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Effects Of High Blood Sugar On The Brain

How High Blood Sugar Can Damage Your Brain

How High Blood Sugar Can Damage Your Brain

We all know how high blood sugar can cause physical health issues like insulin resistance and diabetes, but how does it affect your brain and mental health? A recent study done on the effects of high blood sugar levels in the body has shown that the affects may stretch beyond only physical problems. The ideal blood sugar level is below 5.5 mmol/l, measured after an eight hour fast. A blood sugar level of 7 mmol/l or higher usually means that you have insulin resistance, pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes. IN the study, the results suggested that having constant high blood sugar levels may severely increase your risk of developing dementia, and this could be the case even if your blood sugar levels are not high enough to be considered within the diabetic range. The results showed that the higher the blood sugar level, the higher the risk of dementia and damage to the brain. It is not yet clear exactly why this happens, but researchers say that it is likely due to higher levels of vascular disease that is caused by the high blood sugar, as well as metabolic factors like insulin resistance which affects the brain’s cells. How to Lower Blood Sugar Naturally Diet – Eating less high-sugar and high-carb foods is one of the most effective ways to lower blood sugar levels. Cutting back on things like candy, cookies, cakes, soft drinks, bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, corn and highly refined grains can help reduce your blood sugar. Rather eat more vegetables, fruits and lean protein. Exercise – As little as 20 minutes of exercise per day can severely increase your body and brain health. Going for a walk after a meal has overall health and blood sugar lowering effects. Natural Supplements – Opt for the Manna Diet, which can help you to eliminate sugar and refined carbohydrates. Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. On average however, chronic levels above 10–12 mmol/L (180–216 mg/dL) can produce noticeable organ damage over time. Signs and symptoms[edit] The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment.[1] Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. [1] During this asymptomatic period, an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism can occur which can be tested by measuring plasma glucose. [1] However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic n Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar Can Lower Risk Of One Type Of Brain Tumour

High Blood Sugar Can Lower Risk Of One Type Of Brain Tumour

High blood sugar for long periods can cause serious health problems, but surprisingly it can have a protective effect against one type of brain tumour that is not cancerous, says a new study. “It’s so unexpected. Usually diabetes and high blood sugar raise the risk of cancer and it’s the opposite here,” said lead researcher Judith Schwartzbaum, associate professor at Ohio State University. The discovery could shed light on the development of meningiomas — tumours arising from the brain and spinal cord that are usually not cancerous but that can require risky surgery and affect a patient’s quality of life. When the researchers compared blood tests in a group of more than 41,000 Swedes with meningioma diagnoses, they found that high blood sugar — particularly in women — actually meant the person was less likely to face a brain tumour diagnosis. “It should lead to a better understanding of what’s causing these tumors and what can be done to prevent them,” Schwartzbaum noted. Though meningiomas are rarely cancerous, they behave in a similar way, leading scientists to wonder if some relationships between possible risk factors and tumour development would be similar, Schwartzbaum said. The researchers — looking at data collected from 1985 to 2012 — identified 296 cases of meningioma, more than 61 per cent of them in women. Women with the highest fasting blood sugar were less than half as likely as those with the lowest readings to develop a tumour. The study was published in the British Journal of Cancer. Possible explanations for the relationship could be found by closer examination of the role of sex hormones and the interplay between glucose levels and those hormones, Schwartzbaum said. It’s also possible that sugar levels dip during early tumou Continue reading >>

Surprising Link Discovered Between Blood Sugar And Brain Cancer

Surprising Link Discovered Between Blood Sugar And Brain Cancer

Summary: Diabetes and high blood sugar appears to lower a person’s risk of developing glioma brain cancer, a new study suggests. Source: Ohio State University. Diabetes raises risk for many cancers, but not most common malignant brain tumor. New research further illuminates the surprising relationship between blood sugar and brain tumors and could begin to shed light on how certain cancers develop. While many cancers are more common among those with diabetes, cancerous brain tumors called gliomas are less common among those with elevated blood sugar and diabetes, a study from The Ohio State University has found. The discovery builds on previous Ohio State research showing that high blood sugar appears to reduce a person’s risk of a noncancerous brain tumor called meningioma. Both studies were led by Judith Schwartzbaum, an associate professor of epidemiology and a researcher in Ohio State’s Comprehensive Cancer Center. The new glioma study appears in the journal Scientific Reports. “Diabetes and elevated blood sugar increase the risk of cancer at several sites including the colon, breast and bladder. But in this case, these rare malignant brain tumors are more common among people who have normal levels of blood glucose than those with high blood sugar or diabetes,” Schwartzbaum said. “Our research raises questions that, when answered, will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in glioma development,” she said. Glioma is one of the most common types of cancerous tumors originating in the brain. It begins in the cells that surround nerve cells and help them function. The disease is typically diagnosed in middle age. At present, there is no treatment that ensures long-term survival, but several potential options are being studied. The Scie Continue reading >>

Conversations

Conversations

A growing body of research is finding that diabetes can take as devastating a toll on the brain as it takes on the body. A new study published this week in the journal Neurology shows that people with Type 2 diabetes demonstrate a decline in cognitive skills and ability to perform daily activities over the course of only two years. These changes are linked with an impaired ability to regulate blood flow in the brain, due in part to inflammation, which is a common component of Type 2 diabetes. Normally, the brain distributes blood as needed to areas of increased neural activity. In diabetic individuals, however, this process becomes impaired. “We have shown that people with diabetes have abnormal blood flow regulation in the brain, namely impaired ability to increase blood flow and deliver sugar and oxygen to the brain during episodes of increased mental activity,” the study’s lead author, Dr. Vera Novak of the Harvard Medical School, told The Huffington Post in an email. “Inflammation further alters blood flow regulation in diabetic people and contributes to mental and functional decline.” For the study, the researchers recruited 65 men and women with an average age of 66, half of whom had Type 2 diabetes and half of whom did not. The participants were given a series of memory and cognition tests at the outset of the study and again two years later. They also received brain scans to measure brain volume and blood flow and blood tests to measure inflammation and blood sugar control. Here are some of the key findings: After two years, the people with diabetes showed greater declines in gray matter as well as impairments in their ability to regulate blood flow in the brain than the people without. Blood flow regulation decreased by an average of 65 percent in the Continue reading >>

Is High Blood Sugar Damaging Your Brain?

Is High Blood Sugar Damaging Your Brain?

Did you know that diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline? But effectively managing diabetes could actually improve long-term brain health. In diabetes, blood glucose levels remain too high, either because the body does not make or becomes resistant to insulin. Over time, high glucose levels can have serious repercussions, such as heart disease and stroke. But lower them too much and you could face immediate and severe side effects including confusion and cognitive impairment and, possibly, an increased risk of long-term cognitive decline [1][2]. WHAT THE EVIDENCE SAYS Diabetics have up to 73% increased risk of dementia and a 100% higher risk of developing vascular dementia than non-diabetics [3][4–6]. The association between diabetes and dementia risk is even stronger in people with the APOE4 gene [5]. Diabetes can lead to subtle cognitive decline and, in patients with mild cognitive impairment ?, it increases the odds of progressing to dementia [7–9]. The side effects of diabetes can worsen confusion and cognitive impairment in people with dementia. Type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease share certain characteristics, including impaired insulin signaling and oxidative stress [10]. Because of this, research is underway to evaluate whether some specific diabetes drugs including metformin [11], liraglutide [12], exenatide [13], and pioglitazone [14] can prevent or treat dementia even in patients without diabetes [7]. WHAT YOU CAN DO Strong research from multiple meta-analyses indicates that preventing or effectively managing diabetes is one of the most important things you can do to reduce dementia risk and protect your brain from cognitive decline [3][15-17]. Healthy diet, exercise, and weight control are the first steps of diabetes management Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

How Type 1 Diabetes Affects The Brain

How Type 1 Diabetes Affects The Brain

The brain is an expensive organ to run: Most studies suggest that it requires up to 20 percent of the body’s total energy resources despite only taking up approximately 2 percent of its overall weight. Maintaining appropriate glucose levels—the proper amounts of the simple sugar that acts as the body’s main energy source—is key to keeping the brain running at its best. This can be difficult for people—especially children—who have type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), an auto-immune disorder that stops the body from producing insulin, the hormone that helps to break down what we eat into that vital glucose fuel. New research reported through a national consortium called the Diabetes Research in Children Network suggest that this can affect brain development in myriad ways, some of which could offer new insights into our understanding of how the brain compensates, over time, for chronic or degenerative disease. The effects of hyper- and hypoglycemia Last year, my daughter, Ella, was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes at age 10. As we learned more about the disease, we were cautioned to look out for both hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose levels, as well as hypoglycemia, low blood glucose levels. High blood sugars result in symptoms like increased thirst, frequent urination, headache, and fatigue. If high glucose levels continue for a long time, there could be long-term damage to the kidneys, eyes, and nerves. Low blood sugars, on the other hand, can lead to shakiness, anxiety, confusion, dizziness, and muscle weakness—and if not treated immediately, seizures or unconsciousness. While there’s no “perfect” number for glucose levels, it is recommended that most children stay between 70 and 180 mg/dL, checking their blood sugar 4-6 times per day with a glucometer, Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar Levels Linked To Memory Loss

High Blood Sugar Levels Linked To Memory Loss

People with higher blood sugar levels scored lower on memory tests, even though their levels were technically still considered ‘normal’ Even if you haven’t been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or pre-diabetes, higher blood sugar levels appear to have a negative influence on cognition As you over-indulge on sugar and grains, your brain may become overwhelmed by the consistently high levels of blood sugar and insulin and leptin. Eventually insulin and leptin signaling becomes compromised, leading to impairments in your thinking and memory, and eventually even causing permanent brain damage By Dr. Mercola Many people now associate elevated blood sugar levels with diabetes or even pre-diabetes, but new research has highlighted a little-known adverse effect of higher blood sugar levels that can impair your brain – even if your levels are technically still within a ‘normal’ range. The study – an extremely important one considering the epidemic of people with out-of-control blood sugar metabolism – showed that lower blood sugar levels are associated with better brain function and may even help you avoid age-related declines in memory. Higher ‘Normal’ Blood Sugar Levels Linked to Memory Loss It’s already known that people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment, including dementia. However, the new study involved people (with an average age of 63) who were free from diabetes and pre-diabetes (or impaired glucose intolerance). Still, even among this group, those with higher blood sugar levels scored lower on memory tests. For each 7-mmol/mol increase in HbA1c (a measure of damage caused by elevated blood glucose), participants recalled two fewer words on memory tests.1 Those with higher blood sugar levels also had lower Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Affects Your Brain

How Diabetes Affects Your Brain

Diabetes can have an impact on your whole body. Your brain is no exception. Recent studies have linked type 2 diabetes to a slowdown in mental functioning and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. The chance of brain complications is just one more reason to keep your diabetes under control. Diabetes on the Brain Scientists are still unsure exactly how type 2 diabetes might affect the brain. However, multiple factors are probably involved. On top of tracking your diet and blood sugar, regular exercise is a key part of managing your diabetes. And while any exercise is better than none, certain activities have specific benefits for people with diabetes. 2017 Healthgrades Operating Company, Inc. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced or reprinted without permission from Healthgrades Operating Company, Inc. Use of this information is governed by the Healthgrades User Agreement. “High blood sugar may directly affect either nerve cells or support cells in the nervous system,” says Alan Jacobson, M.D., emeritus professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. “It can also lead to damage in both large and small blood vessels.” This, in turn, reduces the amount of oxygen reaching the brain. Plus, it increases the risk of having a stroke, which can kill brain cells. In addition, type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, in which fat, muscle, and liver cells aren’t able to use insulin effectively. At first, the pancreas responds by pumping out more insulin. The same enzyme that breaks down insulin also breaks down a protein called beta-amyloid, which builds up abnormally in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. With so much of the enzyme at work breaking down insulin, beta-amyloid might have more chance to accumulate. Effect on Mental Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar Can Have Damaging Effects On The Brain

High Blood Sugar Can Have Damaging Effects On The Brain

(NaturalHealth365) Diabetes and high blood sugar is at epidemic proportions in the U.S. According to the CDC, around 29 million Americans – 9.3 percent of the population – have diabetes, which is characterized by high blood sugar. Excess blood sugar can lead to a host of health issues including heart and kidney disease as well as eye issues (including blindness) and nerve and artery problems. However, researchers across the U.S. have found that there is yet another reason to avoid high blood sugar: it can also have detrimental effects to brain health. Dementia, memory loss and cognitive deterioration are some of the brain health risks, especially to older individuals. The link between high blood sugar and poor brain health Ideal blood sugar is below 100 mg per deciliter of blood mg/dL following an eight hour fast. Blood sugar above 126 mg/dL means that you have diabetes. About 80 million Americans have what is called pre-diabetes, which is in between those two numbers. A recent New England Journal of Medicine study links high blood sugar with a higher risk of developing dementia. This was found to be true even in persons not in the diabetic range. The study was authored by Dr. David Nathan of Harvard Medical School and the Diabetes Center and Clinical Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital’s director. For the study, a team of researchers across the U.S. examined blood sugar levels in over 2,000 adults with an average age of 76. The majority of these participants were not diabetic. Researchers found that elevated blood sugar at any level increased the risk of dementia, but the higher the number, the great the risk of damage to brain heath. While the study authors aren’t sure why, they speculate this is due to the higher blood sugar causing increased le Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Your Brain

Diabetes And Your Brain

By Terri D'Arrigo WebMD Feature Your brain is a finely tuned organ. But it’s sensitive to the amount of sugar, or glucose, it receives as fuel. Whether you have type 1 or type 2, both the high blood glucose of uncontrolled diabetes and the low blood glucose that sometimes comes with diabetes treatment can affect your brain. The Dangers of High Blood Glucose Some of diabetes’ effects on the brain aren’t obvious right away, especially when they are related to high blood sugar. “With diabetes, you have an increased risk of damage to blood vessels over time, including damage to the small blood vessels in the brain. This damage affects the brain’s white matter,” says Joseph C. Masdeu, MD, PhD, of the Houston Methodist Neurological Institute. White matter is the part of the brain where nerves talk to one another. When the nerves in the brain are damaged, you can have changes in thinking called vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. Vascular cognitive impairment can happen with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but there are some differences in risk, says Joel Zonszein, MD, director of the Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center in New York. “The longer you have diabetes [in general], the more of a chance there is of developing dementia, but we see much less of it in people with type 1 whose diabetes is well-controlled,” he says. People with type 2 may face a double-whammy because they tend to have other problems that also can cause blood vessel damage. “These patients tend to be less metabolically fit overall, with low HDL [“good”] cholesterol, high triglycerides, and high blood pressure, and they are more likely to be obese,” Zonszein says. Diabetes can combine with these other problems to create inflammation that damages bl Continue reading >>

Effects Of Glucose On The Brain

Effects Of Glucose On The Brain

Though there is a great amount of attention given to the effects of diabetes on the peripheral nervous system, it is important not to overlook the disease’s effects on our brains. While other organs in the body may rely on alternative sources of energy, such as fatty acids, the brain relies almost solely on glucose, using ketones as a last resort. For this reason, the blood brain barrier is rich in Glut1 active glucose transporters, and over 99% of the glucose that passes it is used by neurons and glia. Thus, the metabolic efficiency and continuous demands of the brain render it uniquely susceptible to fluctuations in glucose concentration in the body. As we discuss in this chapter, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia both can have detrimental effects on cognition as well as mood. These effects are evident in people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The most common manifestations of cognitive deficit are neural slowing, attention deficit, and executive functioning. Patients with type 2 diabetes in particular do more poorly in measures of learning and memory [1]. It is important to note that in a hospital setting patients without diabetes can become hyperglycemic, and these patients have an increased mortality risk [2]. Stress induced hyperglycemia in patients without diabetes can occur during periods of acute illness and may be due to hormonal cascades, particularly increases in epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone and glucagon [3]. Patients may have “pre-diabetes”, or may have frank diabetes that is undiagnosed. Among hyperglycemic patients in general medicine wards, one study found that 12% were undiagnosed, and that they had 18.3 times the mortality rate of their normoglycemic peers. These patients also had longer hospital stays, were admitted to the ICU more often, Continue reading >>

The Final Frontier: How Does Diabetes Affect The Brain?

The Final Frontier: How Does Diabetes Affect The Brain?

Our understanding of the impact of diabetes on organ function has been evolving since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s. At that time insulin was a miracle drug that appeared to cure diabetes, but over time it became clear that death and disability from diabetes complications involving the eyes, kidneys, peripheral nerves, heart, and vasculature could occur even with treatment. With the improvement in diabetes care over the past 20 years, fewer patients are developing the traditional diabetes complications. However, as people live long and well with the disease, it has become apparent that diabetes can alter function and structure in tissues not typically associated with complications such as the brain and bone. Alteration in brain structure and function are particularly of concern because of the impact of dementia and cognitive dysfunction on overall quality of life. From large epidemiological studies, it has been demonstrated that both vascular and Alzheimer's dementia are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes (1). Why this might be true has been difficult to define. Certainly these patients can be expected to have more risk factors such as previous cardiovascular disease, history of hypertension, and dyslipidemia than aged matched control subjects, but when these variables are controlled, the risk for patients with diabetes appears to be higher than that of other subject groups. Persistent hyperglycemia appears to play an important role in cerebral dysfunction. Many years ago, Reaven et al. (2) demonstrated that performance on cognitive tasks assessing learning, reasoning, and complex psychomotor performance was inversely related to glycemic control in a small population of subjects with type 2 diabetes. This issue was recently readdressed in the much larg Continue reading >>

High Blood Glucose And The Brain

High Blood Glucose And The Brain

Many of us have had that feeling of brain fog, or that moment when something is on the tip of your tongue, but you can’t quite spit it out (and heaven forbid the deeper recesses of your memory give it over)! Brain function, like memory, learning, concentration, and executive function, can be impacted for a variety of reasons, including diet and sleep. And recent research has been looking more closely at the relationship between these factors of brain function, and high blood glucose. The brain and blood glucose The brain consumes about 20% of the body’s energy. That is huge, and more than any other single organ. A majority of the energy is required to help brain cells fire and send signals, with some left over for cell health maintenance.1 This means a large portion of the body’s blood is sent north to neurons, carrying with it glucose (whether ingested or produced endogenously) for mitochondria to metabolise into ATP – the energy carrying molecule found in cells of all living things. However, a long-term state of hyperglycaemia can come at a cost to the brain, much like the damage seen in other parts of the body such as kidneys, blood vessels, and eyes. It has been found there is a 65% increased risk for mild cognitive impairment in those with type 2 or mid-life onset diabetes, as well as impaired memory and thinking skills compared with healthy controls. And this may come down to the onslaught of chronically high glucose to the brain.2;3 Altered connection A recently released study revealed that in those with hyperglycaemia, the integrated communication between various parts of the brain are negatively impacted.4 A team of researchers from University of Ulsan College of Medicine in South Korea undertook MRI scans of participants with uncontrolled type 2 diabet Continue reading >>

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