Age And Glucose Intolerance
Effect of fitness and fatness The fact that glucose intolerance increases with age has been apparent for over 30 years, leading to the suggestion at one time that the diagnostic criteria for diabetes be amended to account for this inevitable consequence of the aging process (1). However, these earlier findings did not differentiate the effects on the plasma glucose response to an oral glucose challenge of age per se from those due to the impact of a number of age-related variables (2). In this context, the article by Imbeault et al. in this issue of Diabetes Care (3) provides additional information concerning the effect of body fat on glucose tolerance, as apparently healthy volunteers grow older. However, the potential effect of differences in fitness, an age-related variable of comparable magnitude, was apparently not considered in their study. Maneatis et al. (4) quantified the impact of differences in age-related variables on the plasma glucose response to a mixed meal in healthy volunteers between the ages of 47 and 90 living in a retirement community. When adjusted for differences in body weight and physical activity, they found no significant correlation between age and plasma glucose response in men, and differences in age could account for no more than 6% of the variability in glucose response in women. Similarly, when adjusted for differences in weight, physical activity, and use of diabetogenic drugs, age only accounted for 6% of the variance in plasma glucose response to an oral glucose challenge in men and 1% in women in a study of 732 Italian factory workers aged 22–73 years (5). Perhaps the most definitive information in this regard is the results of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (6), performed in 743 healthy individuals, comparing glucose t Continue reading >>
Advanced Glycation End Products (ages) Raise Blood Sugar And Blood Pressure
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed when sugar reacts with proteins or lipids (fats) in a process called glycation (1). Research shows that some AGE formation occurs when blood glucose levels are over 85 mg/dl. Higher blood glucose levels result in more AGE formation (2). AGEs are also be ingested in the foods we eat. HIGH AGE FOODS INCREASE INFLAMMATION A diet high in AGE compounds has been shown to cause oxidative stress and inflammation in the body (3). In some circumstances, AGEs are involved in a vicious cycle of inflammation, generation of ROS, amplified production of AGEs, more inflammation in a vicious repeating cycle (4). This can result in significant increase in insulin resistance and diabetes (5) Regardless of the increased blood sugar and diabetes risk, chronic Inflammation by itself has been shown to damage every organ in the body, and contribute to aging ( 6). AGEs are formed throughout our lives, gradually adding to our burden of oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue dysfunction—and ultimately to our cumulative risk of serious chronic age-related diseases. HIGH AGE LEVELS HAVE MANY NEGATIVE HEALTH IMPACTS Excessive levels of AGE compounds has been implicated in many chronic diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, liver disease, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, kidney failure and high blood pressure, among others (7, 8, 9, 10). High glucose levels encourage glycation of structural and functional proteins including plasma proteins and collagen (11). Elevated blood serum AGE levels increase stiffness of arteries and hypertension (12). Protein glycation reactions leading to AGEs are thought to be the major causes of different diabetic complications [13,14], cataracts , atherosclerosis , diabetic nephropathy , and neurodegenerat Continue reading >>
Aging Is Associated With Increased Hba1c Levels, Independently Of Glucose Levels And Insulin Resistance, And Also With Decreased Hba1c Diagnostic Specificity.
Abstract AIM: To determine whether using HbA1c for screening and management could be confounded by age differences, whether age effects can be explained by unrecognized diabetes and prediabetes, insulin resistance or postprandial hyperglycaemia, and whether the effects of aging have an impact on diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in adults without known diabetes in the Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance (SIGT) study 2005-2008 (n=1573) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 (n=1184). RESULTS: Both glucose intolerance and HbA(1c) levels increased with age. In univariate analyses including all subjects, HbA(1c) levels increased by 0.93 mmol/mol (0.085%) per 10 years of age in the SIGT study and by 1.03 mmol/mol (0.094%) per 10 years in the NHANES; in both datasets, the HbA(1c) increase was 0.87 mmol/mol (0.08%) per 10 years in subjects without diabetes, and 0.76 mmol/mol (0.07%) per 10 years in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, all P<0.001. In multivariate analyses of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, the relationship between age and HbA(1c) remained significant (P<0.001) after adjustment for covariates including race, BMI, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, triglyceride/HDL ratio, and fasting and 2-h plasma glucose and other glucose levels, as assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. In both datasets, the HbA(1c) of an 80-year-old individual with normal glucose tolerance would be 3.82 mmol/mol (0.35%) greater than that of a 30-year-old with normal glucose tolerance, a difference that is clinically significant. Moreover, the specificity of HbA(1c) -based diagnostic criteria for prediabetes decreased substantially with increasing age (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In two la Continue reading >>
How Does Diabetes Affect Women Over The Age Of 40?
Diabetes affects how your body processes glucose, which is a type of sugar. Glucose is important for your overall health. It serves as a source of energy for your brain, muscles, and other tissue cells. Without the right amount of glucose, your body has trouble functioning properly. Two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Five percent of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes. If you have type 1 diabetes, your body can’t produce insulin. With proper treatment and lifestyle choices, you can still lead a healthy life. Doctors usually diagnose type 1 diabetes in people who are younger than 40. The majority of people who are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are children and young adults. Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes. Your risk of developing it increases as you age, especially after age 45. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body is insulin resistant. This means it doesn’t use insulin efficiently. Over time, your body can’t produce enough insulin to maintain consistent blood glucose levels. A number of factors can contribute to type 2 diabetes, including: genetics poor lifestyle habits excess weight high blood pressure Diabetes affects men and women in different ways. Women with diabetes are at higher risk of: heart disease, which is the most common complication of diabetes blindness depression If you’re diagnosed with diabetes, you can take steps to manage your blood sugar and lower your risk of complications. This can include eating a well-balanced diet, exercising regularly, and following your doctor’s prescribed treatment plan. The symptoms typically develop more slowly in type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes. Watch out for the following symptoms: fatigue extreme thirst increased urination blu Continue reading >>
Healthy Aging With Diabetes
“I can tell you one thing — growing old ain’t for wimps!” —gray-haired gentleman at Sterling Center YMCA in Beverly, Massachusetts It used to be said that having diabetes aged people an additional 20 years. Today, thanks to better tools for managing diabetes and preventing and treating its complications, people with diabetes have the opportunity to live longer than ever before. However, managing diabetes in the golden years presents a variety of challenges, ranging from increased insulin resistance to being on multiple drugs. Here is what you should know about the effects of diabetes on aging and vice versa, and what you can do to stay healthy and full of vitality well into old age. What happens during aging As you age, you may be most aware of your new gray hairs and wrinkles, but aging causes changes throughout the entire body. A person’s basal metabolic rate — the amount of energy the body expends at rest — declines with age. By some estimates, a person’s basal metabolism drops by 2% per decade starting at age 20. Some researchers believe that this decline is due almost solely to the loss of muscle mass that comes with age. The body’s ability to process oxygen — its aerobic capacity — also declines with age. By some estimates, a person’s aerobic capacity by age 65 is typically only 60% to 70% of what it was when he was younger (although the decline appears to be less in older people who exercise regularly). This decline may be due to several factors, including poor lung function, heart function, and blood circulation. With advancing years, the body gradually becomes less adept at taking up and using glucose from the bloodstream — a condition known as glucose intolerance, which sets the stage for Type 2 diabetes. One contributing factor to Continue reading >>
Diabetes: Blood Sugar Readings
www.CardioSmart.org What is a blood sugar reading? A blood sugar reading shows how much sugar, or glucose, is in your blood. A test of your blood sugar may be done to: â€¢ Check for diabetes. â€¢ See how well diabetes treatment is working. â€¢ Check for diabetes that occurs during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). â€¢ Check for low or high blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia). What are normal blood sugar readings? There are several types of blood sugar tests. Normal results can vary from lab to lab. Talk with your doctor about what any abnormal results might mean, and about any symptoms and other health problems you have. Normal values for adults who do NOT have prediabetes or diabetes Less than or equal to 100 When you have not eaten (fasting blood sugar): Less than 140 if you are age 50 or younger; less than 150 if you are age 50 to 60; less than 160 if you are age 60 and older 2 hours after eating (postprandial): Levels vary depending on when and how much you ate at your last meal. In general: 80 to 120 beforemeals or when waking up; 100 to 140 at bedtime. Random (casual): Target values for nonpregnant adults who have prediabetes or diabetes 80 to 130When you have not eaten (fasting blood sugar): Less than 1802 hours after eating (postprandial): What causes abnormal blood sugar? High blood sugar can be caused by: â€¢ Diabetes or prediabetes. â€¢ Certain medicines, such as corticosteroids. Low blood sugar can be caused by: â€¢ Certain medicines, especially those used to treat diabetes. â€¢ Liver disease, such as cirrhosis. Rarely, high or low blood sugar can be caused by other medical problems that affect hormone levels. Prediabetes and diabetes Blood sugar helps fuel your body. Normally, your blood sugar rises slightly af Continue reading >>
10 Tips To Avoid Sugar-induced Aging
Think your diet doesn’t affect your skin? Think again. (Especially if you have a sweet tooth.) You're all too aware that if you indulge too often in those cakes, pies, and other sweets, you can expect some extra pounds to show up on the scale. Turns out you may also expect a few more wrinkles to show up on your skin. Seriously? It’s true! Researchers have found over the years that excess sugar in the bloodstream can encourage a process called “glycation,” which in turn, ages the skin. We have the scoop on glycation, and what you can do to keep your skin looking young without always having to deprive yourself. What is Glycation? Usually, when you eat food, the body breaks down carbohydrates into sugars like glucose and fructose. It then uses these sugars to fuel everything you do. Sometimes, however—particularly as we age, and when we consume too many sugary or high-glycemic foods—these sugars react with proteins and fats in an abnormal way, producing harmful molecules called “advanced glycation endproducts (conveniently acronymned: AGEs).” This process is called “glycation.” The more AGEs we have in our bodies, the more we age. Scientists have discovered this through study of diabetics. The key here is blood sugar—the higher the level of glucose in the blood, the more AGEs. Diabetics have the most difficult time of anyone controlling their blood sugar. Scientists have found that as a result, they tend to age faster than those without high blood sugar. A 2001 study, for example, noted that AGEs cause “the complications of diabetes and aging,” with the AGEs particularly affecting things like collagen (which gives skin its firmness) and elastin (which helps skin bounce back after being stretched). A 2003 study also noted that AGEs formed “crossl Continue reading >>
Management Of Diabetes In The Elderly
CLINICAL DIABETES VOL. 17 NO. 1 1999 These pages are best viewed with Netscape version 3.0 or higher or Internet Explorer version 3.0 or higher. When viewed with other browsers, some characters or attributes may not be rendered correctly. Jeffrey I. Wallace, MD, MPH IN BRIEF The management of older adults with type 2 diabetes requires careful consideration of the effects that advancing age and changes in health status can have on the competing risks and benefits of therapeutic interventions. Although tight glycemic control is not always an appropriate treatment goal, many older people with diabetes are undertreated and could benefit from improved glycemic control and more aggressive management of risk factors for macrovascular disease. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, which represents roughly 90% of all diabetes, increases with age and affects 18–20% of people over age 65 in the United States (with a substantial percentage of these cases being undiagnosed).1Recent recommendations to screen all adults over 45 years of age for elevated glucose levels, with retesting every 3 years, should substantially reduce the number of undiagnosed diabetic patients.2 In addition to the 20% of the elderly population with frank diabetes, another 20–25% fit criteria for impaired glucose tolerance, a state that is associated with a twofold increase in the incidence of macrovascular complications.3 The average life expectancy for a 65-year-old woman and man in the United States is 19 years and 15 years, respectively. At age 75, it is 12 and 9 years, respectively.4 Because many older diabetic patients can be expected to live a decade or more after diagnosis, clinicians must carefully weigh the potential risks and benefits of available interventions on reducing the excess morbidity and Continue reading >>
Elderly A1c Targets: Should Older People Have More Relaxed Glucose Goals?
You may have read that the lower your A1C level, the better. For best health, people with diabetes should aim for glucose as close to normal as possible. But some new research shows this may not be true for older people. According to these studies, seniors could decide not to shoot for tight control of blood sugar or cholesterol. One study from Japan showed that lower HbA1c levels (a measure of average glucose control over the previous 2–3 months) were actually linked with an increased the risk of frailty in older adults. Frailty was measured in the study as how much help a person needs in living, and how poorly he or she recovers from an illness or injury. Toshihiko Yanase, MD, PhD of Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Japan, reported, “The risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as high blood glucose, obesity, high cholesterol, and hypertension, in middle age may shift from an unfavorable risk to favorable factors in old age.” The study was published in the Journal of Diabetes Investigation and reported by the online site Healio.com. Yanase and colleagues analyzed data from 132 adults aged at least 65 years with Type 2 diabetes Average age was 78. The subjects had had diabetes for an average of 17 years and their mean A1C was 7.3%. The subjects were categorized as frail or not on a 9-point clinical frailty scale (CFS). The CFS goes from 1 (very fit) to 9 (terminally ill). People who rated 5 or higher were classed as frail. Seventy-seven were not frail; 55 were. In those with higher frailty scores, HbA1c levels were found to be significantly lower. The causes of frailty are not well understood. In men, frailty is strongly associated with loss of muscle mass. As you get weaker and thinner, you become more fragile. The same is probably true of women, although Continue reading >>
Does Age Make Diabetes Harder To Control?
It seems that the older I get, the harder it is to control my diabetes and keep my A1C down. Right now, it is an unhealthy 9 percent. When I was younger, it used to be in the 7 range. Is it my age that is making my diabetes so hard to manage? Continue reading >>
What Is Normal Blood Sugar In People Over 60?
Age isn’t a factor when it comes to determining a safe blood sugar level. However, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes does increase with age. Diabetes is a condition that occurs when blood sugar levels rise because the body can’t use a type of sugar called glucose normally. If you’re overweight and over age 45, the American Diabetes Association recommends being tested for diabetes during your next routine medical exam. If your weight is normal and you're over 45, ask your doctor if testing is appropriate. Video of the Day Glucose is the body’s main source of energy, and glucose levels in the blood are regulated by the hormone insulin, which is made in the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes occurs if the pancreas doesn’t make any or enough insulin. In the far more common type 2 diabetes, the body doesn’t respond normally to insulin secretions. Both children and adults can suffer from diabetes. Symptoms include extreme thirst, increased urination and unexplained weight loss. To test if you have high blood sugar or might be at risk of developing diabetes, you can take a fasting glucose test, or FGT, or an oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT. You need to fast overnight before taking either test. With the FGT test, blood glucose is measured first thing in the morning before eating. With the OGTT test, blood glucose is measured after fasting and two hours after drinking a glucose-rich drink. Your fasting blood glucose level is considered normal if it’s below 100 milligrams per deciliter. You’re considered borderline diabetic if your blood sugar is between 100 and 125 mg/dL. If you measure 126 mg/dL or more on two different days, you have diabetes. Without testing, you might not even be aware that your blood sugar is higher than normal, but treatment is important. Continue reading >>
Older People And Diabetes
Save for later Most areas of care in diabetes are relevant to all age groups but there are some specific changes due to growing older which might affect your diabetes. Food choices In some cases dietary advice for the older person with diabetes may differ from general recommendations. Older people in care homes are often more likely to be underweight than overweight and there is a high rate of undernutrition. It may not always be appropriate to reduce the fat, salt and sugar for every older person with diabetes. Poor or irregular eating can often be a cause of hypos. Poor oral health, effects of some drugs on the digestive system, limited mobility, dexterity or vision can all cause discomfort associated with eating. Fluid intake is often lower in older people which can cause dehydration, particularly during bouts of illness. People at risk should have a nutritional assessment and individual advice from a dietitian to address areas of concern such as needing extra calories, meal supplements and replacements, weight reduction, low salt diet or manageable foods. Nutritional assessment and diet should form part of your individual care plan if you live in a care home. Personal food preferences are important in any diet plan and older people with diabetes should be able to continue to enjoy a wide variety of foods. Staff, including catering staff in older people's care homes, should have training to give them an understanding of the specific needs of individuals with diabetes. Keeping active Keeping active in later life helps to strengthen muscles, maintain mobility and balance and improves insulin sensitivity. It can help you to continue to self-care, can improve your mental well-being and prevent falls. You can aim to be as active as you are able. Older people, including th Continue reading >>
Is It Normal For Blood Pressure And Blood Sugar To Rise As We Age?
Q. My bloood pressure and blood sugar have been rising slowly over the past 10 years but are still in a healthy range. Should I worry? A. If you are otherwise healthy, small, steady increases in blood pressure and blood glucose that are still within the normal range are probably nothing to worry about. If your health habits need a tuneup, rising numbers are a reminder to take action before they become a threat. Lifestyle changes can often help control rising blood pressure. So quit smoking, cut back on sodium, lose excess weight, exercise regularly, and drink moderately, if at all. These same healthy habits are also key to keeping blood sugar levels in check. It’s also worth noting that the new expert thinking is that slightly higher blood pressure is OK for adults older than 60, says Consumer Reports chief medical adviser Marvin M. Lipman, M.D. And because blood sugar processing slows with age, Lipman says, adults older than 70 may not need the strict blood sugar control that’s important for younger people to prevent future complications. Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Levels For Adults With Diabetes
Each time you test your blood sugar, log it in a notebook or online tool or with an app. Note the date, time, results, and any recent activities: What medication and dosage you took What you ate How much and what kind of exercise you were doing That will help you and your doctor see how your treatment is working. Well-managed diabetes can delay or prevent complications that affect your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes doubles your risk for heart disease and stroke, too. Fortunately, controlling your blood sugar will also make these problems less likely. Tight blood sugar control, however, means a greater chance of low blood sugar levels, so your doctor may suggest higher targets. Continue reading >>
The Elderly And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know
According to the American Diabetes Association, as we get older, our chances of getting Type 2 diabetes increases. They claim that one in four Americans over the age of 60 has diabetes.1 Carolyn contacted The Diabetes Council… When Carolyn contacted TheDiabetesCouncil, she was concerned about her mother who is elderly and is living with diabetes. She didn’t know much about her medications, or how they might interact with her other medications. She was worried that her mother’s low blood sugar while she was home alone may be related to her worsening memory. In addition to referring Carolyn to a local Certified Diabetes Educator, we, at TheDiabetesCouncil, decided to write a guide for the elderly with diabetes that people like Carolyn could refer to. In the following article we will explore many different guidelines and recommendations, along with nutritional, activity, pharmaceutical, and financial and estate planning considerations. Those are just a few of the issues that we will touch on related to the elderly with diabetes. So let’s get started with some general and medication considerations first… General guidelines for the elderly with diabetes The following are some general guidelines to consider when treating the elderly with diabetes: Recommendation for the Eldery with Diabetes Depression screening in the elderly population with diabetes is of great importance, as elderly patients with diabetes experience more isolation, less support, and more feeling of hopelessness Avoiding low blood sugar is of paramount importance, and A1C and blood sugar goals should be adjusted, along with careful pharmaceutical management The elderly with diabetes who are capable of activities of daily living without assistance, and who have no cognitive impairment should have A1 Continue reading >>