diabetestalk.net

Diabetes Blood Vessel Damage

Mouse Study Reveals Mechanism Behind Diabetes Blood Vessel Damage

Mouse Study Reveals Mechanism Behind Diabetes Blood Vessel Damage

It is well known that diabetes wreaks havoc on the vascular system. In fact, vascular complications arising from diabetes are the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure and cardiovascular problems in the U.S. And yet, the physiological mechanisms that link diabetes, which afflicts 26 million Americans, to sickly blood vessels are poorly understood. Researchers have now identified key interactions among two enzymes that may help connect the dots between insulin control and the integrity of blood vessels. The two enzymes work in tandem to regulate the production of nitric oxide, a gas that relaxes blood vessels. The findings, shown in mice, could provide targets for drugs that would be designed to prevent and offset vascular damage. "Sadly, most people with diabetes will die from vascular complications," says Clay Semenkovich of Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, co-author of the study published January 28 in The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Diabetes contributes to large blood vessel damage associated with common cardiovascular problems such as stroke and heart disease, but diabetes also deteriorates small blood vessels found in the eyes, kidneys and around nerves. "Small-vessel disease is fairly specific for diabetes, while large-vessel disease also occurs in people without diabetes, especially smokers," Semenkovich says. As a metabolic disease, diabetes causes a cascade of problems, many linked to high blood levels of glucose and lipids. "Increased sugars and fats promote oxidative stress—the production of excessive amounts of oxygen-derived free radicals that can damage blood vessels," according to Semenkovich. The damage manifests as inflammation. Nitric oxide, produced by the enzyme nitric-oxide synthase (NOS), helps reduce inflammatio Continue reading >>

Complications To Avoid With Pre-diabetes

Complications To Avoid With Pre-diabetes

If I ignore the pre-diabetes, how could diabetes reduce the quality or length of my life? The effect that diabetes has on the body happens slowly, and can often progress without notice. Over time, though, having too much glucose (sugar) in the blood can damage a number of organs. These are often referred to as “complications” of diabetes. If you have been told you have pre-diabetes, you can take important healthy steps now to reduce your risk of developing a number of health problems: Heart and blood vessel damage Type 2 diabetes can increase your risk of developing cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis, stroke, peripheral artery disease, and kidney disease. Nerve damage Over time, prolonged high blood sugar levels can damage nerves, a condition called diabetic neuropathy. This can lead to numbness in the fingers, hands, toes, and feet or tingling, burning or shooting pains that usually begins at the fingers or toes and spreads upwards. Symptoms of this nerve damage can also include vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation, problems with sexual function, dizziness, and other symptoms. Kidney damage The kidneys are important to filter blood. Over time, diabetes can damage them so they no longer work effectively, requiring either dialysis or a transplant. Eye damage Damage to the blood vessels in the eye can eventually lead to blindness as well as increase the risk of cataracts and glaucoma. Foot damage Feet are also vulnerable to the nerve and blood vessel damage from prolonged high blood sugar. Minor cuts and blisters can lead to ulcers, infections, and amputations in serious cases. Skin and mouth conditions Diabetes may increase the risk of skin infections as well as mount infections and gum disease. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disorder which causes your Continue reading >>

Inflammation May Drive Blood Vessel Damage In Diabetes Patients

Inflammation May Drive Blood Vessel Damage In Diabetes Patients

A new study suggests that inflammation may be the driving force behind damage to blood vessels caused by elevated blood glucose levels, with the potential for the use of anti-inflammatory medications in reducing the risk of blood vessel disease in patients with diabetes. These findings were presented at the American Heart Association's High Blood Pressure Research Scientific Sessions 2014. Researchers from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid examined cultured smooth muscle cells from the aorta and discovered that excess glucose in the culture fluid did not enter the cells in the absence of inflammation; no harm was done when extra glucose was forced into the cells in the absence of inflammation. Following the introduction of inflammation-stimulating protein interleukin-1 (IL-1), an increased amount of glucose entered the cells. The glucose was metabolized via chemical pathways spurring escalating inflammation, overwhelming the ability of the cells' to counteract. In the presence of the IL-1-blocker anakinra, which blocks the activity of IL-1, these changes did not occur. RELATED: Incretin-Based Drugs, Congestive Heart Failure: Are They Linked? Further studies will test if the effect is similar in cultured cells from the lining of blood vessels and explore the glucose/inflammation link in animals. For more information visit Heart.org. Scroll down to see the next article Continue reading >>

Investigating The Mechanisms Behind Blood Vessel Damage In Diabetes

Investigating The Mechanisms Behind Blood Vessel Damage In Diabetes

Inter-cellular trafficking and regulation of microRNA-503 expression in diabetes induced microvascular complications Andrea Caporali (lead researcher) Edinburgh, University of In diabetic muscles, high blood glucose levels damage blood vessels leading to reduced blood flow (ischaemia). Clinical consequences range from non-healing skin ulcers to limb ischaemia that is so severe that amputation may be required. Dr Andrea Caporali and colleagues at the University of Bristol propose to study how a protein p75NTR and a tiny molecule microRNA-503 are involved in diabetes-induced vascular defects. They know that miR-503 circulates in the body in small packages, called microvesicles, which seem to act like small messengers transferring signals from cell to cell. p75NTR promotes the release of microvesicles carrying miR-503, and since miR-503 levels are raised in diabetic patients with severe limb ischaemia, understanding the role of these two factors is important. The researchers will also develop new therapeutic approaches blocking microRNA-503. This study could provide potential new targets to treat diabetic patients with ischaemic complications. Project details Grant amount £439,533 Grant type Fellowship Application type Intermediate Basic Science Research Fellowship Start Date 01 March 2012 Duration 4 years Reference FS/11/52/29018 Status In progress Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes: Nerve And Blood Vessel Damage

Managing Diabetes: Nerve And Blood Vessel Damage

Poorly controlled diabetes can put your eyesight at serious risk. Diabetes is the leading medical cause of new cases of blindness in the U.S. Eye problems can result from slow, progressive damage to the tiny blood vessels in the back of the eyes. Common eye problems among people with diabetes include: Glaucoma: pressure inside the eyeball rises too high Cataracts: eye lenses cloud over, making it progressively more difficult to see Retinopathy: damage to the part of the eye that senses light The good news is that these conditions can be treated. You'll need to visit your eye doctor (ophthalmologist or optometrist) yearly for a dilated eye exam to check for these conditions and to discuss treatment options. Nerve damage (neuropathy) The nerves are the body's communications system. Nerves allow the brain to control the body's movements and functions. They control people's conscious actions, as well as unconscious activities like digestion and breathing. Nerves also keep the brain informed about the body's status. Nerve messages tell the brain when the body is hot or cold, whether it's injured and so on. Nerve damage, also known as neuropathy, is a complication of diabetes. Nerve damage can produce a whole range of symptoms, depending on which nerves are affected, and how badly. Common symptoms include tingling, numbness or pain in the affected area. If you notice any unusual sensations in any part of your body, or if you are experiencing unexplained loss of muscle control, see your doctor immediately. Sexual problems Men with diabetes have an increased risk of impotence, also known as erectile dysfunction or ED. This is the inability to get or maintain an erection. Damage to blood vessels and nerves of the genitals often cause these problems. There is some evidence that w Continue reading >>

How Can Diabetes Affect The Heart And Blood Vessels?

How Can Diabetes Affect The Heart And Blood Vessels?

ANSWER Heart disease and blood vessel disease are common problems for many people who don't have their diabetes under control. You're at least twice as likely to have heart problems and strokes as people who don't have the condition. Blood vessel damage or nerve damage may also cause foot problems that, in rare cases, can lead to amputations. People with diabetes are 10 times likelier to have their toes and feet removed than those without the disease. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Retinopathy: Your Questions Answered

Diabetic Retinopathy: Your Questions Answered

Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and the leading cause of new-onset blindness in American adults. Effective treatments are available to preserve vision for eyes at risk of vision loss from diabetic retinopathy. The most opportune time for these treatments is before any vision has been lost, since even advanced diabetic retinopathy can be present when a person has no vision complaints or problems. What causes diabetic retinopathy? Diabetic retinopathy is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina, the thin, light-sensitive inner lining in the back of your eye. These changes are called diabetic retinopathy. How does diabetes damage the vessels in the retina? Elevated levels of blood glucose can damage the body in various ways, including harming the blood vessels in your eyes. Diabetes can affect the lining of the blood vessels in your eyes, causing them to thicken and develop leaks. Poor circulation in the retinal vessels can compound these problems by causing the production of fragile new vessels. What are the stages of retinopathy? Diabetic retinopathy is broadly classified as nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy. After 20 years of diabetes, most persons with diabetes will shows some signs of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, which is generally not sight-threatening itself unless macular edema is present. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a more serious stage of retinopathy and poses a greater risk of hemorrhage into the vitreous humor, the clear gel that fills the center of the eye, or detachment of the retina leading to severe vision loss. Diabetic macular edema can occur with either nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. There are various levels of nonproliferative diabetic re Continue reading >>

What Are Symptoms Of Heart Disease Or Blood Vessel Damage Because Of Diabetes?

What Are Symptoms Of Heart Disease Or Blood Vessel Damage Because Of Diabetes?

ANSWER You might not notice warning signs of heart disease or blood vessel damage because of diabetes until you have a heart attack or stroke. Problems with large blood vessels in your legs can cause leg cramps, changes in skin color, and less sensation. Studies show that controlling your diabetes can help you avoid these problems, or stop them from getting worse if you have them. Continue reading >>

Complications

Complications

If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of different health problems. High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs. Even a mildly raised glucose level that doesn't cause any symptoms can have damaging effects in the long term. Heart disease and stroke If you have diabetes, you're up to five times more likely to develop coronary heart disease (CHD) or have a stroke. Prolonged, poorly controlled blood glucose levels increase the likelihood of developing atherosclerosis (furring and narrowing of your blood vessels). This may result in a poor blood supply to your heart, causing angina (a dull, heavy or tight pain in the chest). It also increases the chance that a blood vessel in your heart or brain will become completely blocked, leading to a heart attack or stroke. Nerve damage High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels of your nerves. This can cause a tingling or burning pain that spreads from your fingers and toes up through your limbs. It can also cause numbness, which can lead to ulceration of the feet. Damage to the peripheral nervous system (the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord) is known as peripheral neuropathy. If the nerves in your digestive system are affected, you may experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation. Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is where the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye, becomes damaged. The retina needs a constant supply of blood, which it receives through a network of tiny blood vessels. Over time, a persistently high blood sugar level can damage these blood vessels and affect your vision. Annual eye checks are usually organised by a regional photographic unit. If significant damage is detected, you may be referred to a docto Continue reading >>

How Diabetes Harms The Brain

How Diabetes Harms The Brain

TIME Health For more, visit TIME Health. When blood sugar levels start to climb in diabetes, a number of body systems are harmed—and that list includes the brain, since studies have linked diabetes with a higher risk of stroke and dementia. Now, a new study published in the journal Neurology reports that changes in blood vessel activity in the brains of diabetics may lead to drops in cognitive functions and their ability to perform daily activities. Dr. Vera Novak, associate professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and her colleagues followed a group of 65 older people. About half had type 2 diabetes, and half did not. After two years, the diabetic patients had lower scores on cognitive tests compared to when they began, while people without diabetes showed little change on the tests. MORE: The Strange Way a Diabetes Drug May Help Skin Scars What drove the decline, says Novak, were changes in the brains of the diabetic patients. Diabetes can cause blood vessels to be less responsive to the ebb and flow of demand in different parts of the brain. Normally, flexible vessels will swell slightly to increase blood flow and oxygen to areas that are more intensely active, such as regions involved in memory or higher reasoning during intellectual tasks. But unchecked blood sugar can make these vessels less malleable and therefore less responsive. “When doing any task, from cognition to moving your fingers, you need to increase blood flow to that specific area of the brain,” says Novak. “With diabetes, however, that vasodilation ability is reduced, so you have fewer resources to perform any task.” MORE: Statins May Seriously Increase Diabetes Risk In the study, Novak measured the changes in the flexibility of the blood v Continue reading >>

Blood Vessels

Blood Vessels

Tweet Blood vessels are vital for the body and play a key role in diabetes helping to transport glucose and insulin. Blood vessels can be damaged by the effects of high blood glucose levels and this can in turn cause damage to organs, such as the heart and eyes, if significant blood vessel damage is sustained. About blood vessels The three main types of blood vessels are: Arteries Capillaries Veins Arteries carry blood to the organs and muscles. Capillaries are very small blood vessels which transfer oxygen and nutrients to cells and collect waste products from the cells. Veins are the blood vessels which carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Blood vessels role in blood sugar levels Blood vessels play an important role in diabetes as they carry glucose in the blood as well as hormones such as insulin. Too much glucose in the blood leads to the symptoms of diabetes. The body requires insulin to enable glucose to pass from the blood vessels into the cells that need energy. In type 1 diabetes Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of the body. From this, it can be understood that for someone with diabetes something that is food for ordinary people can become a sort of metabolic poison. This is why people with diabetes are advised to avoid sources of dietary sugar. The good news is for very many people with type 2 diabetes this is all they have to do to stay well. If you Continue reading >>

Review Vascular Complications Of Diabetes: Mechanisms Of Injury And Protective Factors

Review Vascular Complications Of Diabetes: Mechanisms Of Injury And Protective Factors

Main Text Introduction The vascular complications of diabetes are among the most serious manifestations of the disease. Atherosclerosis is the main reason for impaired life expectancy in patients with diabetes, whereas diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy are the largest contributors to end-stage renal disease and blindness, respectively. The most well-established clinical advances in preventing vascular complications of diabetes include intensive blood glucose lowering, which decreases the risk of nephropathy and retinopathy; antihypertensive medicine, which decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy; panretinal photocoagulation and agents targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy; and statin therapy, which reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Despite these advances, diabetes complications remain an enormous problem. The public health impact of diabetes will continue to grow due to the expected increase in the prevalence of the disease. Although lowering blood glucose delays the onset of nephropathy and retinopathy, cardiovascular disease in diabetes shows less robust association with hyperglycemia and less benefit from glucose-lowering therapy. Moreover, it is clear that diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular risk beyond what is explained by dyslipidemia or hypertension, both of which are more common in patients with diabetes. Accordingly, insulin resistance and its biological effects in various tissues may be more important factors than hyperglycemia in mediating atherothrombotic complications, particularly in type 2 diabetes. Despite these insights, there are few therapies targeting vascular abnormalities specific for diabetes. Advances in understanding Continue reading >>

Only One In 10 Indians Aware Of Damage To Blood Vessels During Diabetes

Only One In 10 Indians Aware Of Damage To Blood Vessels During Diabetes

With Diabetes being the theme for World Health Day this year, health experts have said that only 10 percent of Indians were aware that diabetes in its later stages damages blood vessels of the eyes, heart, nerves, feet and kidneys. The experts said that 90 percent of people in developing countries, including India and Sri Lanka, consider diabetes to be a trivial diseases, which can be controlled throughout their lives merely on insulin dose. "Diabetes is called a silent disease because many people do not know about it even if they are suffering from it. High sugar level in blood is called hyperglycemia. It can cause damage to very small blood vessels of eyes, heart, nerves, feet, and kidneys," said Dhiraj Malik, head of emergency and critical care at Saroj Super Speciality. On the harm diabetes causes to various parts of the body, Malik said: "Damage of eye vessels can cause blindness or other major vision problems while the damage of heart vessels completely stops the supply of oxygen to your heart and brain." "Fat can build up in the blood vessels as well. This can lead to a heart attack or stroke. Diabetes can harm the feet in two ways. First, it can damage the body's nerves. Nerve damage stops the patient from feeling pain, while another way diabetes can cause damage to the patient's feet is from poor blood circulation," said Malik. Experts said that having high levels of sugar in the blood for many years can damage the blood vessels that bring oxygen to some nerves. Damaged nerves may stop sending pain signals. According to the World Health Organisation, the number of diabetics in India doubled in 13 years, from 32 million in 2000 to 63 million in 2013 and is likely to surge to 101.2 million in the next two years. Ashraf Ganie, assistant professor of endocrinology Continue reading >>

Put Out The Fire Of Diabetes Inflammation

Put Out The Fire Of Diabetes Inflammation

Inflammation is a vital body function. It fights infection and repairs injury. But inflammation can also cause insulin resistance and diabetes complications. What is inflammation exactly? And how can we make it help us, not hurt us? Inflammation is a miraculous system for fighting invaders: germs, toxic chemicals, anything unwanted. Monica Smith reported here in 2009, that “Inflammation is the body’s natural response to injury and the first step in healing. In its acute form, it can be quite dramatic. Whether you have a virus or a cut, the body sends white blood cells to the site of infection or injury, where they release chemicals to protect you. The most obvious sign of acute inflammation is pain, such as when you have a sore throat; you may also experience fever in the case of an infection, or swelling as your body deals with a traumatic injury.” The immune system brings more red and white blood cells to the area. It opens blood vessel walls so more fluid can come out into the infected or injured parts. It brings healing substances like cholesterol to the area to make patches for damaged areas and help new cells grow. That’s fine for an infected finger, but imagine that process going on day after day in your kidneys, your eyes, or your coronary arteries! Once the invader is defeated, the system should cool down. The active immune cells should go home, leaving a few guardians to watch for the next attack. But that doesn’t always happen. When there’s no cool-down, the tissues stay hot and swollen. When that happens in blood vessels, they can break down or become blocked. Sometimes the inflammation becomes chronic. Chronic inflammation is like having a fire burning in your body. It causes all kinds of damage. “[Chronic low-grade inflammation] seems to play Continue reading >>

Endothelial Dysfunction And Diabetes: Effects On Angiogenesis, Vascular Remodeling, And Wound Healing

Endothelial Dysfunction And Diabetes: Effects On Angiogenesis, Vascular Remodeling, And Wound Healing

Go to: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by inappropriate hyperglycemia due to lack of or resistance to insulin. Patients with DM are frequently afflicted with ischemic vascular disease or wound healing defect. It is well known that type 2 DM causes amplification of the atherosclerotic process, endothelial cell dysfunction, glycosylation of extracellular matrix proteins, and vascular denervation. These complications ultimately lead to impairment of neovascularization and diabetic wound healing. Therapeutic angiogenesis remains an attractive treatment modality for chronic ischemic disorders including PAD and/or diabetic wound healing. Many experimental studies have identified better approaches for diabetic cardiovascular complications, however, successful clinical translation has been limited possibly due to the narrow therapeutic targets of these agents or the lack of rigorous evaluation of pathology and therapeutic mechanisms in experimental models of disease. This paper discusses the current body of evidence identifying endothelial dysfunction and impaired angiogenesis during diabetes. Go to: 1. Introduction Endothelial cell dysfunction (ECD) is a broad term which implies dysregulation of endothelial cell functions, including impairment of the barrier functions of endothelial cells, vasodilation, disturbances in proliferative capacities, migratory as well as tube formation properties, angiogenic properties, attenuation of synthetic function, and deterrence of white blood cells from adhesion and diapedesis [1]. Several factors contribute to ECD including smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, obesity, hyperglycemia, advance glycation end products (AGEs), and genetic factors [1, 2]. Diabetes is a chronic metab Continue reading >>

More in blood sugar