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Diabetes Blood Sugar Level Charts

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia is the medical term for a high blood sugar (glucose) level. It's a common problem for people with diabetes. It can affect people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, as well as pregnant women with gestational diabetes. It can occasionally affect people who don't have diabetes, but usually only people who are seriously ill, such as those who have recently had a stroke or heart attack, or have a severe infection. Hyperglycaemia shouldn't be confused with hypoglycaemia, which is when a person's blood sugar level drops too low. This information focuses on hyperglycaemia in people with diabetes. Is hyperglycaemia serious? The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as near to normal as possible. But if you have diabetes, no matter how careful you are, you're likely to experience hyperglycaemia at some point. It's important to be able to recognise and treat hyperglycaemia, as it can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Occasional mild episodes aren't usually a cause for concern and can be treated quite easily or may return to normal on their own. However, hyperglycaemia can be potentially dangerous if blood sugar levels become very high or stay high for long periods. Very high blood sugar levels can cause life-threatening complications, such as: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a condition caused by the body needing to break down fat as a source of energy, which can lead to a diabetic coma; this tends to affect people with type 1 diabetes hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) – severe dehydration caused by the body trying to get rid of excess sugar; this tends to affect people with type 2 diabetes Regularly having high blood sugar levels for long periods of time (over months or years) can result in permanent damage to parts Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Curves I’ve Done On My Diabetic Cats And What Those Curves Told Me.

Blood Glucose Curves I’ve Done On My Diabetic Cats And What Those Curves Told Me.

But! If my errors help you then a little of my shame is worth it! This is a blood glucose curve on Paris, on 1.5 units of PZI insulin once a day, injected at 8:30 in the morning. The blood sugar range for a non-diabetic cat is about 4-8 millimoles per litre. (mmol/l) For a diabetic cat, I would suggest that an acceptable range would be between about 6-15 mmol/l. Not so low that you risk a hypo episode, and not too high that the kidneys are being stressed. (Your vet may decide on a different range for your cat.) The first thing this chart shows me is that poor poor Paris should NOT have had an insulin shot at all this day - with a reading of 8.5 mmol/l he was only just outside the range for a normal cat! Consequently, Paris spent approximately 12 hours from 11:00am to 11:00pm being under the normal range, thus risking a potentially fatal hypoglycaemic episode. The good news is that this chart seems to show that one shot per day of this insulin gives adequate coverage for him. In other words it kept his blood glucose levels down from 8:30am in the morning until about 1:00am when his blood glucose level started to rise. Just to prove that I can learn from my own mistakes, his closing reading on this chart (5.3 mmol/l) which was his reading at 8:30am the following morning meant he didn’t get an injection that day! This second image is one of Tatty’s early charts. It shows her readings on Lente insulin twice a day. She was getting two units in the morning at 9:30am and one unit at 7:00pm. Again the yellow band covers readings from 5 to 15 millimoles per litre (mmol/l) which I would consider acceptable. Above about 12-15 the kidneys are overwhelmed and the renal threshold exceeded - and long-term damage to the kidneys could result. This chart is too spiky. She starts the Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Levels And Targets

Blood Glucose Levels And Targets

Home blood glucose monitoring The aim of treatment is to try to maintain their glucose level to as near a” non -diabetic” range as possible. In general terms this means to aim towards 4 -7 mmol/l before meals, and around 8 mmol/l if testing 2 hours after meals. This can be difficult at times as you are trying to mimic what the body had previously done of its own accord, and readings may vary depending their carbohydrate intake, exercise and many other daily factors. This management takes time and practice and requires that you work closely with your doctor, diabetes nurse specialist and other members of your diabetes care team. They’ll guide you to maintain the best possible blood glucose control. It is also important that you monitor your child’s food intake, exercise and any other factors that could affect their blood glucose level. Talk to your child and make sure they know how important it is to tell you if they have had extra carbohydrates or exercise and to let you know about any thing that could affect their blood glucose levels. HbA1c This is known as the “long term test” and is performed by a medical professional. This is a measure of blood glucose control over a period of the previous approx 3 months. It is a very good indicator of overall control of their condition. Hyperglycaemia or Hypoglycaemia This can be caused by high or low glucose levels. High blood glucose levels, also know as Hyperglycaemia or Hyper You will notice that your child’s blood glucose level may be higher if they: Are not taking enough insulin Miss or forget to take insulin ( or take a lower amount in error) Eat more carbohydrate foods than usual Are less active than usual Are under stress Have an illness eg cold flu, infection (see further info re illness below) Sometimes i Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Chart

Blood Sugar Level Chart

Our blood sugar level chart shows you at a glance the difference between healthy and diabetic blood glucose levels. So what do these numbers mean? The recommended blood sugar levels represented on this chart are a reflection of what the American Diabetes Association asserts is “normal”. Specifically: Fasting Plasma Glucose of less than 100 mg/dL Two-hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test result of less than 140 mg/dL Because there are several studies that show that the complications of diabetes can happen in individuals with blood glucose levels that are in this range(1), we looked to see if there are any studies that show what normal blood sugar levels are in people that have no history of blood sugar problems nor any complications that could be associated with blood sugar imbalances. As a result, the optimal blood sugar levels represented on this chart are those that were identified as being normal during Dr. J.S. Christiansen’s study, “Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data from Healthy Subjects” as presented at the September 2006 European Association for the Study of Diabetes. What Does This Blood Sugar Level Chart Tell Us? So what can you learn by comparing diabetic blood sugar levels with optimal blood sugar levels? First, blood sugar fluctuates much less in people with healthy blood sugar levels. Where diabetic blood sugar levels fluctuate by 100 mg/dL or more, people with normal blood sugar have blood glucose fluctuations of 50 mg/dL or less. In addition, the folks with normal blood sugar started out with fasting blood sugar levels that are markedly less (72 mg/dL versus 130 mg/dL or more) than people with diabetes. Lastly, the blood sugar of normal subjects returned back down under 100 mg/dL very quickly after eating while diabetic blood sugar levels take much Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Pregnancy

Diabetes In Pregnancy

Gestational diabetes does not increase the risk of birth defects or the risk that the baby will be diabetic at birth. Also called gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), this type of diabetes affects between 3% and 20% of pregnant women. It presents with a rise in blood glucose (sugar) levels toward the end of the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. In 90% if cases, it disappears after the birth, but the mother is at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. Cause It occurs when cells become resistant to the action of insulin, which is naturally caused during pregnancy by the hormones of the placenta. In some women, the pancreas is not able to secrete enough insulin to counterbalance the effect of these hormones, causing hyperglycemia, then diabetes. Symptoms Pregnant women generally have no apparent diabetes symptoms. Sometimes, these symptoms occur: Unusual fatigue Excessive thirst Increase in the volume and frequency of urination Headaches Importance of screening These symptoms can go undetected because they are very common in pregnant women. Women at risk Several factors increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes: Being over 35 years of age Being overweight Family members with type 2 diabetes Having previously given birth to a baby weighing more than 4 kg (9 lb) Gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy Belonging to a high-risk ethnic group (Aboriginal, Latin American, Asian or African) Having had abnormally high blood glucose (sugar) levels in the past, whether a diagnosis of glucose intolerance or prediabetes Regular use of a corticosteroid medication Suffering from ancanthosis nigricans, a discoloration of the skin, often darkened patches on the neck or under the arms Screening The Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Gui Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Checking blood glucose levels by using a blood glucose meter or blood glucose test strips that change color when touched by a blood sample in order to manage diabetes. PubMed Health Glossary (Source: NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) About Blood Glucose Monitoring There are two types of tests that tell you your blood sugar level: Doctors use a special blood test, called an A1C test, to check how high your blood sugar level was during the past 3 months. Having an A1C level of 7 percent or below means that your blood sugar has been well controlled over the past 3 months. When taking insulin, you need to use a different type of test called a blood sugar test—often done with a fingerstick—to help you adjust the amount of insulin you take during the day. This test measures the amount of sugar in your blood at any one time. This measurement is given in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The normal blood sugar levels for people who do not have diabetes are: Between 70 and 130 mg/dL before meals Less than 180 mg/dL at 2 hours after meals... The microbial causes of pneumonia vary according to its origin and the immune constitution of the patient. Pneumonia is classified into community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and pneumonia in the immunocompromised. The guideline development process is guided by its scope - published after stakeholder consultation. This guideline does not cover all aspects of pneumonia, but focuses on areas of uncertainty or variable practice and those considered of greatest clinical importance. Best practice guidance on the diagnosis and management of CAP and HAP is offered, based on systematic analysis of clinical and economic evidence with the aim of reducing mortality and morbidity fr Continue reading >>

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Understanding blood sugar target ranges to better manage your diabetes As a person with diabetes, you may or may not know what your target ranges should be for your blood sugars first thing in the morning, before meals, after meals, or at bedtime. You may or may not understand what blood sugar ranges are for people without diabetes. You may or may not understand how your A1C correlates with your target ranges. How do you get a clear picture of what is going on with your blood sugar, and how it could be affecting your health? In this article, we will look at what recommended blood sugar target ranges are for people without diabetes. We will look at target ranges for different times of the day for people with diabetes. We will look at target ranges for Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Is there a difference? We will also look at what blood sugars should be during pregnancy for those with gestational diabetes. We will look at other factors when determining blood sugar targets, such as: Age Other health conditions How long you’ve had diabetes for Stress Illness Lifestyle habits and activity levels We will see how these factors impact target ranges for your blood sugars when you have diabetes. We will learn that target ranges can be individualized based on the factors above. We will learn how target ranges help to predict the A1C levels. We will see how if you are in your target range, you can be pretty sure that your A1C will also be in target. We will see how you can document your blood sugar patterns in a notebook or in an “app,” and manage your blood sugars to get them in your target ranges. First, let’s look at the units by which blood sugars are measured… How is blood sugar measured? In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter (by w Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Chart

Blood Sugar Chart

Our free blood sugar chart (or blood glucose chart) lets you track your blood sugar levels throughout the day. It also allows you to enter in normal blood sugar levels, both high and low, so you can see how well you are staying within your healthy range. Next to each entry, you can enter notes about your diet and exercise, to see how they affect your levels. You can also keep track of your A1C levels (also referred to as hemoglobin HbA1c levels), which you get tested by your doctor. Printable Blood Sugar Log For Excel & PDF When you measure your blood sugar levels, you're not always next to your computer. This printable blood sugar log allows you to write down your results no matter where you are. Print this blood sugar log and attach it to your fridge or wherever you typically test your blood sugar. Description With this Blood Sugar Chart spreadsheet you can enter your blood sugar test results and see those results plotted on a graph along with your recommended upper and lower blood sugar levels. Remember to enter notes next to your entries regarding your diet and exercise so that you can see how they may be affecting your levels. Consult a doctor to find out what your upper and lower levels should be. This spreadsheet also contains a chart for tracking your A1C level. For the A1C level chart, you can enter the level that your doctor recommends you stay close to. Using a Blood Sugar Chart Tracking your A1C levels * Continue reading >>

Keeping Diabetes In Checkreading Your Blood Glucose Meter

Keeping Diabetes In Checkreading Your Blood Glucose Meter

What does the reading on my blood glucose meter mean? The meter shows you a number that tells you the amount of glucose there is in your blood. The table below tells you what they mean. drink lots of water cut down on carbohydrates (sugars) until your blood glucose level comes down, but do not fast do extra blood test (every four hours) consult your doctor to adjust your medications if your reading is still high. Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Blood Sugar Levels

Diabetes: Blood Sugar Levels

Topic Overview Keeping your blood sugar in a target range reduces your risk of problems such as diabetic eye disease (retinopathy), kidney disease (nephropathy), and nerve disease (neuropathy). Some people can work toward lower numbers, and some people may need higher goals. For example, some children and adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, people who have severe complications from diabetes, people who may not live much longer, or people who have trouble recognizing the symptoms of low blood sugar may have a higher target range. And some people, such as those who are newly diagnosed with diabetes or who don't have any complications from diabetes, may do better with a lower target range. Work with your doctor to set your own target blood sugar range. This will help you achieve the best control possible without having a high risk of hypoglycemia. Diabetes Canada (formerly the Canadian Diabetes Association) suggests the following A1c and blood glucose ranges as a general guide. Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Concentrations Chart

Blood Glucose Concentrations Chart

Print and use this chart to help you understand the readings from your Blood Glucose Meter. Please consult your veterinarian concerning your pet's particular needs. This information is general, and may not reflect levels deemed acceptable by your veterinarian. Values above 12mmol/l (220 mg/dl) will allow glucose to leak into urine, and could cause clinical signs of hyperglycemia if prolonged (increased drinking and urination). Many dogs run with values up to 20mmol/l (180 mg/dl) or even slighter higher for short periods of the day without any problem, so being less than 12mmol/l for the whole day may be less important than it seems at first. Signs of lethargy or "dopeyness" due to high blood glucose do not appear unless blood glucose concentrations are really high (greater than 35 or 40 mmol/l) for extended periods of time. Values below 3.5 mmol/l (65 mg/dl) might be low enough to initiate a physiological response to the hypoglycemia and cause problems with insulin sensitivity later in the day. Because dogs in reasonable condition can mount their own defense to low blood sugar, you might not always see the classical appearance of hypoglycemic signs. International Readers: To convert from mmol/l (millimoles per litre) to mg/dl (milligrams per decilitre) the factor is 18.02 The information on this site is general, and should not be used as a substitute for advice from your veterinarian. Questions concerning your pet's health should be directed to your pet's health care provider. Continue reading >>

Good Diabetes Control

Good Diabetes Control

Blood Glucose Levels Good diabetes control means having blood glucose (sugar) values within these limits: Before Breakfast : 4.0 - 8.0 mmol/l 2 hours after meals : 6.0 - 10.0 mmol/l Randomly, at any time : below 10.0 mmol/l However, because of individual differences, your target blood glucose level is best decided by your doctor. It is very useful to do home blood glucose monitoring if you wish to have good control of your diabetes. Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HBA1c) Glycosylated haemoglobin, or HBA1c, measures the average blood glucose in the blood over the past 6 to 8 weeks. Excellent : less than 6% Satisfactory : 6% to 8% Poor : more than 8% Urine Glucose Urine glucose is measured with a special test strip which changes colour after being dipped into urine depending on the amount of glucose in the urine. For various reasons it is not as accurate as blood glucose monitoring which is preferred. For good control of your diabetes, keep your urine free of glucose always. Blood fats In all people, cholesterol should be below 5.2 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) and certainly not above 6.5 mmol/l (250 mg/dl). Blood Pressure Blood pressure should be below 140/85 mm Hg in young people, and below 160/95 mmHg in older people. Weight and Height Tall people naturally weigh more, so weight has to be interpreted in relation to height. This is done by the 'Body Mass Index' or BMI. BMI = Weight (kg) / Height(m)2 The ideal BMI is between 20 to 25, and the health risk increases steadily above this level. Smoking Among other problems, smoking causes diseases of the heart and circulation. As diabetes also carries a risk of damage to the heart and circulation, smoking is particularly dangerous to people with diabetes, and greatly increases the risk of a heart attack, stroke and foot gangrene. Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

What do blood glucose meters do? Like a speedometer on your car helps you control your speed, blood glucose meters help you control your blood glucose. Blood glucose readings let you know what your blood glucose level is at the moment you take it. They help you understand how the food you eat, the activities you do and the medications you take affect your glucose level. A glucose meter is a small, portable machine that comes with a lancing device specially designed to draw a small sample of blood from your fingertip as painlessly as possible. Once you have a small drop of blood on your fingertip, you place it on a test strip, which is then inserted into and read by the meter. There are many models of blood glucose meters available in Canada. Each model offers its own combination of features. It is helpful to discuss which meter is best for you with your diabetes educator or pharmacist. Meters are usually obtained at retail pharmacies or diabetes education centres. If you are going to purchase a meter for the first time, ask for training from the pharmacist or diabetes educator. Call ahead and schedule an appointment to learn the best technique for accurate results. Tips Before testing wash your hands with warm water and soap, and dry them well. Avoid alcohol, as it can dry your skin. Set your lancing device at a comfortable depth. Try a different lancing device if the one you are using is not comfortable. Look for lancets that are thinner and shorter, and ensure they will fit in your lancing device. Replace the lancet each time you use it. When testing, use the sides of your fingertips and rotate amongst your fingers. Discard your lancet and strips in a sharps-rated container. Check with your pharmacy for options available in your community. Store your strips in the app Continue reading >>

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