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Cat Has High Blood Sugar

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia means high blood sugar. It is the primary symptom of diabetes. Unlike its opposite, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia is not immediately life-threatening. This doesn't mean it's not dangerous, though. For "how high is high", see blood glucose levels, and also the long-term symptoms discussion at the end of this page. Increasing physical activity can mean lowering blood sugar levels for some pets and people with this disease. It can also raise them; much depends on individual reaction and knowing how you or your pet responds. For most with diabetes, excitement or stress can cause temporary hyperglycemia. There are others who can find themselves going toward hypoglycemia because of it. Cats in general, with or without diabetes, appear to be prone to hyperglycemia. This 1954 Lilly study[1] was an early one with regard to the insulin/hypoglycemia countering hormone glucagon. Cats were selected because of their sensitivity to high blood sugar and their well-known responses to it. It should be remembered that back in 1954, most of the work which had been done with regard to improving insulins had dealt with various ways to extend their activity. At the time this study was done, highly purified insulin was still a long way off, so it was possible to have insulin which might contain some glucagon via the extraction process. Some unexpected causes of hyperglycemia are discussed in detail under obstacles to regulation An untreated diabetic suffers primarily from lack of insulin to let nourishment into the cells, and therefore is starving to death. But hyperglycemia can kill faster than starvation; it's not unusual for one of the effects below, or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) brought on by the combination, to be the actual fatal blow. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria are the sy Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes

Feline Diabetes

Lisa A. Pierson, DVM Introduction Warning: Before reading even the first sentence of this webpage, you must commit to reading past the STOP sign below. The first section of this paper discusses the detrimental impact of dietary carbohydrates on the blood glucose balance and insulin response of cats as a species – with pre-diabetic and diabetic patients being especially susceptible to the negative effects of high carbohydrate diets. However, if your cat is receiving insulin and you switch to a low carb diet –without lowering the insulin dosage – you will be putting your cat at significant risk for a hypoglycemic crisis. This is discussed under the STOP sign section below. I receive many emails each week asking for food recommendations for diabetic cats. Answers: 1) NO DRY FOOD but see Tips for Transitioning Dry Food Addicts to Canned Food if you are dealing with a dry food addict. All cats can be transitioned to an appropriate diet (no dry food) if the owner is patient enough. 2) See Cat Food Composition chart and stay below 10% carbohydrate calories (the third column). There are many suitable low carbohydrate choices available depending on your cat’s preference and your budget. Many cats do well on Friskies Classic Pates and Fancy Feast. Stay away from food with gravy – they are high in carbohydrates. The same is true for most food with sauces. Higher protein/lower fat is also the goal. However, you will note that most commercial foods are low in protein and high in fat. Why? Because protein is expensive and fat is cheap This is one of many reasons why I make my own cat food. 3) See Commercial Foods when you are ready to learn more about evaluating pet foods. Cats are obligate carnivores and are designed to eat other animals (meat, organs, etc.) – not grains Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Cats

High Blood Sugar In Cats

Hyperglycemia in Cats The term hyperglycemia refers to higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. A simple carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, of which normal levels range between 75-120mg. Insulin, a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas into the bloodstream when glucose levels rise, plays a pivotal role in maintaining the blood sugar levels within normal limits. If insulin concentration is too low or there is absolute deficiency of insulin, levels of glucose rise sharply leading to hyperglycemia. Some of the causes for hyperglycemia may be pancreatitis, and the resulting inability to produce insulin; normally occurring hormones, especially in female cats; diet; and infections of the body (such as teeth, or urinary tract). Middle aged and older cats are more at risk for developing hyperglycemia, but otherwise, no breed is particularly disposed to this condition. Neutered male cats are at increased risk. Cats in general are prone to high blood sugar, typically during times of stress, where glucose levels may reach 300-400mg. This is often a temporary increase in blood sugar, and while it warrants further observation, it may not be cause to diagnose chronic hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus. Symptoms and Types Clinical symptoms may vary depending on the underlying disease/condition. Your cat may not be showing any serious symptoms, especially those if the increased sugar is thought to be temporary, hormonal, or stress induced hyperglycemia. Some of the more common symptoms include: Depression Weight loss Excessive hunger Dehydration Bloodshot eyes (due to inflamed blood vessels) Liver enlargement Nerve damage in legs Severe depression (in cases of very high blood sugar levels) Non-hea Continue reading >>

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

Hat You Should Know When Your Cat Has Diabetes

W - Care Of Your Diabetic Cat - If You Would Like To See How Diabetes Effects My Body, Click Here. Controlling diabetes in your cat is considerably harder than doing so in us humans. Keeping your cat at a healthy weight is essential . Read a 2014 article about how really difficult it can be here. Never allow a glucose meter to be used on more than one pet . The meters are hard to disinfect(ref) Lots of my articles are plagiarized and altered on the web to market products and services. There are never ads running or anything for sale with my real articles. Try to stay with the ones with in the URL box or find all my articles at ACC.htm. Some Information About Your Cat’s Pancreas Your cat’s pancreas is a small, pinkish organ that is nestled in the folds of its small intestine. You can see it if you enlarge the fanciful image I put at the top of this page. Although it is quite small, the pancreas has two very important functions. One is to produce enzymes that allow your cat to digest food. The other is to produce a hormone (insulin) that regulates how your cat’s body utilizes sugar (glucose). Glucose is the main fuel of all animal cells. Most of it is manufactured in the pet’s liver or released from recent carbohydrate meals. The process by which the pancreas regulates your cat’s blood sugar level is actually much more complicated than my explanation and not yet fully understood. But my explanation should do for this article. Should you wish to know more, go here . Many types of cells form the pancreas. The ones that are important in understanding diabetes occur in small islands scattered throughout the pancreas (islets of Langerhans). These particular insulin-secreting cells are called ß (beta) cells. What Is Diabetes? There are several forms of diabetes. But Continue reading >>

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

There are certain signs or symptoms which are commonly seen in cats with diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, these signs also occur in other diseases and conditions. Therefore, laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose diabetes mellitus in cats. The following article includes a discussion of how this diagnosis is made and the types of diabetes found in cats. What are the signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and why do they occur? Depending on how severely insulin production is impaired, there may be few signs of disease, or the signs may be severe. Dogs with diabetes often develop cataracts; cats do not. The most common signs of diabetes are: Increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) Change in appetite Weight loss Change in gait (walking) Decreased activity, weakness, depression Vomiting Increased Thirst and Urination: Because the glucose cannot enter the cells, the glucose levels in the blood become abnormally high (hyperglycemia). The glucose is filtered out by the kidneys and is found in the urine (glucosuria). When it is filtered out, it carries water with it. The animal, then, is losing more water through the urine than normal and has to make up for it by drinking more. Inappropriate Elimination: The increased urination may result in the cat not always urinating in the litter box. This inappropriate urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes in cats. In addition, cats with diabetes can often develop urinary tract infections, which may also result in inappropriate elimination. Change in Appetite: Some diabetic cats eat less, because frankly, they do not feel well. Other cats may have voracious appetites and eat a lot (polyphagia) because their hypothalamus keeps telling them they are hungry. Weight Loss: Because the cat cannot use the calories he Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes In Cats

This article is about diabetes mellitus in cats. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in cats, whereby either insufficient insulin response or insulin resistance lead to persistently high blood glucose concentrations. Diabetes could affect up to 1 in 230 cats,[1] and may be becoming increasingly common. Diabetes mellitus is less common in cats than in dogs. 80-95% of diabetic cats experience something similar to type-2 diabetes, but are generally severely insulin-dependent by the time symptoms are diagnosed. The condition is treatable, and treated properly, the cat can experience a normal life expectancy. In type-2 cats, prompt effective treatment may lead to diabetic remission, in which the cat no longer needs injected insulin. Untreated, the condition leads to increasingly weak legs in cats, and eventually malnutrition, ketoacidosis and/or dehydration, and death. Symptoms[edit] Cats will generally show a gradual onset of the disease over a few weeks or months, and it may escape notice for even longer.[citation needed] The first outward symptoms are a sudden weight loss (or occasionally gain), accompanied by excessive drinking and urination; for example, cats can appear to develop an obsession with water and lurk around faucets or water bowls. Appetite is suddenly either ravenous (up to three-times normal) or absent. These symptoms arise from the body being unable to use glucose as an energy source. A fasting glucose blood test will normally be suggestive of diabetes at this point. The same home blood test monitors used in humans are used on cats, usually by obtaining blood from the ear edges or paw pads. As the disease progresses, ketone bodies will be present in the urine, which can be detected with the same urine stri Continue reading >>

Why Your Diabetic Cat Should Be Tested For Growth Hormone

Why Your Diabetic Cat Should Be Tested For Growth Hormone

As a veterinarian, I find diabetes to be both a rewarding and a frustrating condition to treat. Sugar diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is common in cats, and the reward comes from making a real difference to the cat’s health. However, not all cases respond as they should. But why is this? Before we jump ahead to talk about complications, let’s remind ourselves what diabetes is. A diabetic cat has poor control of his blood sugar levels, which runs too high. This is because the hormone that regulates sugar levels, insulin, is either lacking or the body tissues can’t respond to it. High blood sugar levels are toxic, and sugar is expelled in urine. However, this means the body also loses water. The patient drinks excessively to replace it. Insulin Resistance Some cases need almost unimaginably high doses of insulin, and yet the cats’ blood glucose still refuses to come down. Think of insulin as the key to unlock the body’s cells and allow sugar in. When insulin doesn’t work (known as insulin resistance), this is equivalent to having the locks changed so the key no longer fits. We now know that health problems can lead to insulin resistance. Conditions such as gum disease, overactive thyroid glands or even cystitis can “change the lock” so insulin can’t open the cells, which results in poor glucose control. Acromegaly However, this article is about a relatively new condition, acromegaly, which is thought to adversely affect 1 in 3 diabetic cats. Acromegaly is caused by too much growth hormone in the bloodstream. Growth hormone tells tissue to grow, but it also causes insulin resistance. The typical acromegalic cat has a big, chunky face and enormous paws. However, blood tests now reveal that many normal-looking cats have acromegaly — 1 in 3 diabetics — so p Continue reading >>

Cat Diabetes And Glucose Fluctuations

Cat Diabetes And Glucose Fluctuations

Dr. Neely, My 15 year old cat was just diagnosed with feline diabetes. I check his glucose level twice a day. It can vary from as low as 57 to as high as 395 in a single day. He usually gets 2 things of insulin, but when it is really low I just skip it. The insulin he is on is Lantus. He has already had an ultrasound, full body xrays, blood panel checking his pancreas and thyroid, etc., and urine tests. But there seems to be no underlying cause. What to do? Could there be something wrong with the glucose meter? I really am at wits end. My vet has not come up with any answers. Can you help??? It doesn’t sound to me as though there is anything very wrong with your cat’s diabetes treatment thus far. Fluctuation in the blood glucose levels of a diabetic cat is normal, but there are many ways now to help regulate your cat. As time has progressed with treating diabetic felines, we have learned that we should actually be treating our cats more similarly to how we would treat a person with diabetes. The best thing to do is to feed a low carbohydrate diet, test multiple times daily, and make insulin dosage adjustments according to your cat’s blood glucose readings. Skipping doses when your cat is low can certainly create a significantly higher reading later on, especially if there has been 12 hours between your readings. Generally, if your cat is low, according to a tight regulation protocol, you would test again in a few hours to catch your cat before he gets too high again. But even if that is not the cause of your cat’s high readings, sometimes giving too much insulin can cause these spikes as well. What happens in this case is that your cat’s glucose actually gets too low, and it causes rebound effect, creating a skyrocketing blood glucose level later in the day. R Continue reading >>

Is Your Cat In A Diabetic Coma?

Is Your Cat In A Diabetic Coma?

Cats with diabetes need continuous care. Unlike diabetic humans who can check their own blood sugar levels, cats rely on their owners to properly monitor what's happening in their pancreas. That twice-daily dosage of insulin given under his skin may require adjustment, depending on a variety of factors. You can keep your diabetic cat on track by knowing what's going on, and what to expect, particularly in the case of a diabetic coma. How common is feline diabetes? Some estimates suggest that one out of 1,200 cats will develop diabetes in their lifetimes, although this disease most often afflicts older or overweight cats. A diabetic cat suffers a deficiency of insulin, the pancreatic hormone that converts glucose, the fuel we get from food, into energy. A diabetic cat's body either cannot produce enough insulin, or cannot process it correctly. Without insulin controlling the flow of glucose from the cat's bloodstream into its body cells, the cat's body uses its own fat and protein to survive. High blood glucose levels force glucose to be processed into the urine, leading to excessive urination. Most cats contract an insulin-dependent type of diabetes, requiring insulin injections to control their illness. Felines suffering non-insulin-dependent diabetes will eventually need insulin injections as the disease progresses. Signs of diabetes An early warning of feline diabetes is frequent urination. A diabetic cat may also urinate, or attempt to do so, outside of his litter box. You may see him straining to urinate, a symptom of a urinary tract infection common to diabetic felines. He'll consume larger amounts of water, and return to his water bowl more often, because his glucose-heavy urine passes more water from his system. His appetite may change, too, as he either loses i Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Cats

High Blood Sugar In Cats

High blood sugar is caused by the body's inability to make its own insulin or use it effectively. When your cat eats he digests fats, proteins and carbohydrates for his body to use. Sugar, or glucose, is an important substance because it provides him with the energy he needs to live. His body should also produce insulin to regulate the flow of glucose. If he isn't producing insulin, his body will use other sources for energy and his blood sugar will be high. Keeping your cat healthy requires being in tune with his body. It is important to learn his behavior, so you will know if he isn't at his best. While most cats are generally healthy, some develop medical conditions similar to humans, including hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar. Diabetes mellitus is a condition that occurs in cats which is characterized by high blood sugar. Cats with high blood sugar will exhibit certain symptoms that will let you know something isn't right. Below is a list of the most common symptoms seen in cats with diabetes: Excessive thirst Increased urination Decreased appetite Weight loss Difference in gait (walking) Weakness Vomiting Depression Types There are two types of diabetes mellitus that can occur in cats and cause hyperglycemia: Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Cats with this type of diabetes do not need daily doses of insulin to regulate their blood sugar. It is controlled with diet alone. Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus This form of diabetes requires daily insulin injections to control fluctuating blood sugar. Half of all cats diagnosed with high blood sugar will need insulin to stay healthy. While the exact cause of diabetes in cats is unknown, there are some factors veterinarians believe contribute to its development. Advancing Age Being overweight Pancreatitis Cushin Continue reading >>

Why Is My Dog's Blood Glucose Level Abnormal ?

Why Is My Dog's Blood Glucose Level Abnormal ?

Why Is My Cat's Blood Glucose Level Abnormal ? To see what normal blood and urine values are for your pet, go here For an explanation of causes of most abnormal blood and urine tests go here To see how tests are often grouped, go here Ron Hines DVM PhD Lots of my articles are plagiarized and altered on the web to market products and services. There are never ads running or anything for sale with my real articles. Try to stay with the ones with in the URL box or find all my articles at ACC.htm. Your Pet's Blood Sugar Level Glucose , GLU Your pet’s blood sugar level (glucose level) needs to remain in a narrow corridor or bad things begin to happen. Glucose (dextrose is a form of glucose) is the primary fuel that runs your pet's body (Fatty acids can also provide some fuel energy). Without sufficient blood glucose (=hypoglycemia), cells cannot live very long. With too much blood glucose (the common cause being diabetes mellitus) the body begins to rely on fats rather than glucose to meet its energy needs (=ketoacidosis). If blood glucose remains high in your pet; with time, urinary tract infections, decreased disease resistance, kidney failure, nerve-related weakness (neuropathies) and eye damage can occur. Why Your Pet’s Blood Glucose Level Could Be Too High (hyperglycemia) : Stress and excitement – especially in cats and toy dog breeds is the most common cause of a single high reading. When your pet's lab glucose values are repeatedly high in a non-stressed situation, diabetes mellitus and Cushing’s disease are the most common causes. Corticosteroid tablets or injections, acute pancreatitis, IV fluids containing dextrose or a blood samples collected too soon after eating (post-prandial blood sample) can all cause the glucose level to be high. Glucose levels can b Continue reading >>

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Your Cat And Diabetes: Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes is a very serious issue – and not just in people either. That’s right, this chronic and potentially debilitating condition also affects cats (and dogs). And while it’s difficult to know the exact incidence of diabetes in cats, best estimates put it somewhere in the range of 1 cat in every 100-200 cats will become diabetic. What’s even sadder is that this incidence seems to be on the increase. Fortunately, armed with some good information, important tips, and a good working relationship with your veterinarian, you can give your cats the best chance at avoiding this frustrating condition. And if they’ve already developed it, know that these same tools can help you best manage your cat’s diabetic state; avoiding the potential complications and perhaps even getting them into diabetic remission. What is diabetes? In the most basic sense, diabetes mellitus is a disorder where blood sugar, or glucose, cannot be effectively utilized and regulated within the body. There are several hormones within the body that play important roles in glucose metabolism. Insulin is one of the most important, if not the most important, and it’s the hormone most central to the development and control of the diabetic state. Glucose fuels the body and insulin is the hormone that helps to get it into most cells within the body. Diabetes is often easily diagnosed and controllable. However, when undiagnosed or poorly managed, diabetes can be devastating. Diabetes can absolutely be managed and your cat can still lead a long and happy life. Routine veterinary care and evaluation are important, as is achieving and maintaining an appropriate weight in your cat and feeding him an appropriate diet. There are two types of diabetes – Type I and Type II. In Type I diabetes, the pancreas Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats For Beginners

Diabetes In Cats For Beginners

What is Feline Diabetes, and How Does it Affect My Pet's Health? Diabetes is a disorder affecting the processing of glucose (blood sugar) in the body. The digestive system breaks food down into various components, including glucose, that enter the bloodstream. Glucose is absorbed by cells to use for energy. Insulin is the hormone that signals the cells to take up the glucose -- without it, the glucose stays in the blood. A VERY simplified diagram is presented below to help explain this process. In a normal digestive system, the arrival of food stimulates the organ called the pancreas to secrete insulin into the bloodstream to regulate glucose levels. More food, more insulin. More insulin, less glucose in the blood (and more in cells to use for energy). At its simplest, diabetes is a disorder of this process. If there isn't enough insulin or if insulin can't act properly on cells, the glucose level in the blood stays too high and the glucose is not available for the cells to use as energy. Diabetes is generally divided into two different types, Type I and Type II. Type I (which is also sometimes called juvenile diabetes or Insulin Dependent Diabetes) occurs when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin. Looking back at the simplified diagrams, taking away the insulin removes the "key" that binds to the cell receptor ("the lock") and lets the insulin "through the door" into the cell. When this happens, glucose levels stay high in the bloodstream and the cell lacks enough glucose for its energy needs.Type II diabetes (sometimes referred to as adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes) occurs when there is a problem with the receptor or "lock." The "key" (insulin) won't fit into the lock and so glucose once again cannot get into the cell and high blood sugar Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetes – Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Feline Diabetes – Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

What is diabetes? Which cats are at risk? Causes Effects of diabetes on the cat Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment What is the prognosis for cats diagnosed with diabetes? Diabetes at a glance Diabetes is a common disease where the cells build up a resistance to insulin, a hormone necessary for glucose to enter the cells. As a result, glucose levels build up in the bloodstream. There are a number of causes such as obesity, genetic predisposition, Cushing’s syndrome and pancreatitis. Symptoms of diabetes can include increased thirst and urination, increased appetite, weight loss. Elevated blood sugar levels can confirm diagnosis. Treatment includes dietary modification, increase exercise, drugs to reduce glucose levels or administration of insulin. What is feline diabetes? Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes/DM) is a common endocrine disorder in cats. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 — in which the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin — or type 2 — in which the body’s cells don’t respond appropriately to insulin. Most cats have type 2 diabetes. Type I diabetes – Cells of the immune system attack and destroy islet cells which result in a decreased number of cells producing insulin. Type II diabetes – Cells build up a resistance to insulin (known as insulin resistance) and despite the pancreas producing enough insulin, it is unable to unlock the cells as efficiently. Pancreatic islet cells produce the hormone insulin. Food is broken down into organic compounds in the small intestine, one of which is glucose, which is taken up by the cells for energy, growth, and repair. As glucose enters the bloodstream, the pancreas matches it with the correct amount of insulin. Insulin acts as a key, unlocking cells which enables glucose to enter them. When insulin arr Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

Feline Diabetes Mellitus Feline Diabetes Mellitus is a hormonal disease affecting approximately 1 in 300 adult cats. The condition can occur in any cat but is statistically more common in older, obese male cats. Diabetes mellitus can be a complex problem; however, in nearly all cases the issue is that the cat either doesn't have enough insulin or the body can't properly use the insulin it does produce. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, which is located in the abdomen near the stomach and first segment of the small intestine. Insulin is responsible for regulating the flow of glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. Glucose is a byproduct of food digestion and provides fuel to cells thus sustaining life. When insulin is deficient or the body is unable to utilize the insulin, glucose can't be used for energy. Instead, the cat's body breaks down proteins and fats. This causes the cat to eat more yet lose weight. The build up of glucose in the blood stream and increased glucose in the urine results in thirst and frequent urination. This leads to the textbook clinical signs that owners often report: Increased thirst Increased urination Increased appetite Increased weight loss Feline Diabetes Mellitus is diagnosed based on the clinical signs, laboratory tests revealing persistently high blood and urine glucose levels, and other physical exam findings. Without treatment, most cats will become seriously ill due to electrolyte imbalance and resulting organ failure. Treatment for Feline Diabetes Mellitus depends on the specifics of each case but the basic treatment protocol may include: Oral hypoglycemic agents: This is not oral insulin! This drug allows the body to more effectively utilize the insulin that the cat's pancreas is still producing. If the Continue reading >>

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