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Capillary Blood Glucose Normal Range

What Are “normal” Blood Sugar Levels?

What Are “normal” Blood Sugar Levels?

Physicians focus so much ondisease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What are Normal Blood Sugar Levels? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate.) Ranges of blood sugar for healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) * Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists: Pre-diabetes: (or impaired fasting glucose): fasting blood sugar 100–125 mg/dl (5.56–6.94 mmol/l) Pre-diabetes: (or impaired glucose tolerance): blood sugar 140–199 mg/dl (7.78–11.06 mmol/l) two hours after ingesting 75 grams of glucose Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Rationale 1: To achieve an accurate reading. Untrained staff may obtain inaccurate or misleading results that can lead to incorrect management and adversely affect the patient. Rationale 2: To meet the manufacturers recommendations. Rationale 3: Children with Hyperinsulinism should not have blood glucose of less than 3.5mmol/L without intervention as are unable to produce alternative fuel sources such as ketones and are therefore at high risk of brain damage ( Hussain et al 2007 ). A lower level of 3.0mmol/L ( Campbell 2008 ) may be accepted for children with other conditions before intervention but the named consultant for individual patients must direct this. Rationale 4: To initiate appropriate intervention and management. Rationale 5: To promote involvement and enable partnership in care. Rationale 6: Monitoring is necessary for dose adjustment. Rationale 7: To avoid blood glucose levels rebounding above and below normal levels as a result of change to rates and subsequently a rapid change to glucose administration. Rationale 8: To initiate appropriate intervention and management. Rationale 9: To exclude meter error and incorrect results. Rationale 10: To obtain informed consent. Rationale 13: To promote involvement and enable partnership in care. Rationale 14: To minimise the risk of cross infection. Rationale 15: To avoid affecting the pincer grip and fine motor skills. Rationale 16: To prevent damage to underlying structures, e.g. nerve endings ( Jain et al, 2001; Naughten, 2005 ). Rationale 17: Continued use of the same puncture site can lead to the area becoming sore and the development of calluses ( Naughten 2005 ). Rationale 18: To prevent pain and tissue damage ( Naughten 2005 ). Rationale 19: Alcohol toughens the skin when used frequently. Rationale 20: Al Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level

Blood Sugar Level

The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted.[1] The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar and approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times.[2] The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.[2] Glucose is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen;[2] in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle.[2] In humans, glucose is the primary source of energy, and is critical for normal function, in a number of tissues,[2] particularly the human brain which consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasted, sedentary individuals.[2] Glucose can be transported from the intestines or liver to other tissues in the body via the bloodstream.[2] Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.[2] Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day, and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimoles. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. There are different methods of testing and measuring blood sugar le Continue reading >>

Random Capillary Blood Glucose Cut Points For Diabetes And Pre-diabetes Derived From Community-based Opportunistic Screening In India

Random Capillary Blood Glucose Cut Points For Diabetes And Pre-diabetes Derived From Community-based Opportunistic Screening In India

OBJECTIVE To determine random capillary blood glucose (RCBG) cut points that discriminate diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects from normal individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS RCBG was performed in 1,333 individuals randomly chosen from 63,305 individuals who had participated in an opportunistic screening program. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed by venous plasma glucose on an autoanalyzer. RCBG cut points that discriminate diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS Using 2-h plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) criterion, the RCBG cut point of 140 mg/dl (7.7 mmol/l) gave the highest sensitivity and specificity. For 2-h plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) criteria, either 2-h plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) or FPG ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) criterion, and the FPG ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) criterion, RCBG cut point was 143 mg/dl (7.9 mmol/l). RCBG cut points for IGT, IFG according to World Health Organization criterion, and IFG according to American Diabetes Association criterion were 119 mg/dl (6.6 mmol/l), 118 mg/dl (6.6 mmol/l), and 113 mg/dl (6.3 mmol/l), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Asian Indians with RCBG >110 mg/dl at screening can be recommended to undergo definitive testing. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Between September 2004 and September 2007, 774 opportunistic diabetes screening camps evaluating 103,878 people were conducted in various parts of Chennai (formerly Madras), India, with a population of 5 million in southern India, as part of the Prevention Awareness Counselling and Evaluation (PACE) Diabetes Project. Of these, 76,645 (73.8%) individuals underwent a Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Testing

Blood Glucose Testing

Diabetes makes many demands on the individual, not least of which is the need for frequent testing of blood glucose levels. In the early days, blood glucose testing was usually advised only for people with Type 1 diabetes. Nowadays, since the importance of blood glucose control has been fully realised, all people with diabetes are recommended to monitor their blood glucose levels at home on a regular basis. What's covered on this page The Importance of Blood Glucose Monitoring The main characteristic of diabetes is a higher than normal blood glucose level. This may cause distress and suffering in the short term, and can have a devastating effect over the long term. The responsibility for your day-to-day diabetes care lies in your hands. The ONLY way that you can accurately* assess how well your treatment plan is working is to measure your own blood glucose levels at certain times throughout the day and, occasionally, in the night. You will need commitment and a certain level of understanding. Testing your blood glucose should not be painful, but you may find it a nuisance; it is so often tempting not to bother. Frequency of blood testing is positively correlated with improved diabetic control so your perseverance should reward you with improved general well being and reduced risk of long term complications. *HbA1c is often preferred by health professionals as the main indicator of blood glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes, and especially those on no medication or on metformin only. See the blog post “Finger-prick blood glucose testing for Type 2’s” for further discussion. Terminology Blood samples Blood is pumped around the body by the heart. The major vessels that take blood away from the heart are called arteries. The major vessels that take blood bac Continue reading >>

How To Do Capillary Blood Glucose Monitoring

How To Do Capillary Blood Glucose Monitoring

While capillary blood glucose monitoring is most frequently recommended for people with diabetes, your doctor might also recommend the self-tests if you struggle with unstable blood sugar levels or during episodes of infection or other illness. Capillary blood glucose tests are simple and quick to perform; they require just a simple stick to the fingertip, a small drop of blood and a few minutes of patience. Before the Test Before pricking yourself with the lancet, take a minute to make sure you’re fully prepared. Make sure the test strips you’re planning to use were specifically designed for use with your blood glucose meter. Also, check the expiration date on the test strips; expired strips could give faulty results. Your blood glucose meter also likely recommends regular quality-control tests to ensure accuracy. Turn your meter on before you begin; perform the quality-control tests if directed to do so on the screen. The Basic Procedure After washing your hands, remove a test strip from the container and insert it into your blood glucose meter. Select a site on your fingertips you plan to prick; choose a location around the edges of your finger pads. Use the lancet to prick your finger in the desired location. When a drop of blood appears on the surface, touch the edge of the test strip to the blood drop -- the strip should draw the blood into the testing window. Apply pressure to your fingertip with a small gauze bandage while you wait for the test results. If the blood sample was obtained appropriately, the blood glucose meter should display your blood sugar on the screen within a few minutes. Know Your Numbers Although specific blood glucose target ranges vary from one person to the next, the American Diabetes Association recommends a general range for most he Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Result For Finger Prick Test?

What Is A Normal Result For Finger Prick Test?

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community What is a normal result for finger prick test? Hi can anyone help please. I just had a finger prick blood test at the hosp last fri and the nurse said it was "10". Can someone tell me what this means on the scale of diabetic results? Thanks Hi can anyone help please. I just had a finger prick blood test at the hosp last fri and the nurse said it was "10". Can someone tell me what this means on the scale of diabetic results? Thanks A sample of blood taken at any time can be a useful test if diabetes is suspected. A level of 11.1 mmol/L or more in the blood sample indicates that you have diabetes. A fasting blood glucose test may be done to confirm the diagnosis. A glucose level below 11.1 mmol/L on a random blood sample does not rule out diabetes. A blood test taken in the morning before you eat anything is a more accurate test. Do not eat or drink anything except water for 8-10 hours before a fasting blood glucose test. A level of 7.0 mmol/L or more indicates that you have diabetes. If you have no symptoms of diabetes but the blood test shows a glucose level of 7.0 mmol/L or more then the blood test must be repeated to confirm you have diabetes. If you do have symptoms and the blood test shows a glucose level of 7.0 mmol/L or more then the test does not need to be repeated I wonder if the OP wondered to know if 10 was low, normal, or high etc.? BG numbers from a finger prick test show how much glucose there is in the bloodstream at that particular moment. Depending on how long it was since you last ate and what you did eat, your activity levels etc. this number will vary throughout the 24 hours. The number is only a guide really as it can vary perpetu Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

HOME MONITORING OF DIABETIC CONTROL Blood glucose monitoring is recommended for insulin-treated patients on at least two occasions per day for those who are in poor metabolic control, but for stable patients a four-point profile once per week is adequate. Blood glucose estimations should be done before meals and at bedtime. Blood glucose monitoring is also valuable for patients with poor metabolic control (e.g., if considering insulin treatment) or who are at risk of hypoglycemia. For patients with type 2 diabetes who are taking oral agents, home blood glucose monitoring should be offered, although it is not essential. Monitoring is only of value when a patient or caregiver or doctor is able to interpret and act upon the results. In the diabetes clinic Home blood glucose monitoring gives a useful ‘snapshot’ of the glucose concentration at that moment, but it is useful for a physician to get a picture of how well the patient is controlling their blood glucose over a longer period of time. The best measure of this is the glycated haemoglobin concentration (HbA1c). Haemoglobin in red blood cells naturally forms a complex with glucose. The amount of the complex formed is directly proportional to the concentration of glucose in the blood. Thus, measuring the proportion of haemoglobin that is glycated gives an indication of ‘average’ blood glucose levels. As red blood cells have a life of 120 days, the reading indicates how well blood glucose was controlled over the last couple of months. A high reading suggests that blood glucose has not been well controlled and the aim is to keep HbA1c as close to the normal range (4.5–6.0%) as possible. 16.5.2 Glucose monitoring and glycemic control Monitoring of capillary blood glucose 4–6 times/day, including fasting, prepran Continue reading >>

Glucose: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels

Glucose: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels

Postprandial plasma glucose at 2 hours: Less than 140 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Less than 140 mg/dL Serum glucose values are 1.15% lower than plasma glucose values. [ 1 ] Values for diabetes mellitus are as follows: Fasting plasma glucose: Greater than 125 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Greater than 200 mg/dL Postprandial glucose at 2 hours: Greater than 200 mg/dL Impaired fasting glucose: Fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL Impaired glucose tolerance testing: Postprandial glucose at 2 hours of 140-200 mg/dL The value for hypoglycemia is as follows: Collect 0.5-1 ml of blood in gray-top tube containing sodium fluoride. For serum glucose, a red-top tube can be used. Serum is separated within 45 minutes of collection. For fasting glucose testing, collect the blood sample in the morning after an overnight or 8-hour fast. For postprandial glucose testing, collect the blood sample 2 hours after a regular meal. For oral glucose tolerance testing, after oral intake of 75 g of glucose, collect blood samples at 1 hour and 2 hours. For gestational diabetes testing, parameters are 1 hour after 50 g of glucose and 2 hours after 100 g of glucose. Glucose is a monosaccharide and is a primary metabolite for energy production in the body. Glucose enters via GLUT receptors. Of the 10 GLUT receptors, GLUT-4 receptors are present in muscle and adipose tissues and require insulin for glucose transport. Glucose is initially used by glycolysis and is converted to pyruvate. During this process, 4 adenosine triphosphates (ATPs) and 2 NADHs are generated and 2 ATPs are used, resulting in net production of 2 ATPs. This process does not use oxygen (anaerobic metabolism). In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate undergoes metabolism by the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria. During the Krebs cycle, each mo Continue reading >>

Differences Between Capillary And Venous Blood Glucose During Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests

Differences Between Capillary And Venous Blood Glucose During Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests

The simultaneous capillary and venous blood glucose concentrations were measured during 36 oral glucose tolerance tests performed in 36 postmenopausal women. Three of the subjects had chemical diabetes mellitus. In samples obtained before and 120-180 min after the glucose load the differences between capillary and venous blood glucose concentrations were low, whereas samples taken after 15-90 min showed a mean capillary-venous difference of 1.8 mmol/l. This is higher than previously stated by the World Health Organization and the British Diabetes Association. If the definitions that were recommended by these two bodies are used for defining whether the result of an oral glucose tolerance test is to be considered 'normal' or 'abnormal', the present results indicate that the verdict will in some cases be influenced by the route by which the blood was obtained. Do you want to read the rest of this article? ... However, it is necessary to revise in capillary blood glucose value used in this test because these guidelines make the venous blood glucose value as the standard. Modifications were made to guideline random and postprandial (120 min after ingestion) blood glucose ranges in accordance with a correction factor reported by Larsson-Cohn (multiplied by 1.35)[9]to account for an overestimation that is characteristic when testing for glucose in capillary blood compared with venous blood (as occurred in this study). Results from the glucose loading study excluded data from subjects with the following blood glucose results: (a) fasting <60 mg/dL or 126 mg/dL; (b) 120 min postprandial 189 mg/dL; and (c) random 270 mg/dL. ... Continue reading >>

Sri Lanka Journal Of Diabetes Endocrinology And Metabolism 2011; 1: 22-24

Sri Lanka Journal Of Diabetes Endocrinology And Metabolism 2011; 1: 22-24

22 Sri Lanka Journal of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism How reliable are capillary blood glucose measurements? H N Rajaratnam1 , S Pathmanathan2 1Consultant Physician and Endocrinologist, Nawaloka Hospitals Limited,Colombo 2, 2Senior Registrar in Endocrinology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Capillary blood tests measure whole blood glucose as opposed to venous samples which measure plasma glucose. It is used for the care of people with diabetes, as a monitoring tool, giving a guide to blood glucose levels, at a specific moment in time. Capillary blood glucose monitoring was first established in the 1970s using glucometers. With time, the use of glucometers has become easier and faster, with much smaller blood samples, yielding results in a matter of seconds. Today they are used routinely in health care, for the easier achievement of glycaemic targets and diabetic emergencies. Without such technology, intensive glucose control including insulin pump therapy would not have become a reality. Glucometers have also relieved a great amount of anxiety over the management of hypoglycaemia. Today however, we rely so much on capillary blood glucose measurements forgetting its limitations. This article will discuss the pitfalls and limitations of capillary blood glucose monitoring (1, 2). Accuracy goals for home glucose monitors The goals for glucometer accuracy have been quite variable. Clarke et al. proposed an accuracy grid to establish a more expansive set of goals for glucometer usage taking into account clinical accuracy, defined as within 20% of the laboratory glucose (3). For glucose levels above 75 mg/dl, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a goal for glucometer error of within 20% when compared with a reference glucose sample, but Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Monitoring

Blood Sugar Monitoring

The American Diabetes Association published revised Standards of Care for diabetes, emphasizing that high-quality diabetes care must be individualized to reflect the needs, interests, and abilities of each person. The primary goal of care is to reduce blood glucose levels to as close to normal as is reasonable. To monitor success toward that goal, the diabetic should self-manage in a responsible manner using diet revision and exercise as the primary strategy and should self-monitor blood glucose levels at home. The secondary goal is to monitor for and, if detected, treat developing complications. This requires annual eye exams to detect retinopathy, annual urinalysis to search for early signs of nephropathy, periodic foot examinations, regular blood pressure and cholesterol and triglyceride testing to warn of impending heart disease. The official view is that patient education and motivation must be a central component of quality diabetes care because each person must provide daily self-care: managing food selection, meal planning staying in control of the diet getting daily exercise self-monitoring blood glucose taking medication, if required quitting smoking Blood Sugar Monitoring Home testing of blood glucose levels is useful for the self-managing diabetic. You have to remember that the reason for doing a test is to provide you with information that influences the decisions you make. An insulin dependent diabetic will make decisions about the dose and timing of insulin injections based on blood glucose levels. Blood glucose measurements are required to make good decisions about adjusting the insulin dose. A person with early type 2 diabetes will need less frequent blood glucose measurements to guide food choices and adjust activity levels. Several testing units are a Continue reading >>

Tests For Blood Sugar (glucose) And Hba1c

Tests For Blood Sugar (glucose) And Hba1c

Blood sugar (glucose) measurements are used to diagnose diabetes. They are also used to monitor glucose control for those people who are already known to have diabetes. Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. If your glucose level remains high then you have diabetes. If the level goes too low then it is called hypoglycaemia. The main tests for measuring the amount of glucose in the blood are: Random blood glucose level. Fasting blood glucose level. The HbA1c blood test. Oral glucose tolerance test. Capillary blood glucose (home monitoring). Urine test for blood sugar (glucose). Blood tests for blood sugar (glucose) Random blood glucose level A sample of blood taken at any time can be a useful test if diabetes is suspected. A level of 11.1 mmol/L or more in the blood sample indicates that you have diabetes. A fasting blood glucose test may be done to confirm the diagnosis. Fasting blood glucose level Continue reading >>

Portable Blood Glucose Meter Values Using Different Sampling Ways: A Validity Study

Portable Blood Glucose Meter Values Using Different Sampling Ways: A Validity Study

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ana Paula Bello ArgolloI; Tássia Nery FaustinoII; Thiallan Nery FaustinoIII; Larissa Chaves PedreiraIV INurse of Hospital Estadual Manuel Vitorino - Salvador (BA), Brazil IINurse of the Neurology Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Espanhol and Educação Permanente das Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce - Salvador (BA), Brazil IIINurse of the General Intensive Care Unit of Hospital São Rafael and Preceptor for the Intensive Care Nursing Residency of the Nursing College of Universidade Federal da Bania - UFBA - Salvador (BA), Brazil IVPhD, Adjunct Professor for the Nursing College of Universidade Federal da Bahia - UFBA - Salvador (BA), Brazil ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify the relevant differences between portable blood glucose meter readings in different sampling accesses blood and laboratory analysis. METHODS: Quantitative validity study. Daily samples were collected from capillary blood, central venous access catheter and arterial catheter and the blood glucose values checked using portable blood glucose meter and laboratory analysis. The findings were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences - SPSS software. RESULTS: Central venous catheter samples blood glucose meter readings were found to have the best correlation with the laboratory analysis results, considered as the gold-standard. CONCLUSION: Hemodynamically unstable patients' capillary blood samples may provide false blood glucose results, and lead to inappropriate insulin solution management. Therefore, ideal blood glucose sampling is relevant to prevent insulin solution management errors. Keywords: Blood specimen collection; Critical care; Blood glucose; Intensive care units INTRODUCTION Hyperglycemia is common in intensive care units (ICUs), and in acute conditions is associated Continue reading >>

Screening For Type 2 Diabetes

Screening For Type 2 Diabetes

CLINICAL DIABETES VOL. 18 NO. 2 Spring 2000 POSITION STATEMENT AMERICAN DIABETES ASSOCIATION Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent form of the disease, is often asymptomatic in its early stages and can remain undiagnosed for many years. Approximately 5.4 million adults in the U.S. have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Individuals with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes are at significantly higher risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease than the nondiabetic population. They also have a greater likelihood of having dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Because early detection and prompt treatment may reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes and its complications, screening for diabetes may be appropriate under certain circumstances. This position statement provides recommendations for diabetes screenings performed in physicians' offices and community screening programs. This position statement does not address screening for type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Because of the acute onset of symptoms, most cases of type 1 diabetes are detected soon after symptoms develop. Widespread clinical testing of asymptomatic individuals for the presence of autoantibodies related to type 1 diabetes cannot be recommended at this time as the means to identify persons at risk. Reasons for this include the following: 1) cutoff values for some of the immune marker assays have not been completely established for clinical set Continue reading >>

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