Does Protein Affect Blood Sugar

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Protein Controversies In Diabetes

Diabetes SpectrumVolume 13 Number 3, 2000, Page 132 Marion J. Franz, MS, RD, LD, CDE In Brief People with diabetes are frequently given advice about protein that has no scientific basis. In addition, although weight is lost when individuals follow a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet, there is no evidence that such diets are followed long-term or that there is less recidivism than with other low-calorie diets. People with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who are in poor metabolic control may have increased protein requirements. However, the usual amount of protein consumed by people with diabetes adequately compensates for the increased protein catabolism. People with diabetes need adequate and accurate information about protein on which to base their food decisions. In the United States, ~16% of the average adult consumption of calories is from protein, and this has varied little from 1909 to the present.1 Protein intake is also fairly consistent across all ages from infancy to older age. A daily intake of 2,500 calories contributes ~100 g of protein—about twice what is needed to replace protein lost on a daily basis. Excess amino acids must be converted into other storage products or Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. rav2016

    I am trying to understand the diagnosis of Diabetes.
    Was anyone diagnosed with diabetes with the following blood test results:
    1. FBG: Normal Range
    2. A1C: Normal Range
    3. OGTT: Diabetes Range
    Thank you for your attention.

  2. t1wayne

    To start, it's important to know what the various measures you are asking about are actually measuring.
    FBG, or Fasting Blood Glucose (aka Fasting Blood Sugar), is a measure of the concentration of glucose in your blood - after fasting. But BG can be tested at any time. And a non-D's BG varies ALL DAY LONG... ranging from about 90 to 120 mg/dl (milligrams of glucose per decilitre of blood), but spending about 70% of the time in the 90 to 100 range. An alternate measure (from mg/dl) is mmol/L, or millimoles per litre... and the non-D's BG varies from 5.0 to 6.7 mmol/L. This is the primary measurement system used outside of the U.S., but it's no different than converting miles to kilometers.. it's just an alternate unit of measure. It's also important to note that FBG is NOT what is tested in the lab your doc sends you to... they test FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose). This may seem immaterial, but it is a difference that can be the source of different results from your BG meter.
    To put those ranges in perspective... upon waking after fasting, a non-D's FBG is below 100 mg/dl. Before a meal, non-D's are in the 90 to 100 range. It "spikes" to no more than 120 (some sources will use 140, but that's rare for a non-D) after a meal - which for most people is about 1 hour after eating, but may be anywhere from 45 to 90 minutes after a meal (everyone's a little different). By 1 hour after the spike (about 2 hours after the meal), non-D's are back to their pre-meal level. For D's, various organisations have various recommendations, but it's important to note that all organisations that make recommendations are basing those recommendations on a broader purpose than pure science... patient management being a key factor; doc's want to "set the bar" low enough of most patients to achieve. My personal preference among such sources is the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE). Here's some guidelines (in mg/dl):
    Fasting BG: 80 to 130 per the ADA; 70 to 130 per Joslin; under 110 per the AACE
    Postprandial (after a meal): at 2 hours, below 180 (ADA and Joslin); at 1 to 2 hours, under 140 per AACE
    These recommendations get adjusted for pediatric patients, and for elderly patients with co-morbidities.
    For diagnostic purposes... a FBG of 100 to 125 mg/dl is called "prediabetic"; 126 and higher is diabetic.
    I'll address the OGTT next, because it's also a BG test, using the same measures. This is a hyperglycaemic challenge test... your body is pummelled with glucose to see how fast and well it responds to control your BG levels. First, you must fast for 8 hours prior to the test... and the first step is a fasting BG test... which should be below 100 mg/dl. Next, you drink a syrupy liquid containing 75 grams of sugar. Two hours after that, your BG is measured again... a BG of 140 to 199 is "prediabetes", 200 or more is diabetes.
    Finally... the HbA1c test. This is a totally different kind of test. It's a measure of the percentage of your haemoglobin that has glycosylated (it's aka the "glycosylated haemoglobin" test). It is NOT a measure of your "average" BG for the preceding 3 months, though that is often referenced... but that measure is an inferred formulaic computation, based on the quantity of glycosylated haemoglobin, and while it's somewhat useful in understanding the relationship between BG levels and glycosylation of haemoglobin, the latter is important to understand in and of itself.
    When your haemoglobin is exposed to sugar molecules, it "glycosylates" (aka "glycates") with the sugar... it binds chemically. The more glucose there is in your bloodstream, the more of your haemoglobin gets glycosylated. But it doesn't stop there... the glycosylated haemoglobin affects all the organ tissue it comes in contact with, and this is the source of virtually all the complications known to plague diabetics (of either type) - neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (kidney damage), retinopathy (eye damage), artheriosclerosis (artery disease), CVD (cardiovascular disease), and so on. SO... the higher your HbA1c (Hb is a regerence to haemoglobin, and A1c is a reference to the subtype of haemoglobin that is glycosylated), the higher your risk of complicaitons of D. So keeping your HbA1c down (below 6.5% is a good target, but the ADA uses 7.0%) is key to limiting the amount and severity of complications.
    Non-D's HbA1c level ranges from 3.5% to 5.5%. For diabetics, various trials have identified various "target" levels for D's to try to achieve. For diagnostic purposes... 5.7% to 6.4% is "prediabetes", and 6.5% or higher is diabetes.
    For diagnosis... TWO same-result tests are "required" (any two... not necessarily the same one over again, but two tests on two different days). This is to avoid "overdiagnosing" the disease. But many docs, upon finding a patient on the cusp, or just over the line, will advise that patient to start behaving as if they've been diagnosed... and that's a good thing. Type 2 diabetes (the most common form - about 95% of all D's) is a progressive disease. It is CAUSED by genetics, which cause an underlying biochemical problem... insulin resistance at the cellular level. The body produces more-than-"normal" amounts of insulin, but the body's cells are so inefficient at using it that BG starts running high... and as it progresses, more and more insulin is needed, and eventually the body can no longer produce enough "extra" to "keep up" with the need. A person that does NOT have a high-enough FBG or HbA1c, but DOES "cross the line" on the OGTT, is headed for a diagnosis eventually... so starting on the standard "treatment" of "diet" and "exercise" is important.
    By "diet", we mean limiting carbohydrates in the diet... not just sugars (the simplest carbs), but also breads, pastries, starchy veggies (corn, peas, etc), and fruits. Counting the grams of carbs in each meal is key to learning how much we can handle at one time. Carbs are the primary source of glucose in our diet, and while we can get the glucose we need from proteins and fats, carbs are loaded with glucose So... by measuring your BG before a meal, then counting the carbs in it, and measuring again at 1 and 2 hours after the meal, you'll learn what that carb load did to your BG level... and can adjust your carb load as appropriate in future meals.
    By "exercise", we mean ANY physical activity. This is important NOT because it "burns off" blood glucose (which it does), but because it improves cellular sensitivity to insulin... which means you can get your body to respond more properly to the insulin it is making now.
    So... that's my primer on T2 and BG management. Come back with any and all questions.

  3. susanm9006

    Hi and welcome. All my numbers were crazy high when I was diagnosed but I likely had diabetes for years before diagnosis. For many, while the disease is in early stages, the first signs are high blood sugar after eating. Their body is able to bring it down eventually and they may have normal non diabetic fasting numbers, like you. And, because the A1C is sort of an average measure of blood glucose over roughly a three month period, the individual may still have an A1C in the non diabetic or pre diabetic range. Over time however, as the disease progresses the post meal spikes can get higher, body has a harder time getting blood sugar lowered post meals and fasting levels start to increase which In turn increases the person's A1C.
    My my sister is a good example. She had normal fasting levels and A1C's, but when I tested her post meal she was over 200. It took nearly ten years before her A1C reached diabetic levels. Had she had a Glucose Tolerance Test, she would have been diagnosed much earlier.

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