Blood Sugar Guidelines
Absolute numbers vary between pets, and with meter calibrations. The numbers below are as shown on a typical home glucometer while hometesting blood glucose, not necessarily the more accurate numbers a vet would see (though many vets use meters similar to those used in hometesting). For general guidelines only, the levels to watch are approximately: mmol/L mg/dL(US) <2.2 <40 Readings below this level are usually considered hypoglycemic when giving insulin, even if you see no symptoms of it. Treat immediately 2.7-7.5 50-130 Non-diabetic range (usually unsafe to aim for when on insulin, unless your control is very good). These numbers, when not giving insulin, are very good news. 3.2-4.4 57-79 This is an average non-diabetic cat's level, but leaves little margin of safety for a diabetic on insulin. Don't aim for this range, but don't panic if you see it, either. If the number is not falling, it's healthy. 5 90 A commonly cited minimum safe value for the lowest target blood sugar of the day when insulin-controlled. 7.8 140 According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), threshold above which organ and pancreatic dysfunction may begin in hospitalized humans and the maximum target for post-meal blood glucose in humans. 5.5-10 100-180 Commonly used target range for diabetics, for as much of the time as possible. <10-15 <180-270 "Renal threshold" (varies between individuals, see below), when excess glucose from the kidneys spills into the urine and roughly when the pet begins to show diabetic symptoms. See Hyperglycemia for long-term effects of high blood glucose. 14 250 Approximate maximum safe value for the highest blood sugar of the day, in dogs, who are more sensitive to high blood sugar. Dogs can go blind at this level. Cats Continue reading >>
High Blood Sugar Emergencies
Blood sugar levels that are too high (hyperglycemia) can quickly turn into a diabetic emergency without quick and appropriate treatment. The best way to avoid dangerously high blood sugar levels is to self-test to stay in tune with your body, and to stay attuned to the symptoms and risk factors for hyperglycemia. Extremely high blood sugar levels can lead to one of two conditions—diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS; also called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma). Although both syndromes can occur in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, DKA is more common in type 1, and HHNS is more common in type 2. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Ketoacidosis (or DKA) occurs when blood sugars become elevated (over 249 mg/dl, or 13.9 mmol/l) over a period of time and the body begins to burn fat for energy, resulting in ketone bodies in the blood or urine (a phenomenon called ketosis). A variety of factors can cause hyperglycemia (high blood glucose), including failure to take medication or insulin, stress, dietary changes without medication adjustments, eating disorders, and illness or injury. This last cause is important, because if illness brings on DKA, it may slip by unnoticed, since its symptoms can mimic the flu (aches, vomiting, etc.). In fact, people with type 1 diabetes are often seeking help for the flu-like symptoms of DKA when they first receive their diagnosis. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis may include: fruity (acetone) breath nausea and/or vomiting abdominal pain dry, warm skin confusion fatigue breathing problems excessive thirst frequent urination in extreme cases, loss of consciousness DKA is a medical emergency, and requires prompt and immediate treatment. A simple over-the-counter urine dipstick test (e.g., Keto Continue reading >>
How To Avoid Blood Sugar Highs And Lows
Blood sugar control is a main goal for people living with type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar levels can lead to a variety of complications over time, including nerve damage, heart disease, and vision problems. Blood sugar levels that are too low can cause more immediate problems, such as dizziness, confusion, and potentially a loss of consciousness. Keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible is key to preventing these complications and living well with type 2 diabetes. Blood Sugar Highs and Lows Glucose, or blood sugar, comes from two places — the food you eat and your liver. “Blood sugar is basically used to supply energy to the body,” explains Deborah Jane Wexler, MD, an endocrinologist in practice at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. For instance, one of your most valued organs — your brain — runs entirely on glucose, she notes. Insulin is used to move glucose into cells to be used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does produce. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, leading to high blood sugar levels. Low blood sugar can occur when you take too much diabetes medication, skip a meal, or increase your physical activity. Monitoring your blood sugar — by making sure it doesn’t spike too high or dip too low — is an important part of managing your type 2 diabetes. And you can start by learning the signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and steps to take to bring those levels back to normal: Hypoglycemia: If blood sugar is too low — usually below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — you may have symptoms such as confusion, sweating, nervousness, nausea, and dizziness. You could even pass out Continue reading >>
Influence Of Ripeness Of Banana On The Blood Glucose And Insulin Response In Type 2 Diabetic Subjects.
Abstract Banana is a popular and tasty fruit which often is restricted in the diet prescribed for diabetic patients owing to the high content of free sugars. However, in under-ripe bananas starch constitutes 80-90% of the carbohydrate content, which as the banana ripens changes into free sugars. To study the effect of ripening on the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to banana, 10 type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects consumed three meals, consisting of 120 g under-ripe banana, 120 g over-ripe banana or 40 g white bread on separate days. The mean postprandial blood glucose response area to white bread (181 +/- 45 mmol l-1 x 240 min) was significantly higher compared with under-ripe banana (62 +/- 17 mmol l-1 x 240 min: p < 0.01) and over-ripe banana (106 +/- 17 mmol l-1 x 240 min: p < 0.01). Glycaemic indices of the under-ripe and over-ripe bananas differed (43 +/- 10 and 74 +/- 9: p < 0.01). The mean insulin response areas to the three meals were similar: 6618 +/- 1398 pmol l-1 x 240 min (white bread), 7464 +/- 1800 pmol l-1 x 240 min (under-ripe banana) and 8292 +/- 2406 pmol l-1 x 240 min (over-ripe banana). The low glycaemic response of under-ripe compared with over-ripe bananas may be ascribed to the high starch content, which has previously been found to be only hydrolysed slowly by alfa-amylase in humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS). Continue reading >>
- Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin stores in the pancreas of subjects with type-2 diabetes and their lean and obese non-diabetic controls
- Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
- Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis
Managing Gestational Diabetes
The whole purpose of managing gestational diabetes is to maintain normal blood glucose levels. So that you can have the best possible outcome for you and your baby. A healthy pregnancy with a healthy birth is the greatest of rewards. The disease itself is not addressed, only the results of the condition can be controlled. In other words, there is no treatment (yet) that will reduce the resistance to insulin. Therefore, you should concentrate all your efforts in minimizing the effect of the disease. All that is needed is to keep your blood glucose levels in the normal range to successfully managing gestational diabetes. Aim to maintain your blood sugar levels in the same range as in a non-diabetic. If the sugars do not harm non-diabetics, then how can it harm you or your baby, if it is kept at the same levels? It is possible to have a healthy pregnancy with a healthy baby, even with gestational diabetes. Many women have accomplished this. Managing gestational diabetes, by following the treatment that their health care team set up for them. You can do it, too! Managing gestational diabetes by just following the treatment plan your health care provider designs for you. It really is up to you. It is important to make regular health care appointments and keep them. You need to have more frequent appointments than women without gestational diabetes do. This will ensure that your health care providers can catch any problems, before it becomes major health issues. Not managing gestational diabetes is allowing it to progress unchecked. Unchecked gestational diabetes will increase the risk for growth and hormonal abnormalities in your baby. Who Makes up this Health Care Team? A few medical professionals can make up the health care team. You might not need them all in managing ges Continue reading >>
Proven Tips & Strategies To Bring High Blood Sugar Down (quickly)
Untreated, high blood sugar can cause many problems and future complications. Recognizing signs of high blood sugar levels and knowing how to lower them can help you prevent these complications and increase the quality and length of your life. Topics covered (click to jump to specific section) High blood sugar level symptoms and signs Symptoms of high blood sugar include: Increased thirst Tired all the time Irritability Increased hunger Urinating a lot Dry mouth Blurred vision Severe high blood sugar can lead to nausea and fruity smelling breath The signs and symptoms for high blood sugar are the same for both type 1 and type 2. Signs usually show up quicker in those who have type 1 because of the nature of their diabetes. Type 1 is an autoimmune disease that causes the body to stop making insulin altogether. Type 2 is caused by lifestyle factors when the body eventually stops responding to insulin, which causes the sugar to increase slowly. People with type 2 can live longer without any symptoms creeping because their body is still making enough insulin to help control it a little bit. What causes the blood sugar levels go to high? Our bodies need sugar to make energy for the cells. Without it, we cannot do basic functions. When we eat foods with glucose, insulin pairs with it to allow it to enter into the cell wall. If the insulin is not there, then the glucose molecule can’t get through the wall and cannot be used. The extra glucose hangs out in the bloodstream which is literally high blood sugar. The lack of insulin can be caused by two different things. First, you can have decreased insulin resistance which means that your insulin doesn’t react the way that it is supposed to. It doesn’t partner with glucose to be used as fuel. Secondly, you can have no insuli Continue reading >>
What Is Blood Sugar/high Blood Sugar
Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, which is abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the bloodstream, so everyone with type 1 and type 2 diabetes has experienced hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia occurs when the body is not properly processing or using glucose, which is the case when insulin levels are low or nonexistent, and normally the excess amounts of glucose in the body is converted to glucogon or fat and stored for later use. Catabolic hormones such as glucagon, growth hormone, catecholamines, thyroxine and somatostatin, will increase blood sugar levels, but only insulin, which is an anabolic hormone, will decrease blood glucose levels. Since insulin is responsible for maintaining safe and healthy blood sugar levels in your body, if it is no longer present or not being produced in sufficient quantities, excess glucose will remain in your bloodstream. The excess glucose in your blood, if allowed to continually increase without treatment, will not only eventually cause serious complications, it can even kill you! Normal range blood sugar levels The standard unit for measuring blood glucose levels around the world is millimoles per liter (mmol/L), but in the U.S. blood glucose levels are measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Blood sugar levels are usually at their lowest in the morning and are commonly known as "fasting blood sugar levels" and should be tested first thing upon waking, before breakfast. In people without diabetes the normal range of blood glucose levels eight to twelve hours after their last meal is between 70 to 100 mg/dL (3.8 to 5.5 mmol/L). Glucose levels rise by a few grams after meals for about an hour or two, so it is usually tested two hours after the end of the meal. In those without diabetes, the normal blood sugar levels aft Continue reading >>
What Are The Blood Sugar Levels For Diabetes?
Blood sugar levels for diabetics are slightly different from blood sugar levels for people without diabetes. Because a diabetic's blood sugar can vary more than an average person's can, there is a larger range for the diabetic. Doctors consider this range safe for the diabetic; though, all diabetics should strive to keep glucose or blood sugar levels as stable as possible to prevent sugar highs and sugar lows. Keeping stable blood sugar levels requires monitoring blood sugar and watching the intake of carbohydrates. Measurement Blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter and percentage of sugar in the blood. The average milligrams per deciliter for non-diabetics are 70 to 100 mg/dL. After fasting for 14 hours, the measurement is percent. The average is four to five percent. The range for a diabetic is 70 to 120 mg/dL or a percentage of seven or under, after fasting for 14 hours. After Eating Everyone's blood sugar rises after eating. Even a person who is not diabetic may have blood sugar levels as high as 175 mg/dL after a meal. The difference for a non-diabetic is the sugar levels drop to normal faster than the sugar rates of a diabetic. However, a diabetic should try to keep blood sugar levels under 180 mg/dL after a meal. The diabetic measures the blood glucose two hours after starting to eat. Higher levels indicate that the diabetic consumed too many carbohydrates or fatty foods. Highs Dangerous highs are 240 mg/dL that do not return to normal. When sugar levels are high, the body breaks down fat for fuel. Ketones are the byproduct that is normally removed from your body through your urine. When sugar rises and the ketones are present, the kidneys cannot keep up. Ketones appear in the blood causing the blood to become acidic. The body increases the urine out Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Control For Diabetes – A How To Guide
If you have just been diagnosed with diabetes you may be thinking that life as you know it is over. However, diabetes is a very manageable disease that will allow you to live a long and happy life. One of the most important factors to living a long and essentially symptom-free is your diabetic blood sugar control. There are normal ranges of blood sugar that doctors and clinicians alike agree that diabetics should aim to stay between. These ranges are for normal non-pregnant otherwise healthy adults. Depending on your treatment goals, these ranges may vary from your doctor’s recommendations. Checking Blood Sugar – Who Should Be Doing it? Blood glucose monitoring is the main tool used for Type I diabetics. This monitoring tells the person their blood glucose level at any time and allows them to effectively manage their diabetes. Often, keeping a log of your blood glucose levels (like the one pictured) can help you get an idea of your blood sugar control. Taking insulin Difficulty controlling blood glucose Low blood glucose symptoms High blood glucose symptoms Those are just a few reasons that you should be monitoring your blood glucose. Talk with your provider to determine a schedule that works for you. How do I Check My Blood Sugar Levels? Blood sugar control depends on your monitoring and abilities to follow your diabetes care plan. Checking your blood sugar can be done in 4 easy steps: Wash your hands and insert a strip into your blood glucose meter Clean your finger with an alcohol swab and using a new lancet, prick your finger and wipe the first drop of blood with a piece of gauze. Using the next drop of blood, touch the blood to your test strip that is in your glucose meter. Wait for your results to appear on the glucose meter screen. Be sure to dispose of all m Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar 240 Mg/dl (13.32mmol/l) After Eating - Is That Good Or Bad?
We help you interpret your blood sugar values. You have tested your blood sugar after eating and the result was 240 mg/dl. Let's have a look at the blood sugar gauge: Your result is: Very High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia / Dangerous) To improve your blood sugar after eating you need to lower your blood glucose level by 100mg/dl. Your blood sugar level (up to 2 hours) after eating should always be below 140mg/dl but not fall below 80mg/dl. 3 Foods to Throw Out Cut a bit of belly bloat each day, by avoiding these 3 foods nucific.com It is normal for blood sugar levels to rise immediately after a meal. The increased glucose is a product of the carbohydrates in the food that was just consumed. The higher blood glucose triggers the pancreas to produce more insulin. This release of insulin usually takes place within about 10 minutes of eating. The insulin removes the glucose from the blood and stores it for the body to use as energy. In a healthy individual, blood glucose levels should return to a normal level within about two hours after finishing the meal. In diabetics, the blood sugar level often remain elevated for a longer period because of the body’s inability to produce or utilize insulin properly.An elevated two-hour postprandial (after a meal) blood sugar may indicate diabetes or prediabetes. As a general rule, a normal two- hour postprandial blood sugar is as follows: • Age 50 and under: Less than 140 mg/dl • Age 50 – 60: Less than 150 mg/dl • Over age 60: Less than 160 mg/dl A doctor may recommend different postprandial blood sugar levels based on an individual’s particular circumstances and health history. Several factors may cause a person’s postprandial blood sugar to remain elevated. • Smoking after the meal: Studies show that smoking raises bloo Continue reading >>
This information describes diabetes, the complications related to the disease, and how you can prevent these complications. Blood Sugar Control Diabetes is a disease where the blood sugar runs too high, usually due to not enough insulin. It can cause terrible long-term complications if it is not treated properly. The most common serious complications are blindness ("retinopathy"), kidney failure requiring dependence on a dialysis machine to stay alive ("nephropathy"), and foot and leg amputations. The good news is that these complications can almost always be prevented if you keep your blood sugar near the normal range. The best way to keep blood sugar low is to eat a healthy diet and do regular exercise. Just 20 minutes of walking 4 or 5 times a week can do wonders for lowering blood sugar. Eating a healthy diet is also very important. Do your best to limit the number of calories you eat each day. Put smaller portions of food on your plate and eat more slowly so that your body has a chance to let you know when it's had enough to eat. It is also very important to limit saturated fats in your diet. Read food labels carefully to see which foods are high in saturated fats. Particular foods to cut down on are: whole milk and 2% milk, cheese, ice cream, fast foods, butter, bacon, sausage, beef, chicken with the skin on (skinless chicken is fine), doughnuts, cookies, chocolate, and nuts. Often, diet and exercise alone are not enough to control blood sugar. In this case, medicine is needed to bring the blood sugar down further. Often pills are enough, but sometimes insulin injections are needed. If medicines to lower blood sugar are started, it is still very important to keep doing regular exercise and eating a healthy diet. Keeping Track of Blood Sugar Checking blood sugar wi Continue reading >>
Hyperglycemia And Type 2 Diabetes
Part 1 of 6 Highlights High blood glucose, or hyperglycemia, primarily affects those with diabetes. If left untreated it can lead to chronic complications, such as kidney disease or nerve damage. Good diabetes management and careful blood glucose monitoring are both effective ways of preventing hyperglycemia. High blood glucose, or hyperglycemia, can cause major health complications in people with diabetes over time. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia, including eating more carbohydrates than normal and being less physically active than normal. Regular blood sugar testing is crucial for people with diabetes, because many people do not feel the symptoms of high blood sugar. Part 2 of 6 Short-term symptoms of high blood sugar include: excessive thirst excessive urination increased urination at night blurry vision sores that won’t heal fatigue If you experience symptoms of hyperglycemia, it’s important that you check your blood glucose levels. Untreated high blood sugar can lead to chronic complications, such as eye, kidney, or heart disease or nerve damage. The symptoms listed above can develop over several days or weeks. The longer the condition is left untreated, the more severe the problem may become. Generally, blood glucose levels greater than 180 mg/dL after meals — or over 130 mg/dL before eating — are considered high. Be sure to check with your doctor to learn your blood sugar targets. Part 3 of 6 A number of conditions or factors can contribute to hyperglycemia, including: eating more carbohydrates than usual being less physically active than usual being ill or having an infection experiencing high levels of stress not getting the right dosage of glucose-lowering medication Part 4 of 6 There are several treatment methods available for hypergl Continue reading >>
Blood Sugar Too High? Blood Sugar Too Low?
If you have diabetes, your blood sugar doesn't call your cell phone and say, "My readings are too high right now." Instead, blood sugar rises slowly and gradually, causing complications that may damage your organs -- heart, eyes, kidneys, nerves, feet, and even skin are at risk. Sometimes you wonder, "Is my blood sugar too high? Too low?" because "normal" levels are so important. "Diabetes is not a 'one-size-fits-all' condition, and neither are blood sugar readings. Different targets are established for different populations," says Amber Taylor, M.D., director of the Diabetes Center at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore, Maryland. Targets may vary depending on a person's age, whether they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and for how long, what medications they're taking, whether they have complications, and, if the patient is a female, whether she is pregnant. "Patients on insulin may need to test more frequently than someone on oral agents," says Taylor. "Those with type 1 diabetes always require insulin, but many with type 2 diabetes also need it." Target Blood Sugar Levels If you have diabetes, these are target "control" blood glucose levels, using a rating of milligrams to deciliter, or mg/dl: Blood sugar levels before meals (preprandial): 70 to 130 mg/dL Blood sugar levels one to two hours after the start of a meal (postprandial): less than 180 mg/dL Blood sugar levels indicating hypoglycemia or low blood glucose: 70 or below mg/dL Types of Blood Sugar Tests Blood glucose testing can screen, diagnose, and monitor. Glucose is measured either after fasting for eight to ten hours, at a random time, following a meal (postprandial), or as part of an oral glucose challenge or tolerance test. You can compare your levels to these results for specific tests, based on clinical Continue reading >>
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My Glucose Level Was 234 Last Time I Checked Is That Normal?
Question Originally asked by Community Member Ambera Walker My Glucose Level Was 234 Last Time I Checked Is That Normal? Answer Amber- Here is a chart from IOH (islets of hope) Diabetes website. Your bg’s are high. I listed the chart for you because you didn’t mention what time of day you tested and if this was a post meal or a pre meal testing. Those are very important things to know. If you are constantly seeing high readings you should consult with your physician. If you have any questions please let me know. Cherise Community Moderator Normal and Target Blood Glucose Ranges in mg/dL for Diabetics Morning (Fasting) 70-99 90-130 (adults) 90-140 (children) Morning highs may be from the Dawn Effect or the Simogyi Effect. Before Meals N/A Typically: 90-130 adults & older children 100-140 children "Before meals" means 2-4 hours after last meal was eaten. For those on rapid insulin only (pumps), generally by 2 hours you should be in, or close to, target range. Those on shot therapy may not be in range until about 4 hours after their last meal. 2-4 Hours After Meals 70-139 Less than 180 but high enough that hypoglycemia won’t result from any “onboard” insulin if testing at only 1-2 hours. Pumpers typically come into target range faster than those on shot therapy (assuming both have given the correct amount of insulin). Ask your doctor when you should test (2 or 4 hours after a meal) Before Bedtime N/A Adults, usually 140-160 Children may have a higher pre-bedtime ranges than adults, up to 180 Have a pre-bedtime snack to help avoid nighttime lows. Note: high-fat snacks late in the evening can cause hyperglycemia (high BG) during the night. Hypoglycemic(1) (low blood glucose) 70 or lower 70 or lower Newly diagnosed, and young children often have higher BG target for Continue reading >>
Diabetes And Pregnancy: Twice As Important
Pregnancy is a wondrous and exciting time. It’s a time of change, both physically and emotionally. With the proper attention and prenatal medical care, most women with diabetes can enjoy their pregnancies and welcome a healthy baby into their lives. Why Tight Blood Sugar Control Is Critically Important Blood sugar control is important from the first week of pregnancy all the way until delivery. Organogenesis takes place in the first trimester. Uncontrolled blood sugar during the early weeks of pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, and birth defects. (Women don’t develop gestational diabetes until later in pregnancy, which means they don’t share these early pregnancy risks.) Later in the pregnancy, uncontrolled blood sugar levels can cause fetal macrosomia, which may lead to shoulder dystocia, fractures, and the need for Cesarean section deliveries. Very high blood sugar levels can increase the risk of stillbirth. Maternal hyperglycemia can stimulate fetal hyperinsulinemia, and lead to neonatal hypoglycemia when the glucose supply (umbilical cord) is cut. Because of all these increased risks, home deliveries are not typically recommended for women with any form of diabetes. As many as two thirds of all women with diabetes have unplanned pregnancies and most women don’t realize that they’re pregnant until six or more weeks into the pregnancy. That’s why it’s critically important for women who have diabetes to use contraception and achieve tight blood sugar control prior to conception. Many health-care providers suggest at least three to six months of stable blood sugar control prior to attempting to conceive. Hemoglobin A1c should be within 1 percentage point above the lab normal, which means striving for a HbA1c of less than 7 percent. Women using or Continue reading >>