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Diabetic Coma Treatment First Aid

Diabetes: First Aid

Diabetes: First Aid

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening state that occurs when blood glucose levels are extremely high. Diabetics are also at risk of dangerously low blood glucose levels. Summary Diabetes is associated with abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening state that occurs when blood glucose levels are extremely high. Diabetics also risk of blood glucose falling too low as a result of injecting too much insulin, inadequate food intake or excessive exercise. Call emergency medical services if you suspect either diabetic ketoacidosis or very low blood sugar. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease associated with abnormally high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood, and can have life-threatening consequences. Normally, the pancreas secretes insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. In diabetes, the body can't produce enough insulin, or can't utilise it. Abnormally high blood sugar levels are called hyperglycaemia. Diabetics must also take care that blood glucose levels don't fall too low (hypoglycaemia), as a result of injecting too much insulin, inadequate food intake or excessive exercise. Symptoms and signs of diabetic emergency Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening state that occurs when blood glucose levels are extremely high. Symptoms and signs may include: nausea; vomiting; no appetite; intense thirst; frequent urination; fatigue; stiff or aching muscles; flushed, dry skin; dry mouth; weak, rapid pulse; fruity breath; deep gasping breathing; confusion; abdominal pain; headache. The person becomes sleepy and eventually enters a diabetic coma. Signs of very low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) may include: fatigue; weakness; nausea; hunger; blurred vision; slurred speech; pounding heart; confusion; irrita Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a medical emergency in which a person with diabetes is unconscious because the blood glucose level is too low or too high. If the glucose level is too low, the person has hypoglycemia and if the level is too high, the person has hyperglycemia and may develop ketoacidosis. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 are especially prone to this condition. Causes for this condition vary; in the case of a hyperglycemia, it could be due to too much food too quickly or forgetting to inject oneself with insulin, while in the case of a hypoglycemia it could be due to a lack of food, too much exercise for current conditions, or to an insulin overdose. While no particular amount of sugar in the blood is generally recognized as the starting point to an attack of this kind (people vary), usually the person who has a hyperglycemia has a blood glucose reading of 500 mg/dL or more is at risk of hyperglycemic diabetic coma, while a patient whose blood glucose level is 50 mg/dL or less is at risk of a hypoglycemic diabetic coma. Without performing a blood glucose test, it is difficult to tell with certainty whether the coma is caused by hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia as symptoms are very similar. In both cases, the coma is caused by brain cell malfunction. In the case of hypoglycemia, there simply isn't enough glucose in the blood, leaving brain cells without enough glucose to satisfy their metabolic needs. In the case of hyperglycemia, while glucose is plentiful, indeed too plentiful, the consequences of so much blood glucose produce chemistry abnormalities which cause brain cells to malfunction. These include cell dehydration due to osmotic pressure, electrolyte balance problems both inside brain cells and in the blood, and in some cases acidosis. First aid for diabetic co Continue reading >>

First Aid For Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

First Aid For Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency which occurs when there is a lack of insulin in the body. Insulin is a hormone which is released by the pancreas which allows our cells to use sugar (glucose) thus reducing the levels in the blood. When there is a lack of insulin (such as in type 1 diabetes) the cells in the body are unable to take up glucose from the blood stream. This causes the blood sugar levels to rise. Despite high blood sugar levels, the body’s cells are unable to use this sugar because they can’t absorb it from the blood without insulin. This causes the cells to switch into ‘starvation mode’ and start breaking down fats. The break down of fat (ketogenesis) results in ketones. Ketones are acidic and cause the blood to become more acidic than usual (acidosis). This is Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). In this blog post we discuss basic first aid for Diabetic Ketoacidosis and your role as a first aider. How to recognise DKA It is important for a first aider to be able to recognise the signs and symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Thirst Excessive urination Nausea & vomiting Fatigue / tiredness Abdominal pain Reduced level of consciousness Rapid, deep breathing There may be a history of diabetes, however remember not all patients will have a diagnosis of diabetes yet. First aid treatment of DKA The first aid treatment for DKA is very simple – the patient needs urgent medical assistance! The most important consideration is being able to spot and piece together the signs and symptoms of DKA. Symptoms often develop slowly over days to weeks so can be easily missed or “brushed off”. If the patient is unresponsive then follow standard first aid procedure – DR ABC and place them into the recovery position. Did you find this post interesting? Why Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies

Diabetic Emergencies

It is estimated that more than 20 million people in the United States have diabetes, with an estimated six million people being unaware they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through making health food choices, exercise and frequently checking blood glucose levels. Diabetics may experience life-threatening emergencies from too much or too little insulin in their bodies. Too much insulin can cause a low sugar level (hypoglycemia), which can lead to insulin shock. Not enough insulin can cause a high level of sugar (hyperglycemia), which can cause a diabetic coma. Symptoms of insulin shock include: Weakness, drowsiness Rapid pulse Fast breathing Pale, sweaty skin Headache, trembling Odorless breath Numbness in hands or feet Hunger Symptoms of diabetic coma include: Weak and rapid pulse Nausea Deep, sighing breaths Unsteady gait Confusion Flushed, warm, dry skin Odor of nail polish or sweet apple Drowsiness, gradual loss of consciousness First aid for both conditions is the same: If the person is unconscious or unresponsive, call 911 or your local emergency number immediately. If an unconscious person exhibits life-threatening conditions, place the person horizontally on a flat surface, check breathing, pulse and circulation, and administer CPR while waiting for professional medical assistance If the person is conscious, alert and can assess the situation, assist him or her with getting sugar or necessary prescription medication. If the person appears confused or disoriented, give him or her something to eat or drink and seek immediate medical assistance. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Print Overview A diabetic coma is a life-threatening diabetes complication that causes unconsciousness. If you have diabetes, dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can lead to a diabetic coma. If you lapse into a diabetic coma, you're alive — but you can't awaken or respond purposefully to sights, sounds or other types of stimulation. Left untreated, a diabetic coma can be fatal. The prospect of a diabetic coma is scary, but fortunately you can take steps to help prevent it. Start by following your diabetes treatment plan. Symptoms Before developing a diabetic coma, you'll usually experience signs and symptoms of high blood sugar or low blood sugar. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) If your blood sugar level is too high, you may experience: Increased thirst Frequent urination Fatigue Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Stomach pain Fruity breath odor A very dry mouth A rapid heartbeat Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Signs and symptoms of a low blood sugar level may include: Shakiness or nervousness Anxiety Fatigue Weakness Sweating Hunger Nausea Dizziness or light-headedness Difficulty speaking Confusion Some people, especially those who've had diabetes for a long time, develop a condition known as hypoglycemia unawareness and won't have the warning signs that signal a drop in blood sugar. If you experience any symptoms of high or low blood sugar, test your blood sugar and follow your diabetes treatment plan based on the test results. If you don't start to feel better quickly, or you start to feel worse, call for emergency help. When to see a doctor A diabetic coma is a medical emergency. If you feel extreme high or low blood sugar signs or symptoms and think you might pass out, call 911 or your local emergency nu Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergency

Diabetic Emergency

Diabetes is a lifelong medical condition where the body cannot produce enough insulin. Insulin is a chemical made by the pancreas (a gland behind the stomach), which regulates the blood sugar (glucose) level in the body. Normally our bodies automatically keep the right blood sugar levels, but for someone with diabetes their body can't. Instead, they have to control the blood sugar level themselves by monitoring what they eat, and taking insulin injections or pills. There are two types of diabetes: Type1, or insulin-dependent diabetes, and Type 2, also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Sometimes people who have diabetes may have a diabetic emergency, where their blood sugar becomes either too high or too low. Both conditions are potentially serious and may need treatment in hospital. Watch our video - diabetic emergency Hyperglycaemia Too little insulin can cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia). If it’s not treated and gets worse, the person can gradually become unresponsive (going into a diabetic coma). So it's important to get them to see a doctor in case they need emergency treatment. Hypoglycaemia Too much insulin can cause low blood sugar or hypoglycaemia (hypo). This often happens when someone with diabetes misses a meal or does too much exercise. It can also happen after someone has had an epileptic seizure or has been binge drinking. If someone knows they are diabetic, they may recognise the start of a hypo attack, but without help they may quickly become weak and unresponsive. What to look for - Diabetic emergency If you think someone is having a diabetic emergency, you need to check against the symptoms listed below to decide if their blood sugar is too high or too low. High blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) • Warm, dry skin • Rapid pulse and breathin Continue reading >>

Treat Diabetes

Treat Diabetes

Important Information An insulin reaction occurs when a person with diabetes receives too much insulin, does not get enough sugar from food or engages in strenuous exercise that quickly decreases the blood sugar levels Patients' suffering from low blood sugar may appear pale, have moist skin and sweat excessively Patient's may complain of a headache and dizziness and be irritable and confused Hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar) occurs when a person with diabetes does not have enough insulin to control rising blood sugar levels Early symptoms of high blood sugar includes thirst and frequent urination; Advanced signs and symptoms include drowsiness and confusion, rapid weak pulse and rapid breathing with a fruity odour on their breath; The patient may also suffer with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pains; Treat advanced cases as a medical emergency Never give a patient insulin or medication - even if the patient asks for it; When in doubt, always provide the patient with a small snack, meal, sugar, fruit juice, soda or candy Sugar is crucial for low blood sugar and will not cause significant harm to a patient with high blood sugar Diabetes is a condition that is related to impaired insulin hormone and sugar levels of the body which can sometimes lead to an emergency. Diabetics may require medication to control the sugar levels. Medication helps to improve the intake of sugar into the body but an inbalance can cause a blood sugar level. Low Blood Sugar Symptoms Cold, clammy, sweaty skin Trembling Loss of balance, dizziness, giddiness Impaired conscious levels or unconsciousness Untreated low blood sugar can lead to death More About Diabetes Diabetes Low Blood Sugar Diabetes High Blood Sugar Continue reading >>

First Aid For Unconsciousness

First Aid For Unconsciousness

Unconsciousness is when a person suddenly becomes unable to respond to stimuli and appears to be asleep. A person may be unconscious for a few seconds — as in fainting — or for longer periods of time. People who become unconscious don’t respond to loud sounds or shaking. They may even stop breathing or their pulse may become faint. This calls for immediate emergency attention. The sooner the person receives emergency first aid, the better their outlook will be. Unconsciousness can be brought on by a major illness or injury, or complications from drug use or alcohol misuse. Common causes of unconsciousness include: A person may become temporarily unconscious, or faint, when sudden changes occur within the body. Common causes of temporary unconsciousness include: syncope, or the loss of consciousness due to lack of blood flow to the brain neurologic syncope, or the loss of consciousness caused by a seizure, stroke, or transient ischemic attack (TIA) straining Symptoms that may indicate that unconsciousness is about to occur include: If you see a person who has become unconscious, take these steps: Check whether the person is breathing. If they’re not breathing, have someone call 911 or your local emergency services immediately and prepare to begin CPR. If they’re breathing, position the person on their back. Raise their legs at least 12 inches above the ground. Loosen any restrictive clothing or belts. If they don’t regain consciousness within one minute, call 911 or your local emergency services. Check their airway to make sure there’s no obstruction. Check again to see if they’re breathing, coughing, or moving. These are signs of positive circulation. If these signs are absent, perform CPR until emergency personnel arrive. If there’s major bleeding occ Continue reading >>

Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary - Pacific

Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary - Pacific

Introduction Some medical conditions can cause a casualty to become extremely ill and require immediate first aid and emergency medical care. There may be no warning signals. In some cases the person may feel ill or feel something is wrong. CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC Introduction These can include: Diabetes Convulsions Heat Emergencies Hypothermia Childbirth?? CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC Diabetes A diabetic emergency can happen only to someone who has diabetes. Diabetic emergencies are caused by an imbalance in the person’s sugar and insulin levels. Any imbalance can be an emergency. CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC Hyperglycemia When the insulin level in the body is too low, the sugar will be come too high causing “hyperglycemiaâ€. This can then lead to a diabetic coma. CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC Hypoglycemia When the insulin is too high, the person will develop a low sugar level, causing hypoglycemia. It is caused by the diabetic: 1. Taking too much insulin 2. Failing to eat enough 3. Overexercising and burning of sugar faster than normal CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC Hypoglycemia The small amount of sugar is used up rapidly, and there is not enough for the brain to work. This will cause the person to become unconscious. CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes There is a difference between the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia - however the major ones are similar. 1. Changes in consciousness including dizziness, drowsiness and confusion, leading to coma 2. Rapid breathing and pulse 3. Feeling and looking ill CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC First Aid for Diabetes The first aid treatment for both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is the sa Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma And Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetic Coma And Type 2 Diabetes

A diabetic coma could happen when your blood sugar gets too high -- 600 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or more -- causing you to become very dehydrated. It usually affects people with type 2 diabetes that isn’t well-controlled. It’s common among those who are elderly, chronically ill, and disabled. Doctors aren’t sure why, but they think they these people may not realize they’re thirsty or may not be able to get enough to drink. This is a serious condition, and if it isn’t spotted soon and treated quickly, it could be fatal. Knowing the symptoms can help you stay safe. If you have diabetes and you’ve had a heavy thirst and gone to the bathroom more often than usual for a few weeks, check with your doctor -- especially if your blood sugar isn’t well-controlled. As your body loses more and more water, you may notice: Drowsiness Altered mental state Restlessness Inability to speak Visual problems Paralysis These factors may lead to dehydration and coma: Once your doctor spots the early signs, he may send you to the hospital. You’ll get an IV to replace lost fluids and electrolytes such as potassium. And you’ll get insulin or other medication to control your blood sugar. The coma can lead to death if left untreated. Take these simple steps to help protect yourself: Check your blood sugar regularly, as your doctor recommends. Know your target blood sugar ranges and what to do if the readings are too high. Plan how often to check your blood sugar when you’re sick. Take extra care of yourself if you’re ill. Continue reading >>

First Aid Phraseology: Insulin Shock Vs Diabetic Coma

First Aid Phraseology: Insulin Shock Vs Diabetic Coma

Sometimes in medical care--especially first aid--we try to make the terminology more user friendly. It's led to terms like heart attack or stroke (and now stroke is being changed to brain attack). Some of the terms make sense, but there are others that simply don't work for anyone other than the doctors who thought them up in the first place. Insulin shock and diabetic coma are two terms that just don't make sense. Insulin shock refers to the body's reaction to too little sugar—hypoglycemia—often caused by too much insulin. Diabetic coma refers to a victim of high blood sugar—hyperglycemia—who becomes confused or unconscious. These terms are confusing, and not because my blood sugar is too low. They don't have any connection to reality. Indeed, if I was nicknaming medical conditions today, I would switch these. Insulin Shock Insulin shock makes it sound like the body is in shock, which isn't true. Shock is, first and foremost, a lack of blood flow to important areas of the body, like the brain. It usually comes with a very low blood pressure. The most common symptom of low blood sugar is confusion (yeah, I know, that's supposed to go with diabetic coma—just stay with me here), not a low blood pressure. In fact, insulin shock doesn't affect the blood pressure much at all. Insulin shock also implies that insulin is to blame, but insulin—at least from injections—is not required for someone to develop low blood sugar. Plenty of diabetics take pills, which do not contain insulin, to control their blood sugar levels. Some diabetics control their blood sugar levels simply by watching their diets. To make it even worse, some folks get low blood sugar even though they're not diabetic at all, which means they would have no reason to take insulin or pills (although t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Or Hyperglycemic Coma, First Aid

Diabetic Or Hyperglycemic Coma, First Aid

The History of Diabetes and Discovery of Insulin Need of Insulin and the main Diabetes characteristics Causes of excess urine production Diabetes diagnosis Treatment of Diabetes Diabetic Coma Prolonged hyperglycemia or excess sugar in the blood, from insufficient insulin activity can cause Diabetic Coma. This condition involves the increasing buildup of ketone bodies, the by-product of fat metabolism, which creates an acidotic condition (chemical imbalance in the blood, marked by an excess of acids). When this has been present for several days, perhaps a week or longer, symptoms begin to develop that are similar to those associated to those associated with the onset of diabetes, they include excessive urination and thirst, dry and hot skin, drowsiness, ad finally, coma. The earliest stage of the problem is called diabetic ketosis; a slightly later stage is known as diabetic acidosis. From the beginning there are increasing amounts of glucose as well as ketone bodies in the urine. The unconscious patient will have deep, laboured breathing, and a fruity odour to his breath. Diabetic acidosis resembles an insulin reaction, although they can be distinguished from one another. If you find a diabetic in coma and you don' know the cause, assume the cause is an insulin reaction and treat it first with sugar. This will give immediate to an insulin reaction but will not affect the diabetic acidosis. Diabetic acidosis occurs for many reasons. The patient does not take his insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs for several hours. He may take too little insulin because he is confused about the dosage. He may overeat or underexercise for a number of days, perhaps because he feels ill or has a cold. Treatment In its early stages, ketosis can be treated by the patient himself with directio Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

First Aid Management Of Diabetic Emergencies

First Aid Management Of Diabetic Emergencies

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition that is commonly prevalent and increasing in incidence throughout the world. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar level) due to relative or absolute deficiency of insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas to regulate glucose metabolism in human body). This long standing metabolic derangement is associated with structural as well as functional changes in cells affecting all the systems of the body. There are various types of diabetes mellitus, • Type 1- Is an autoimmune type of diabetes. And due to absolute deficiency of insulin. Commonly seen in children and young adults. • Type 2- Adult onset disease and due to insulin resistant in target organ. Has a genetic predisposition. • Gestational diabetes mellitus – diabetes during pregnancy. • Other causes- Acromegaly- excessive growth hormone secretion Cushing’s syndrome Thyrotoxicosis- excessive thyroxin hormone secretion Drug induce- corticosteroid, thiazide diuretics, phenytoin Viral infection- congenital rubella syndrome, mumps, coxsackie B Associated genetic conditions- Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome There are various complications of diabetes mellitus Acute – o Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) o Non ketotic hyperosmolar coma o Hypoglycemia Chronic – o Nephropathy – damage to kidney o Neuropathy – damage to nerves o Retinopathy – damage to eyes Out of above conditions three acute conditions require prompt first aid and emergency measures to save the life of the patient as well as to prevent lifelong disability. First aid training should include identification of these conditions clinically and necessary first aid measures to be taken in each of these conditions. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) management- This Continue reading >>

Unconsciousness - First Aid

Unconsciousness - First Aid

Unconsciousness is when a person is unable to respond to people and activities. Doctors often call this a coma or being in a comatose state. Other changes in awareness can occur without becoming unconscious. These are called altered mental status or changed mental status. They include sudden confusion, disorientation, or stupor. Unconsciousness or any other sudden change in mental status must be treated as a medical emergency. Continue reading >>

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