes, claims new study Type 2 diabetes is a lifestyle disease in which the body no longer responds appropriately to the hormone insulin, which helps ferry sugar from the blood into our cells after a meal. When fasting blood sugar levels reach 126 mg/dl or more, doctors will diagnose diabetes. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but it's not yet increased enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. Still, without intervention, prediabetes is likely to become type 2 diabetes in 10 years or less. (Scroll to end for Prediabetes FAQs) Traditionally, blood sugar levels below 100 mg/dl have been considered “safe”, whereas levels between 100 and 126 signal a “higher risk” of diabetes (prediabetes). But according to the new study by Dr. Paolo Brambilla and colleagues at the University Milano Bicocca in Italy, the currently accepted "normal" blood sugar range might be too wide. “FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) between 91 and 99 mg/dl is a strong independent predictor of type 2 diabetes and should be used to identify people to be further investigated and aided with preventive measures,” the researchers say. The conclusion significantly expands the "prediabetes" label. To back their claim, the researchers report that in the course of their study they discovered people at the high end of what's considered the "normal" blood sugar range are twice as likely to get the disease as are those in the low end. The findings are in line with an earlier study from Oregon, and the Italian researchers say they can help identify the people who need extra medical attention. The researchers looked at data for nearly 14,000 men and women who'd had blood drawn several times at their c Continue reading >>
Three Blood Tests To Help You Better Manage The Risks Of High Blood Sugar
Q: I noticed that on a recent blood test my fasting blood sugar is 105 mg/dL. Last checkup it was 100 mg/dL. My doctor says it’s fine and not to worry but everything I’ve read tells me that I might be on the road to diabetes or have something called impaired insulin sensitivity (or insulin resistance). Can you suggest some blood tests that would give me a better picture of my risk factors, especially since both diabetes and high cholesterol issues run in my family? A: That is a great question, and you are wise to raise it. You may have the condition referred to as “impaired glucose tolerance,” also known as “insulin resistance” or “prediabetes.” In other words, your glucose level is indeed too high if your goal is optimal health. Here’s why… Though mainstream medicine once tolerated blood sugars as high as 140 mg/dL as “normal,” we now recognize the substantial cardiovascular, stroke, and cancer risks posed by sugar levels anywhere above 85 mg/dL.1-4 Above that level, your tissues are exposed to glucose at concentrations that cause chemical reactions with your body’s proteins and fats called glycation. Glycated proteins and fats trigger inflammation and oxidative stress, major enemies of longevity. Virtually all chronic diseases of aging (and aging itself) are accelerated by high glucose levels. As blood sugar rises, your risk of dying also goes up by approximately 40% when fasting glucose consistently falls in the range of 110-124 mg/dL. Risk of dying doubles when fasting glucose reaches the range of 126-138 mg/dL.5 But glucose is only part of the story. In order to keep your sugar under control, your body puts out increasingly large amounts of insulin, the hormone we need to take sugar out of the bloodstream and drive it into cells. And insul Continue reading >>
The Normal A1c Level
Wow Richard, 70 lbs? I have lost 24 lbs from low carb diet due to SIBO. It also helped my AC1 go down three points from 6.2 and my cholesterol is lower, which surprised me. I can’t afford to lose anymore weight because I was small to begin with. I had noticed much bigger people in the UK over the last 5 years compared to 15-20. Was quite shocking. I thought we had the patent on obesity! I am not diabetic that I know of but I had weird symptoms… Thirst that continued all day and night. My husband called me a camel. Dry eyes, rashes, strange dark discolouration on arm, under the arm to the side, some circulation issues and blurred vision. Eye specialist could not figure out why. Sores in the mouth also. I had observed about three weeks into super low carbs (30 Gms carb/day) that athlete’s foot symptom, sores in mouth and rashes were clearing up. So, lowering carbs for SIBO actually turned out for the best. By the way, I love your final paragraph. Research is what led me to SIBO diagnosis, and I then told the GI what to look for! He was barking up the wrong tree for months. Said I needed to eat more carbs so I don’t lose weight. Well, carbs fed the bacterial overgrowth!!! Dang fool. On Saturday, June 23, 2012, Diabetes Developments wrote: There is a new comment on the post “The Normal A1C Level”. Author: Richard Comment: I think part of the problem is that doctors are trained over many years to treat with pills, not with food. We continue to do what we are trained to do no matter what. I do believe they want to help us but don’t have the nutritional knowledge because that is not their expertise. When you have a hammer, etc. Nutritionist are no better unless they are those involved in research. They just peddle the messages they are told to. Then again, why wo Continue reading >>
Glucose tolerance Fasting plasma glucose concentrations usually fall slightly during pregnancy, whereas postprandial concentrations increase. Pregnancy may lead to a deterioration in glucose tolerance, which is subtle in the majority of women, probably due to insulin resistance induced by elevated concentrations of sex hormones. In patients with pre-existing type 1 diabetes mellitus, this may result in an increased requirement for exogenous insulin. The insulin requirement should thus be monitored closely (by regular measurements of blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin) in order to reduce the incidence of fetal malformation, macrosomia and intrauterine death, conditions that are all associated with poor glycaemic control. The precise nature of the defect in gestational glucose intolerance remains controversial. Patients who are initially free from diabetes but develop gestational diabetes may either revert to normal glucose tolerance after pregnancy (in which case they remain at risk of developing diabetes in the future) or remain frankly diabetic. Although screening for gestational diabetes has been advocated (based on factors such as obesity, strong family history of diabetes mellitus or previous delivery of a baby weighing 4 kg or more), most ‘at-risk’ patients do not develop glucose intolerance and those that do often have low risk factor scores. The presence of glycosuria is similarly of little use, as the majority of pregnant women will have glycosuria at some stage of their pregnancy owing to their lowered renal threshold, rather than glucose intolerance per se. Consequently, routine measurement of blood glucose has been advocated in all pregnancies. While this will indeed detect patients with gestational glucose intolerance, controversy exists concerning t Continue reading >>
Convert Hba1c To Average Blood Sugar Level
Tweet Use this calculator to convert HbA1c to Average Blood Sugar Level. The HbA1c level in your blood indicates what your average blood glucose level has been in the past 2 to 3 months. Everyone, whether non-diabetic, pre-diabetic, type 1 diabetic or type 2 diabetic has some degree of sugar in their blood. To convert between mg/dl and mmol/L, use our blood sugar converter. You can then convert average blood glucose levels back to HbA1c units with the calculator below. mmol/L Recommended HbA1c ranges The recommended HbA1c range for most with diabetes is to keep the value under 48 mmols/mol (under 6.5% in the old percentage units). People at risk of hypoglycemia, or for whom such tight blood glucose regulation is not advised, may be advised to keep their HbA1c below 59 mmols/mol (under 7.5% in the old percentage units). Because the two tests measure two different things, the calculator can only give an estimate and therefore there will always be some discrepancy between the value provided by the calculator and actual lab test results. How accurate are the results? The calculator looks to provide an estimate of what your HbA1c value may be based upon your average blood glucose results and vice versa. It’s important to note that HbA1c and blood glucose tests measure different things. Blood glucose tests measure the concentration of glucose molecules in the blood at a single point in time. The HbA1c test measures the proportion of haemoglobin molecules in the blood that have become chemically bonded with glucose over a period of up to 3 months. However, the calculator serves as a useful guide which can give you a close indication of what your HbA1c result might be based on your blood glucose results? What can I learn from converting my average blood glucose level to HbA1c Continue reading >>
What Is The Average Blood Sugar Level?
Blood sugar, or glucose, serves as the fuel your body uses to generate energy. The level of glucose in your blood remains fairly stable, slightly rising after eating and declining a small amount between meals or after exercising. Blood glucose can be measured in many ways. Some tests measure glucose directly, while others measure the amount of glucose attached to a specific protein. Video of the Day Fasting and Premeal Blood Glucose Levels The amount of glucose in the blood varies, depending on when you last ate. A fasting blood glucose level after at least 8 hours without caloric intake in a healthy, nondiabetic adult typically ranges from 70 to 99 mg/dL, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). People with a fasting blood glucose of 100 to 125 mg/dL are considered prediabetic, meaning the body's handling of glucose is impaired but not yet to the point of warranting a diagnosis of diabetes. A fasting blood glucose of 126 mg/dL or greater typically indicates diabetes, according to ADA criteria. Among people diagnosed with diabetes who are not pregnant, the ADA recommends a target fasting or premeal blood sugar level of 80 to 130 mg/dL. Postprandial and Oral Glucose Tolerance Levels As the blood glucose level typically increases after eating, testing after a meal -- known as a postprandial glucose level -- provides information about the body's capacity to maintain a healthy blood sugar level when challenged with a caloric load. Blood glucose levels usually peak 1 to 2 hours after beginning a meal, depending largely on the amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fat in the meal. Among healthy, nondiabetic adults a normal postprandial glucose level 2 hours after a meal is less than 140 mg/dL. For people with diabetes, the ADA generally recommends a peak postpran Continue reading >>
Optimal Ketone And Blood Sugar Levels For Ketosis
A low carb helps reduce blood sugars and insulin levels and helps with the management of many of the diseases of modern civilisation (e.g. diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s). We become insulin resistant when our body fat can’t store any more energy. Excess energy is then stored in the liver, pancreas, heart, brain and other organs that are more insulin sensitive. We also see increased levels of energy in our blood in the form of glucose, fat and elevated ketone. Endogenous ketosis occurs when we eat less food than we need. Our insulin and blood sugar levels decrease and ketones rise to supply the energy we need. Exogenous ketosis occurs when we eat lots fat and/or take exogenous ketones. Blood ketones rise, but our insulin levels will also rise because we have an excess of energy coming from our diet. Most of the good things associated with ketosis occur due to endogenous ketosis. Most people following a ketogenic diet over the long term have ketone values lower than what some people consider to be “optimal ketosis”. If your goal is blood sugar control, longevity or weight loss then endogenous ketosis with lower blood sugars and lower ketones is likely a better place to be than chasing higher blood ketones. I have seen a lot of interest and confusion recently from people following a ketogenic about ideal ketone and blood sugar levels. In an effort to try to clear this up, this article reviews blood ketone (BHB), breath ketone (acetone) and blood sugar data from a large number of people who are following a low carb or ketogenic diet to understand what “normal” and “optimal” look like. Many people initiate a low carb diet to manage their blood glucose levels, insulin resistance or diabetes. As shown in the chart below, Continue reading >>
An Overview Of Estimated Average Glucose (eag)
Estimated average glucose (eAG) or "average glucose" is a newer term you may see reported by your doctor. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) introduced this term to help us translate our A1c tests into numbers that would more closely represent our daily glucose meter readings. Making Sense of eAG: Estimated Average Glucose To understand eAG, we have to begin with the A1c test (also known as glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c). The A1c test measures the amount of hemoglobin in your blood that has glucose attached to it in the red blood cells (glycated hemoglobin). It tells you what your average blood glucose control has been for the past two to three months. The problem is that the A1c test reports a percentage of total hemoglobin that is glycated hemoglobin. In other words, an A1c of 7 percent means that 7 percent of the total hemoglobin has glucose attached to it. But your glucose meter measure glucose directly in the blood in milligrams per deciliter (for example, 150 mg/dl). The two types of numbers are confusing and few of us would be able to easily translate one into the other. Researchers discovered an accurate way to calculate estimated glucose levels from the A1c results. This way we can use the same numbers we are accustomed to seeing on our daily glucose meters. Quick Reference Chart for Hemoglobin A1c to eAG Below is a quick reference guide that will help you calculate your estimated average blood glucose level from your A1c result. A1c (%) to eAG (mg/dl) 6.0% = 126 mg/dl 6.5% = 140 mg/dl 7.0% = 154 mg/dl 7.5% = 169 mg/dl 8.0% = 183 mg/dl 8.5% = 197 mg/dl 9.0% = 212 mg/dl 9.5% = 226 mg/dl 10.0% = 240 mg/dl A1c Versus Daily Monitoring While the A1c test is important for measuring your long-term blood glucose management, it can’t replace daily blood glucose te Continue reading >>
Discussion: Blood Sugar Levels And Type 2 Diabetes
When it comes to blood sugar levels, the numbers always seem to confuse people. So we're here today to cover a whole range of reader questions that have come in. If you have questions of your own, join the discussion – please feel free to leave your comments at the bottom. Healthy blood sugar goal ranges Healthy blood sugar control values will depend on several factors, the most important being when you check it. Blood glucose levels will rise after eating meals regardless of whether a person has diabetes–however, someone with good control will be able to bring it down to a stable level after 2 hours. The diagnostic values below are for non pregnant adults with type 2 diabetes. Ranges are different for children, those with type I diabetes and pregnant women. FASTING AFTER MEALS 2 HOURS HbA1c Normal 70-99 mg/dL (4-6 mmol/L)* <140 mg/dL (<7.8 mmol/L)** <5.7% Pre-Diabetes 100-125 mg/dL (6.1-6.9 mmol/L) 140-179 mg/dL 5.7-6.4% Diabetes >126 mg/dL (>7 mmol/L) >180 mg/dL 6.5% and higher *Note that different agencies establish different standards. Some range 70-100 mg/dL, some 70-110 mg/dL, some 70-130 mg/dL **Some agencies recommend <180 mg/dL post-meal especially in the elderly and those who have had diabetes for a very long time What should your goals be? That is between you and your healthcare team because it does depend on various factors. But overall your goal is to gain good control of your diabetes, which means maintaining normal levels or getting as close to normal levels as possible (refer to the normal numbers above). We’ve answered some specific questions regarding blood sugar over here, so be sure to check those out as well. Some specific comments and questions we’ve received regarding blood sugar levels include: 1. My post meal is hovering around 140-160, Continue reading >>
* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?
Normal blood sugars after a high carbohydrate breakfast eaten at 7:30 AM. The blue line is the average for the group. The brown lines show the range within which most readings fell (2 standard deviations). Bottom lines show Insulin and C-peptide levels at the same time. Click HERE if you don't see the graph. Graph is a screen shot from Dr. Christiansen's presentation cited below. The term "blood sugar" refers to the concentration of glucose, a simple, sugar, that is found in a set volume of blood. In the U.S. it is measured in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dl. In most of the rest of the world it is measured in millimoles per liter, abbreviated as mmol/L. The concentration of glucose in our blood changes continually throughout the day. It can even vary significantly from minute to minute. When you eat, it can rise dramatically. When you exercise it will often drop. The blood sugar measures that doctors are most interested in is the A1c, discussed below. When you are given a routine blood test doctors usually order a fasting glucose test. The most informative blood sugar reading is the post-meal blood sugar measured one and two hours after eating. Doctors rarely test this important blood sugar measurement as it is time consuming and hence expensive. Rarely doctors will order a Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, which tests your response to a huge dose of pure glucose, which hits your blood stream within minutes and produces results quite different from the blood sugars you will experience after each meal. Below you will find the normal readings for these various tests. Normal Fasting Blood Sugar Fasting blood sugar is usually measured first thing in the morning before you have eaten any food. A truly normal fasting blood sugar (which is also the blood sugar a norm Continue reading >>
Is There A Relationship Between Mean Blood Glucose And Glycated Hemoglobin?
Go to: Abstract Measurement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is considered the gold standard for monitoring chronic glycemia of diabetes patients. Hemoglobin A1c indicates an average of blood glucose levels over the past 3 months. Its close association with the risk for the development of long-term complications is well established. However, HbA1c does not inform patients about blood glucose values on a daily basis; therefore, frequent measurements of blood glucose levels are necessary for the day-to-day management of diabetes. Clinicians understand what HbA1c means and how it relates to glucose, but this is not the case with patients. Therefore, the translation of the HbA1c results into something more familiar to patients seemed a necessity. The scope of this article is to review the literature to search for enough scientific evidence to support the idea of a close relationship between HbA1c and mean blood glucose (MBG), and to justify the translation of HbA1c into something that reflects the MBG. Most studies confirm a close relationship between HbA1c and MBG, although different studies result in different linear equations. Factors affecting this relationship may limit the usefulness and applicability of a unique mathematical equation to all diabetes populations. Keywords: diabetes, estimated average glucose, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1c, mean blood glucose, mean plasma glucoset Continue reading >>
What Is Normal Blood Sugar?
Thank you for visiting my website! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D. * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinol Continue reading >>