Elevated Glucose In Cats
Higher than normal blood glucose levels are not uncommon in cats, especially older cats. It's important that you learn the signs, symptom and treatments for high blood glucose levels because the sooner you diagnose and begin treatment, the more likely you can prevent related complications. Causes of High Blood Glucose Levels The most common cause of elevated blood glucose levels, also called hyperglycemia, in felines is a malfunction within a cat's endocrine system. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that facilitates the passage of glucose into an animal's cells. The cells metabolize the glucose to provide energy for your cat's everyday functioning. When the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin, glucose remains in the bloodstream and causes glucose levels to rise. Other causes of increased blood sugar levels include stress, hormones, pancreatitis, a high-carb diet, drug interactions, and bacterial infection. It's important to determine the cause of your kitty's hyperglycemia because some types are temporary and do not require long-term treatment. Complications Because you cat is not getting glucose into her cells, she will feel lethargic and begin to lose weight because her body starts burning muscle tissue for energy. If left untreated, the hyperglycemia will turn into diabetes. Feline diabetes can lead to kidney damage, vision problems, neuropathy and weakness in your cat's legs. Another complication, ketoacidosis, is a serious condition that arises when ketones, a byproduct of the digestion of a body's own tissues, build up in the bloodstream. Ketoacidosis requires immediate attention by your veterinarian. Always consult an experienced veterinarian regarding the health and treatment of your pet. Diagnosis Watch for any signs that might signal that your Continue reading >>
Menopause And Diabetes: Does Menopause Cause Diabetes?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United States has the highest rate of diabetes cases in the developing world and it is still increasing in an alarm rate. In 2016, it is estimated that 1 in 10 US individuals have type 2 diabetes (the increase rate of type 1 diabetes is much smaller). By 2050, it is estimated that 1 in 3 individuals will suffer from type 2 diabetes. From the statistics, overweight individuals who are age 40 or older are in the highest risk percentile. How does this information important for women? In the United States, diabetes is ranked as the number 6 most common cause of death for females between 45 to 54 years old and the number 4 common cause of death for females who are between 55 to 64 years old. It seems that as women grow older and reach their menopause stage, they become much more susceptible to develop diabetes. The question is whether menopause can drastically increase the risk of developing diabetes? This article will answer this question along with covering various topics that concerns menopause and its effect on diabetes: Can Menopause Can Trigger Diabetes? We would like to give you a straightforward answer for this question. However, sadly, health research scientists are still struggling to find the answer because it is difficult to separate the correlation and effects of menopause from the correlation and effects of age and weight. In 2011, a scientific correlation study suggests that after taking the age factor out from the correlation study, there is “no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk” (Kim, 2011). Yet there have been studies suggesting that progesterone is correlated with the development diabetes. Although we cannot give you a straight yes or Continue reading >>
4 Clues You Have Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is often thought about as part of diabetes, but there is also non-diabetic hypoglycemia. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia is just as equally problematic. When blood sugar is too low, the cause is not as important as realizing the impact. Some of the effects of hypoglycemia are immediate while others take time to manifest, resulting in long term deficits in your health. What is Non-Diabetic Hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, which again is the same as low blood sugar, is most often thought about in diabetics. This group of individuals often uses medications, including insulin, to lower their glucose, which is often high. When their glucose drops too low as a result of the medication, they are considered in a hypoglycemic state. However, an entire different segment of the population deals with non-diabetic hypoglycemia. Non-diabetic hypoglycemia occurs for reasons that are almost the exact opposite of why someone would develop diabetes. While diabetes arises as a result of excess carbohydrates in the diet, non-diabetic hypoglycemia occurs from a lack of carbohydrates in the diet. Carbohydrates are essential as the preferred energy source for our body. Yes, the total amount of carbohydrate and the source should factor in, but carbohydrates are necessary. In addition to not eating enough carbohydrates, insufficient production of hormones and neurotransmitters (nervous system communicators) can lead to non-diabetic hypoglycemia. Contrary to common medical thought, this does not require the presence of a named disease of the glands that produce the chemicals that helps us keep glucose balanced. 4 Clues that You May Have Non-Diabetic Hypoglycemia Fatigue: The Number One Symptom of Non-Diabetic Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is the same as low blood sugar. Blood Continue reading >>
Hyperglycaemia Without Diabetes
Hyperglycemia without diabetes is also referred to as ‘stress induced diabetes’. Most likely, patients without diabetes who experience stress induced hyperglycemia are at risk for developing diabetes later in life. Stress induced hyperglycemia was found to be associated with adverse outcome in different cohorts of hospitalized patients. In 2001, van den Berghe et al. reported an impressive reduction in mortality in patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) by treating stress induced hyperglycemia with insulin. Most of these patients did not have diabetes mellitus. Further studies in the same centre showed similar reductions in mortality in medical and pediatric ICU patients. However, the beneficial effects could not be confirmed in a large multinational trial in adult medical and surgical ICU patients. Current guidelines recommend that excessive stress hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients should be treated. The target range for glucose levels should be between 7.8-10 mmol/l, because aiming for a lower glucose range increases the risk for potentially harmful hypoglycaemia. Pathophysiology Tissue damage contributes to the development of hyperglycaemia. Stress hormones, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, and cytokines, such as interleukin -1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, are released as a response to tissue damage. This stress response creates a hypermetabolic state in which it seems likely that the amount of tissue damage is related to the degree of hyperglycaemia. Glucose uptake is increased in insulin independent tissues such as the brain. In tissues dependent on insulin for glucose uptake, stress induced insulin resistance contributes to hyperglycaemia. Many patients with stress induced insulin resistance are likely to have some degree of Continue reading >>
Definition Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is a rare ailment generally found in those who have diabetes, pancreatic tumors, adrenal or pituitary gland failure, liver disease, or who have had stomach surgery. Description Blood sugar (glucose) comes mostly from simple and complex carbohydrates and proteins. The blood carries the glucose to be used as fuel to your brain, organs, muscles and other tissues. The excess is then stored in the liver. Blood sugar levels are usually in 70-80 mg/100 cc of blood before eating, and 120 to 140 in the first hour after a meal. The high level prompts the pancreas to secrete insulin that enables the blood sugar to be used as energy. Three to four hours after eating, the insulin will cause the blood sugar levels to drop below the original levels. The adrenal gland takes this as a cue to release adrenaline that inhibits a further drop. When hormonal responses are disrupted, blood sugar levels drop and the above-named symptoms may be experienced. Causes Hypoglycemia can be caused by endocrine, renal, or liver disorders, or certain medications in diabetics. It also can be caused by excess production of insulin by the body and occurs sometimes after eating, stomach surgery, alcohol use, and certain medications. Symptoms The symptoms most people associate with hypoglycemia are likely to be the body’s hormonal reaction to prevent hypoglycemia from occurring. These symptoms can include mood swings, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, headaches, palpitations, sugar cravings, inability to concentrate and others. Diagnosis Your physician will take a complete medical history and do a physical exam. Blood tests will most likely be necessary to try to determine the specific cause of the hypoglycemia. Treatment Discuss your situation with your physician Continue reading >>
Is Stress Messing With Your Blood Sugar?
Researchers have linked dozens of physical symptoms to stress overload, from fatigue to weight gain. You can add another symptom to that list: high blood sugar. (Heal your whole body with Rodale's 12-day liver detox for total body health.) When you're stressed, your body is primed to take action. This "gearing up" is what causes your heart to beat faster, your breath to quicken, and your stomach to knot. It also triggers your blood glucose levels to skyrocket. "Under stress, your body goes into fight-or-flight mode, raising blood sugar levels to prepare you for action," says Richard Surwit, PhD, author of The Mind-Body Diabetes Revolution and chief of medical psychology at Duke University in Durham, NC. If your cells are insulin resistant, the sugar builds up in your blood, with nowhere to go, leading to hyperglycemia. We have no shortage of short-term stress in our lives—from traffic jams to working long hours at a demanding job—and our stress hormones, which were designed to deal with short-term dangers like fleeing predators, are turned on for long periods of time, even though we're neither fighting nor fleeing. What we're doing is stewing, which can cause chronically high blood sugar. A prescription to take it easy The good news is, simple relaxation exercises and other stress management techniques can help you gain more control over your blood sugar, according to a study conducted at Duke University. More than 100 people with high blood sugar took five diabetes education classes either with or without stress-management training. After a year, more than half of the stress-relief group improved their blood sugar levels enough to lower their risk for the worst complications, such as heart disease, kidney failure, nerve damage, and vision problems. Study participan Continue reading >>
Non Diabetic And Stress Induced Hyperglycemia [sih] In Orthopaedic Practice What Do We Know So Far?
Go to: Orthopaedic Trauma and Non-Diabetic Hyperglycemia Karunakar et al., did a study to analyze the effect of stress hyperglycemia on infectious complications in orthopaedic trauma patients. They divided them into two subgroups based on mean serum glucose greater than 220 mg/dl (hyperglycemic index(HGI) 3.0 or greater) and concluded that mean perioperative glucose levels greater than 220 mg/dl (HGI > 3.0) were associated with a seven times higher risk of infection in orthopaedic trauma patients with no known history of diabetes mellitus . Chen et al., carried out a prospective observational analysis of 1,257 consecutive patients with no history of diabetes who suffered hip fractures. They measured fasting blood glucose (FBG)and glycosylated hemoglobin. They divided all the patients into stress hyperglycemia and non-hyperglycemia groups according to their FBG, and recorded incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Among the patients enrolled, the frequency of stress hyperglycemia was 47.89% and that of AMI was 9.31% and the occurrence of AMI in the SIH group was higher than in the non-hyperglycemia group. The authors concluded that SIH after hip fracture increased the risk of AMI . Richards et al., studied the relationship of SIH and surgical site infections(SSI). They studied 790 patients with orthopaedics injuries who required operative intervention. They found that hyperglycemia with blood glucose levels ≥ 200mg/dl and HGI ≥ 1.76 was an independent risk factor for 30 day surgical-site infection in orthopaedic trauma patients without a history of diabetes . Another study evaluated SIH as a risk factor for surgical site infection in non-diabetic orthopaedic trauma patients. The authors concluded that SIH demonstrated a significant independent ass Continue reading >>
Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)
Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>
Do Non Diabetics Get Hypoglycemia? All Your Non Diabetic Hypoglycaemia Questions Answered
Do non diabetics get hypoglycaemia; is a question I get asked often. So, I figured I will deal with this issue and other questions relating to non-diabetic hypoglycemia right here on this page. Feel free to use the links below to jump down the page to the specific topic but be rest assured that on this page, you will learn about: Do Non Diabetics Get Hypoglycemia? Do non diabetics experience dawn phenomenon? What is normal blood sugar levels for a non diabetic? What is low blood sugar? Should non diabetics check blood sugar? What can cause non diabetic hypoglycaemia? What is reactive hypoglycaemia and what causes reactive hypoglycaemia? What causes non-reactive (fasting) hypoglycaemia? How do you feel when your blood sugar is low? How to test for non-diabetic hypoglycaemia? Do I have non-reactive (fasting) hypoglycaemia? How to treat non diabetic hypoglycemia? Do non-diabetics get hypoglycemia? Yes, non diabetics may develop hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). It is often thought that hypoglycemia which is the medical terminology for low blood sugar, happens only in diabetic individuals. That’s not entirely true. It is true that when it comes to neuro-linguistic programming, you hear the word, hypoglycemia and automatically, your mind flashes to a diabetic individual. At least that’s how the mind of a medical personnel works anyway. But low blood sugar events are not exclusive to diabetics. Non diabetics also suffer from hypoglycemia although it is a less common occurrence, but beware. A mis-match between the interaction of blood glucose levels and insulin, the hormone responsible for stabilising your blood sugar levels, is the origin of the non diabetic hypoglycaemia phenomenon. Non-diabetic low blood sugar can be caused by a variety of conditions which I will discuss Continue reading >>
Blood Glucose Concentration Profile After 10 Mg Dexamethasone In Non-diabetic And Type 2 Diabetic Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery
Background. Dexamethasone prevents postoperative nausea and vomiting but may increase blood glucose. We compared blood glucose concentrations after dexamethasone in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients undergoing surgery and looked for any association with preoperative glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA (1c)] and BMI. Methods. Sixty three patients were enrolled: 32 were non-diabetic (Group ND) and 31 type 2 diabetic (Group D) without insulin treatment. Anaesthesia was induced using i.v. anaesthetic agents and maintained with sevoflurane. All patients received 10 mg dexamethasone at induction. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at induction and then every 60 min for 240 min. Data were analysed using anova. Effects of HbA (1c) and BMI were investigated using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results. Blood glucose concentrations increased significantly over time and peaked at 120 min after 10 mg dexamethasone in both groups. The magnitude of increase was comparable between the groups [mean (sd) 29 (19) and 35 (19)% of baseline in Group D and Group ND, respectively]. Maximum concentrations were higher in Group D [8.97 (1.51) mmol litre−1, range 6.67–12.94 mmol litre−1] than in Group ND [7.86 (1.00) mmol litre−1, range 5.78–10.00 mmol litre−1]. There was a significant correlation between the maximum concentrations and BMI (R2=0.21) or HbA (1c) (R2=0.26). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the higher the BMI, the lower the HbA (1c) threshold associated with an increased probability (>0.5) of observing blood glucose levels higher than 8.33 mmol litre−1 during 240 min after dexamethasone administration. Similarly, the higher the HbA (1c), the lower the BMI threshold associated with the same probability. Conclusions. After 10 mg dexametha Continue reading >>
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How Stress Affects Blood Sugar
Research studies have connected many different physical conditions to having too much stress. Things like chronic fatigue syndrome and obesity have been linked to increased stress levels. It turns out that stress has an impact on blood sugar levels, which has great implications for those suffering from diabetes. People under increased levels of stress are suffering from a heightened “fight or flight” response. This causes the adrenal glands to put out norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol when exposed to the stressor. The stomach knots up, the respiratory rate is faster, and the heart rate is faster. The cortisol released by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland) causes elevated blood sugar levels in an attempt to provide cellular fuel if the body actually needs to go into fighting or fleeing. If you suffer from type 2 diabetes, it means that your body’s cells are insulin resistant. The rise in glucose that comes from stress and cortisol release isn’t managed well and the blood sugar has no place to go. It means that the blood sugar levels will be too high. Stress in your Life Most people have a lot of stress in their lives. Stress comes from having long hours on the job, traffic jams getting to and from work, relationships that aren’t perfect, and financial difficulties. This causes the stress hormones to rise for long periods of time, even when we are not actively fighting or fleeing from predators. Rather than acting on the stressor, we sit there with elevated cortisol levels that secondarily increase the blood sugar levels on a chronic basis. What you can do There are several things you can do that can decrease cortisol levels, decrease the perception of stress, and lower blood sugar levels. All it takes is learning a few stress mana Continue reading >>
Can Stress Affect My Blood Sugar Levels?
There are several ways that stress may affect your blood sugar levels. Stress induces the well-known fight-or-flight response, in which your body increases its levels of certain stress hormones. These, in turn, cause a rise in the amount of sugar in your blood, where it's available to be used by your cells as fuel. If your body doesn't have enough insulin or can't use the insulin it has in order to get that blood sugar into your cells, your blood sugar levels remain high. Stress may also indirectly increase your blood sugar levels by causing you to abandon your good habits. When stressed, you may not eat well or exercise regularly, or you may drink more alcohol. These habits can cause your blood sugar levels to rise. In addition, you may not take time to check your blood glucose levels as often when you are stressed, so you may not be aware of the effects that the stress is having on your blood sugar levels. If you feel that stress is affecting your diabetes, talk to your doctor. It was easier back in the days when we were cave-people. Imagine that you are walking along, gathering nuts and berries when all of the sudden a saber tooth tiger jumps out of the bushes. And that's what the little organs on top of your kidneys are for. They let you run faster (hopefully) than the hungry cat. They are called your adrenal glands and they pump a hormone called adrenaline into your blood giving you a momentary boost in energy, speed, and strength. It’s your body’s turbocharger for getting out of danger. So stress, in this case fear, causes this boost of sugar-like hormone. Back in cave-people days when something caused a blast of adrenaline, you most likely used it up right away, so it did no harm to your body. Now, the problem these days, is that we have no saber tooth cats t Continue reading >>
Why Is Blood Sugar Highest In The Morning?
Many people with diabetes find that their fasting blood sugar first thing in the morning is the hardest blood sugar to control. In addition, they find that if they eat the same food for breakfast as they do for lunch or dinner they will see a much higher blood sugar number when testing after breakfast than they see at the other meals. The reason for this is a normal alteration in hormones experienced by many people not just people with diabetes. It is called "Dawn Phenomenon." What Causes Dawn Phenomenon? The body prepares for waking up by secreting several different hormones. First, between 4:00 and 6:30 a.m. it secretes cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. You may recognize these as the hormones involved in the "fight or flight response." In this case, their job is more benign, to give you the energy to get up and moving so you can find the food your body needs for energy. To help you do this, these hormones also raise your blood sugar. After a long night's sleep, the fuel your body turns to to get you going is the glucose stored in the liver. So after these stress hormones are secreted, around 5:30 a.m., plasma glucose rises. In a person with normal blood sugar, insulin will also start to rise at this time but many people with diabetes won't experience the corresponding rise in insulin. So instead of giving their cells a dose of morning energy, all they get is a rise in blood sugar. Not Everyone Experiences Dawn Phenomenon Researchers who have infused different hormones into experimental subjects have found that the trigger for dawn phenomenon is a nocturnal surge in growth hormone. If they block the growth hormone, blood sugars stay flat. This may explain why some people, particularly older people, do not experience a rise in blood sugar first thing in the mor Continue reading >>
High Blood Glucose: What It Means And How To Treat It
What is high blood glucose? People who do not have diabetes typically have fasting plasma blood glucose levels that run under 100 mg/dl. Your physician will define for you what your target blood glucose should be — identifying a blood glucose target that is as close to normal as possible that you can safely achieve given your overall medical health. In general, high blood glucose, also called 'hyperglycemia', is considered "high" when it is 160 mg/dl or above your individual blood glucose target. Be sure to ask your healthcare provider what he or she thinks is a safe target for you for blood glucose before and after meals. If your blood glucose runs high for long periods of time, this can pose significant problems for you long-term — increased risk of complications, such as eye disease, kidney disease, heart attacks and strokes and more. High blood glucose can pose health problems in the short-term as well. Your treatment plan may need adjustment if the blood glucose stays over 180 mg/dl for 3 days in a row. It is important to aim to keep your blood glucose under control, and treat hyperglycemia when it occurs. What are the symptoms of high blood glucose? Increased thirst Increased urination Dry mouth or skin Tiredness or fatigue Blurred vision More frequent infections Slow healing cuts and sores Unexplained weight loss What causes high blood glucose? Too much food Too little exercise or physical activity Skipped or not enough diabetes pills or insulin Insulin that has spoiled after being exposed to extreme heat or freezing cold Stress, illness, infection, injury or surgery A blood glucose meter that is not reading accurately What should you do for high blood glucose? Be sure to drink plenty of water. It is recommended to drink a minimum of 8 glasses each day. If yo Continue reading >>
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Can Stress Cause High Blood Sugar In Non Diabetics
Stress within your comfort zone is a good thing – for instances, it is required when you need to do your best or keep you alert when danger looms! But the problem comes when it becomes overwhelming and you lose control on it. For such case, it can carry some health risks. Can also it cause high blood sugar levels in non diabetics? Understanding stress in general Stress is actually the natural mechanism of the body to respond any demand or even threat. For example, the body can release stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline when you feel threatened. You breath more quickly, muscles tighten, heart beats faster, and blood pressure increases. As a result you have increased stamina, strength, focus, and speed – making you ready for emergency action! It is also important to help you rise to get your goal and meet challenges. You need it to keep focus during a presentation at work, drive your concentration for study, or sharpen your skill when playing a sport. So stress is not always bad. Again it can give a number of benefits when working properly! But beyond this comfort zone, it is also linked to a number of many different conditions. When it doesn’t work as well as it should, it can be a serious threat to your mind and body. Your body is naturally designed to have stress and react to it. Stress can also cause negative effect on your health when you face continuous challenges without relaxation /relief between challenges – or when you lose control on it. As a result, stress-related tension builds and your body becomes overworked! When it continues without relief, you have a negative stress reaction (distress) that is to blame for physical symptoms such as raised blood pressure, upset stomach, difficulty sleeping, headaches, and chest pain. With this way, st Continue reading >>