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Can Surgery Cause High Blood Sugar

11 Everyday Things That Spike Blood Sugar

11 Everyday Things That Spike Blood Sugar

Thinkstock 11 Everyday Things That Spike Blood Sugar If you’re living with type 2 diabetes, your doctor has probably told you time and time again that maintaining control over your blood sugar is essential. “Controlling blood sugar is important for two main reasons,” says Lynn Grieger, a registered dietitian and certified diabetes educator in Prescott, Arizona. “On a day-to-day basis, people just feel better when their blood sugar stays in a healthy range. Over the long term, it’s the best thing you can do to prevent complications of diabetes from occurring.” Diabetes complications include nerve damage, kidney disease, skin conditions, eye damage, high blood pressure, stroke, and more, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). One of the main contributors to high blood sugar is a diet too rich in carbohydrates, which once digested turn into sugar (glucose). Certain high-carb foods (for example white bread, white-flour pasta, sugary drinks, and french fries) can send your blood sugar levels soaring. “Many people with diabetes also get into trouble with processed foods, which have added sugars they may not know about,” adds Gregory Dodell, MD, an endocrinologist in New York City. The good news is that by sticking to a diabetes-friendly diet, incorporating physical activity into your day, taking medications (if recommended by your doctor), and regularly measuring your blood sugar levels, you can gain better control over type 2 diabetes. There are some triggers of high blood sugar, however, that are out of your control and can even sneak up on you. If you have the flu, for example, or if you're menstruating, you may experience a sudden rise in blood sugar. Because of such triggers, it can be difficult to keep blood sugar under control even when y Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications

Diabetes Complications

High blood sugar (glucose) that circulates in the bloodstream instead of being absorbed into cells damages nerves and blood vessels throughout the body and, ultimately, the major organs such as the kidneys and heart. It has been said that there isn’t a system in the body that isn’t affected by diabetes. The good news is that diabetes can be managed and the risk of developing complications significantly reduced. A nationwide study conducted from 1983-1993 called the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial showed that when blood sugar levels are checked consistently throughout the day – and kept close to normal – complications of the disease can be reduced by as much as 70 percent. This method is also referred to as "tight control" of blood sugar and has become standard of care in diabetes management. Diabetic Neuropathy (Nerve Damage) Approximately 60-70 percent of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of nerve damage. Often the first symptoms of diabetes are tingling, numbness or pain in some part of the body, which is an indication that nerves have been damaged. Neuropathy from diabetes can affect many different parts of the body, including the lower limbs (legs, feet), the bladder and the gastrointestinal tract. Several theories exist as to why diabetes has such a devastating effect on the nervous system. One theory holds that excess sugar in the bloodstream reacts negatively with an enzyme in the cells surrounding the nerves and damages them. Another theory suggests that decreased blood flow to nerves, from damaged blood vessels caused by diabetes, results in neuropathy. In general, there are three types of neuropathy: sensory, autonomic and motor. Sensory neuropathy is the most common, affecting how we perceive temperature, texture and pain. Autono Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar After Exercise?

High Blood Sugar After Exercise?

back to Overview Markus, one of our great German-language authors, wrote about struggling with high blood sugar after exercise. I know it's a common problem, and one I've struggled with personally, so I want to make sure you get to see it, too. From Markus Berndt: It’s one of the first recommendations you get after being diagnosed with diabetes. “Get active, do more exercise, it’s good for you!” And since we’ve been a child we’ve heard that exercise is healthy. If we do it consistently we’re rewarded, literally, with an awesome beach body. Adding exercise into our day is also good for our diabetes. We’re taught that exercise lowers blood sugar, right? But can the opposite also be true? Can you have high blood sugar after exercise? Up close We now know that physical activity usually lowers blood sugar because it reduces how much insulin is needed to move sugar into the cells. While, in the past, most experts advised frequent training intervals at moderate intensity, but recent studies have shown that even short, intense workouts are very effective. For example, a 15-minute intense weight training lowered blood sugar even more than what’s seen in some endurance training. So activity lowers blood sugar – but not always! Personally, I experienced this very early on and was extremely irritated! I just learned that exercise lowers blood sugar, but an intense 45-minute run consistently resulted in higher blood sugars than when I started! What in the world? At first, I was confused and felt like I didn’t understand the world anymore. Then it was more of a “would you look at this?” kind of thing. And finally, I was determined to figure out what was happening. I knew there had to be an explanation. Why does exercise sometimes raise blood sugar? Exercise Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In The Hospital

Hyperglycemia In The Hospital

Hyperglycemia is the medical term for blood glucose (sugar) that is too high. High blood glucose (HBG) is a common problem for people with diabetes. Blood glucose can also rise too high for patients in the hospital, even if they do not have diabetes. This patient guide explains why some patients develop HBG when they are hospitalized and how their HBG is treated. Until about 10 years ago, doctors thought that HBG in hospital patients was not harmful as long as their blood sugar stayed at or below 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Recent research studies show that HBG above 180 increases the risk of complications in hospital patients. Keeping blood sugar below this level with insulin treatment lowers the risk for these problems. Most doctors agree that controlling blood sugar so it stays below 180 mg/dl is best for very ill patients in intensive care units ( ICU). Less clear is what the best target blood sugar should be for inpatients who are admitted for general surgery or non-critical medical conditions. In some patients, insulin treatment can cause low blood sugar, called hypoglycemia. Just like blood sugar levels that are too high, blood sugars that are too low are not safe and should be avoided. This patient guide for glucose control in the hospital is based on The Endocrine Society’s practice guideline for health care providers on preventing and treating HBG. This guide applies just to patients on a regular hospital floor, not those who are in an ICU. What causes HBG in the hospital? Many conditions can cause or worsen HBG in hospital patients. These include: Physical stress of illness, trauma, or surgery Inability to move around Steroids like prednisone and some other medicines Skipping diabetes medicines Liquid food given through a feeding tube or nutrition Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Eye Health

Diabetes And Eye Health

Diabetes is a disease that affects the body’s ability to produce or use insulin effectively to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. Although glucose is an important source of energy for the body’s cells, too much glucose in the blood for a long time can cause damage in many parts of the body, including the heart, kidneys, blood vessels and the small blood vessels in the eyes. When the blood vessels in the eye’s retina (the light sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye) swell, leak or close off completely — or if abnormal new blood vessels grow on the surface of the retina — it is called diabetic retinopathy. People who are at greater risk of developing diabetic retinopathy are those who have diabetes or poor blood sugar control, women who are pregnant, and people with high blood pressure, high blood lipids or both. Risk also increases with duration of diabetes. For example, one woman developed diabetic retinopathy after living with diabetes for 25 years. Also, people who are from certain ethnic groups, such as African-Americans, Hispanics and Native Americans, are more likely to develop diabetic retinopathy. In fact, a new study confirms that diabetes is a top risk factor for vision loss among Hispanics. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 90 percent of diabetes-related vision loss can be prevented, but early detection is key. People with diabetes should get critical, annual eye exams even before they have signs of vision loss. However, studies show that sixty percent of diabetics are not getting the exams their doctors recommend. Something to remember: diabetes can cause vision in your eyes to change even if you do not have retinopathy. If your blood sugar levels change quickly, it can affect the shape of your eye’s Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Perioperative Glucose Management

Hyperglycemia And Perioperative Glucose Management

Go to: ADVERSE AFFECTS OF HYPERGLYCEMIA Patients who experience major trauma, illness, or surgery often develop a hypermetabolic stress response, which is characterized by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. This response involves an increased level of endogenous hepatic glucose production while insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose uptake is reduced. This hyperglycemic response has been referred to as “stress hyperglycemia”. Initially, this response was considered to be a beneficial adaptation to critical illness because an additional glucose supply was available as a source of energy. However, an increasing body of evidence indicates that acute severe hyperglycemia causes numerous immediate adverse effects and is associated with serious adverse clinical outcomes. Hyperglycemia is common during major surgery because of the hypermetabolic stress response. The severity of the hyperglycemic response to major surgery may be affected by an individual's ability to control blood glucose [13] and the magnitude of the surgery [14]. In other words, patients who have glucose intolerance or diabetes and experience a more invasive surgical procedure would be expected to develop more profound hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia adversely affects morbidity and mortality in surgical and critically ill patients [3–6]. The development of these adverse effects is likely related to the numerous adverse cellular and biochemical events that occur as a result of hyperglycemia. For example, risk of infection is increased with severe hyperglycemia, because of abnormalities of monocyte and polymorphonuclear neutrophil function, decreased intracellular bactericidal activity, and glycosylation of immunoglobulins [15, 16]. Blood coagulation is activated by hyperglycemia, as circulating prothrombi Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

Strict Blood Sugar Control After Heart Surgery May Not Be Necessary

Strict Blood Sugar Control After Heart Surgery May Not Be Necessary

Study results may encourage hospitals to consider more liberal blood sugar control policies Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery may not have to follow a strict blood sugar management strategy after surgery, according to a study in the October 2014 issue of The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. Key points Liberal management of a patient's blood sugar levels following CABG surgery leads to similar survival and long-term quality of life as achieved through stricter blood sugar management. The findings applied to all patients, regardless of diabetes status. The results may encourage hospitals to consider more lenient blood sugar control in all patients after heart bypass surgery. Previous research has shown that hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) after CABG and other cardiac surgery is associated with increased morbidity and mortality; however, more recent studies have shown that liberal maintenance of blood glucose levels (<180 mg/dL) after CABG surgery can be safer and more advantageous in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. A. Thomas Pezzella, MD, Niv Ad, MD, and colleagues from Inova Heart and Vascular Institute in Falls Church, VA, used data from patients enrolled in one of their previously published studies to assess long-term survival and health-related quality of life based on glucose control following first-time isolated CABG surgery. "The study randomly assigned heart bypass surgery patients, with and without diabetes, to two types of blood sugar control. In one group, blood sugar control was tightly controlled, which was the standard procedure at our hospital. The second group had blood sugar controlled more loosely," said Dr. Ad. "The original study only focused on how blood sugar control affected complications in the hospital, so we Continue reading >>

High Blood Glucose Levels Linked To Higher Risk Of Wound Complications

High Blood Glucose Levels Linked To Higher Risk Of Wound Complications

Arlington Heights, Ill. - A new study released today shows that among patients undergoing surgery for chronic wounds related to diabetes, the risk of wound-related complications is affected by how well the patient's blood sugar levels are controlled before surgery. These findings appear in the October issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). The risk of serious wound complications is more than three times higher for patients who have high blood glucose before and after surgery, and in those with poor long-term diabetes control, according to the study by ASPS Member Surgeons, Drs. Mathew Endara and Christopher Attinger of the Center for Wound Healing at Georgetown University, Washington, DC. The researchers emphasize the need for "tight control" of glucose levels before surgery for diabetic patients at high risk of wound complications. The researchers analyzed rates of wound-related complications in 79 patients undergoing surgery for closure of chronic wounds-a common and troublesome complication of diabetes. Blood glucose levels were measured five days before and after surgery. Hemoglobin A1c, a key indicator of long-term diabetes control, was measured an average of two weeks before surgery. Blood glucose levels and diabetes control were analyzed as risk factors for wound dehiscence (a serious complication in which the surgical incision re-opens), wound infections and need for repeat surgery. Blood glucose levels over 200 were considered to represent elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia). The results showed a higher risk of wound complications in patients who had high blood glucose levels either before or after surgery. For example, wound dehiscence occurred in about 44 percent of pa Continue reading >>

Hip Surgery Sequentially Induces Stress Hyperglycaemia And Activates Coagulation.

Hip Surgery Sequentially Induces Stress Hyperglycaemia And Activates Coagulation.

Abstract BACKGROUND: A frequent complication of orthopaedic procedures is venous thromboembolism (VTE ). Hyperglycaemia has been shown to activate the coagulation system and is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we hypothesised that glucose levels increase during orthopaedic surgery and are associated with an activation of the coagulation system. METHODS: Nine adult patients undergoing elective hip replacement were included. Venous blood samples were taken before, during and after surgery. Plasma glucose levels, factor VIII clotting activity (fVIII:c), von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor activity, von Willebrand factor antigen and prothrombin fragment 1+2 were measured. RESULTS: Immediately after induction of anaesthesia, plasma glucose levels started to increase until the second day postoperatively (peak 8.0 mmol/l). After seven weeks glucose values had returned to baseline (6.1 mmol/l), p<0.001 with ANOVA. All coagulation parameters increased during surgery, subsequent to the rise in glucose. The change in mean FVIII:c and von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor activity was significantly correlated with mean glucose values. CONCLUSIONS: These observations indicate that total hip replacement surgery causes an increase in glucose levels that precedes the proportional rise of the measured coagulation parameters. This suggests a possible role of glucose in the activation of the coagulation system during hip surgery. Continue reading >>

High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It

What is high blood glucose? People who do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 100 mg/dl. Your physician will define for you what your target blood glucose should be — identifying a blood glucose target that is as close to normal as possible that you can safely achieve given your overall medical health. In general, high blood glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual blood glucose target. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider what he or she thinks is a safe target for you for blood glucose before and after meals. If your blood glucose runs high for long periods of time, this can pose significant problems for you long-term — increased risk of complications, such as eye disease, kidney disease, heart attacks and strokes and more. High blood glucose can pose health problems in the short-term as well. Your treatment plan may need adjustment if the blood glucose stays over 180 mg/dl for 3 days in a row. It is important to aim to keep your blood glucose under control, and treat hyperglycemia when it occurs. What are the symptoms of high blood glucose? Increased thirst Increased urination Dry mouth or skin Tiredness or fatigue Blurred vision More frequent infections Slow healing cuts and sores Unexplained weight loss What causes high blood glucose? Too much food Too little exercise or physical activity Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin Insulin that has spoiled after being exposed to extreme heat or freezing cold Stress, illness, infection, injury or surgery A blood glucose meter that is not reading accurately What should you do for high blood glucose? Be sure to drink plenty of water. It is recommended to drink a minimum of 8 glasses each day. If yo Continue reading >>

Stress Hyperglycemia

Stress Hyperglycemia

Stress hyperglycemia (also called stress diabetes or diabetes of injury) is a medical term referring to transient elevation of the blood glucose due to the stress of illness. It usually resolves spontaneously, but must be distinguished from various forms of diabetes mellitus. It is often discovered when routine blood chemistry measurements in an ill patient reveal an elevated blood glucose. Blood glucose can be assessed either by a bedside ‘fingerstick’ glucose meter or plasma glucose as performed in a laboratory (the latter being more efficacious). A retrospective cohort study by the Mayo Clinic held that bedside glucometry was a reliable estimate of plasma glucose with a mean difference of 7.9 mg/dL, but still may not coincide with every individual.[1] The glucose is typically in the range of 140–300 mg/dl (7.8-16.7 mM) but occasionally can exceed 500 mg/dl (28 mM), especially if amplified by drugs or intravenous glucose. The blood glucose usually returns to normal within hours unless predisposing drugs and intravenous glucose are continued. Stress hyperglycemia is especially common in patients with hypertonic dehydration and those with elevated catecholamine levels (e.g., after emergency department treatment of acute asthma with epinephrine). Steroid diabetes is a specific and prolonged form of stress hyperglycemia. People who have experienced stress hyperglycemia during severe illness have a threefold risk of developing diabetes in subsequent years, and it may be appropriate to screen for diabetes in survivors of critical illness.[2] Treatment[edit] One of the most sweeping changes in intensive care unit (ICU) and post-surgical care in recent years is the trend toward more aggressive treatment of stress-induced hyperglycemia.[3] The 2008 guidelines from the Su Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar Can Increase Post-surgery Wound Complications

High Blood Sugar Can Increase Post-surgery Wound Complications

High blood glucose levels can lead to wound infection. Diabetes is a disease that can not only lead to serious issues like amputation, but can also affect the way your body handles the wound healing process. Researchers have recently analyzed how maintaining a high blood sugar level could eventually lead to an increase in wound complications after undergoing a surgical procedure. Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons analyzed the rates of 79 patients who had endured wound-related complications after receiving surgery to close up chronic wounds. The doctors measured the blood glucose levels of the patients five days leading up to the medical procedure as well as five days after, and extensively tested the subjects for measurements of hemoglobin A1c, which is a primary indicator of long-term diabetes control in the body. High levels of blood glucose as well as diabetes control are the main risk factors that can influence an occurrence of wound infection, additional surgery and wound dehiscence, which is when a wound is re-opened after already receiving surgery to close it. Blood glucose levels that are considered higher than average are measured at 200 milligrams per deciliter or greater. The researchers found that 44 percent of the patients who exhibited high blood glucose levels either before or after surgery underwent experiences of wound dehiscence, while only 19 percent of diabetic patients who had normal blood glucose levels received any type of wound complication. The records of those who had high hemoglobin A1c levels, which are primary indicators of poor diabetes control, also showed significant spikes in the rates of wound infection or re-opening occurring. Dr. Christopher Attinger, a professor at Georgetown University as well as one of the lead st Continue reading >>

Does Diabetes Raise Knee Replacement Risks?

Does Diabetes Raise Knee Replacement Risks?

Research is mixed on how diabetes affects surgery results. When arthritis makes it too painful to walk or climb stairs, a knee replacement could be the solution to help you get around more comfortably again. Yet this surgery, like any other procedure, comes with risks that may be even more pronounced if you have diabetes. The issue is an important one, considering that about half of people with diabetes also have arthritis, and many may eventually need a new knee or two. Possible Diabetes-related Surgery Complications: Two studies published in the Bone and Joint Journal in 2014 and 2009 — from Sichuan University in China and Duke University in North Carolina have suggested that people with diabetes face a significantly higher risk of postsurgical complications such as wound infection, stroke, deep vein thrombosis (blood clot), fracture around the implant, and joint loosening, particularly when their diabetes isn’t well controlled. High blood sugar, the hallmark of diabetes, is thought to cause surgical complications through its adverse effects on many organs and processes in the body. However, a 2013 study published in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery failed to find any association between diabetes and negative surgical outcomes. In that study, researchers retrospectively reviewed the electronic health records of more than 40,000 Kaiser Permanente patients who had a knee replacement. The investigators looked at three main surgical outcomes: deep infection, blood clots in the legs or lungs, and revision surgery (an operation to replace a failed knee implant). They compared outcomes in people with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes. After adjusting for age, sex, weight and other health problems, the researchers saw no differences in outcomes in patients with cont Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar Levels After Surgery

High Blood Sugar Levels After Surgery

If you're diabetic, you may be concerned about your blood sugar levels during surgery and later during your recovery. It's reasonable to be concerned, and it's appropriate to take steps to prepare to control glucose levels before, during, and after surgery. Non-Diabetics Are at Risk Too Even non-diabetics can experience issues with blood sugar levels after a procedure. The physical and emotional stress of a surgical procedure, along with what can be significant changes in lifestyle, diet, and exercise before and after surgery, can dramatically change an individual's glucose levels. Though all patients are at risk for high blood sugar levels after surgery due to stress, diabetics face even greater risks of complications after a procedure. Blood Sugar and Surgical Complications Uncontrolled blood glucose can create complications for surgery patients, diabetic or not. Blood sugar that's even slightly elevated can lead to delayed healing and can increase your chances of getting a wound infection from less than 2 percent to over 10 percent. In general, the higher the blood sugar, the higher these risks. Do More Frequent Glucose Level Checking Make sure your doctor has your blood sugar checked before meals and at bedtime while you're in the hospital if you're diabetic. Checking your glucose during surgery is reasonable if the surgery is a lengthy one or if your glucose levels have been unpredictable. Even diabetics who are normally well controlled with diet and exercise can experience high levels of blood glucose during the hours and days following surgery. If your glucose is fluctuating widely between checks, you may even need to have it checked during the night if you're having symptoms of low or high blood glucose. If you're having a same-day surgery, have your blood gluco Continue reading >>

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