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High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) In Diabetes

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) In Diabetes

What is high blood sugar? High blood sugar means that the level of sugar in your blood is higher than recommended for you. If you don’t keep your blood sugar at a normal, healthy level most of the time, you will increase your risk of heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney problems, and loss of vision. The medical term for high blood sugar is hyperglycemia. Blood sugar is also called blood glucose. What is the cause? Blood sugar that stays high is the main problem of diabetes. Your body breaks down some of the foods you eat into sugar. Normally the hormone insulin moves this sugar into your cells, where your body uses it for energy. In diabetes the insulin is not moving the sugar into the cells, so it builds up in the bloodstream and starts to cause problems. Sometimes you may have high blood sugar even though you are taking diabetes medicine. This can happen for many reasons but it always means that your diabetes is not in good control. Some reasons why your sugar might go too high are: Skipping your diabetes medicine Not taking the right amount of diabetes medicine Taking certain medicines that increase your blood sugar or make your blood sugar medicines work less well Taking in too many calories by eating large portions of food, choosing too many high-calorie foods, or drinking too many high-sugar beverages Eating too many carbohydrates, such as foods made mainly with sugar, white flour (in bread, biscuits, pancakes, for example), white potatoes, or white rice Not getting enough physical activity (exercise lowers your blood sugar) Having increased emotional or physical stress Being sick, including colds, flu, an infected tooth, or a urinary tract infection, especially if you have a fever If you are using insulin, having a problem with your insulin (for examp Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Blood Sugar Levels

Diabetes: Blood Sugar Levels

Topic Overview Keeping your blood sugar in a target range reduces your risk of problems such as diabetic eye disease (retinopathy), kidney disease (nephropathy), and nerve disease (neuropathy). Some people can work toward lower numbers, and some people may need higher goals. For example, some children and adolescents with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, people who have severe complications from diabetes, people who may not live much longer, or people who have trouble recognizing the symptoms of low blood sugar may have a higher target range. And some people, such as those who are newly diagnosed with diabetes or who don't have any complications from diabetes, may do better with a lower target range. Work with your doctor to set your own target blood sugar range. This will help you achieve the best control possible without having a high risk of hypoglycemia. Children of any age with type 2 diabetes and most adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (non-pregnant) A1c: Less than 7.0% Before meals: 80 to 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) 1 to 2 hours after meals: Less than 180 mg/dL Youth (younger than 18 years old) with type 1 diabetes A1c: Less than 7.5% Before meals: 90 to 130 mg/dL Bedtime and overnight: 90 to 150 mg/dL Women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who become pregnant A1c: 6.0% to 6.5% Before meals, bedtime, and overnight: 60 to 99 mg/dL 1 to 2 hours after meals: 100 to 129 mg/dL or lower Women who have gestational diabetes Before meals: 95 mg/dL or less 1 to 2 hours after meals: 120 to 140 mg/dL or lower Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Chart And Information

Blood Sugar Level Chart And Information

A - A + Main Document Quote: "A number of medical studies have shown a dramatic relationship between elevated blood sugar levels and insulin resistance in people who are not very active on a daily or regular basis." A doctor might order a test of the sugar level in a person's blood if there is a concern that they may have diabetes, or have a sugar level that is either too low or too high. The test, which is also called a check of blood sugar, blood glucose, fasting blood sugar, fasting plasma glucose, or fasting blood glucose, indicates how much glucose is present is present in a person's blood. When a person eats carbohydrates, such as pasta, bread or fruit, their body converts the carbohydrates to sugar - also referred to as glucose. Glucose travels through the blood to supply energy to the cells, to include muscle and brain cells, as well as to organs. Blood sugar levels usually fluctuate depending upon what a person eats and how long it has been since they last ate. However; consistent or extremely low levels of glucose in a person's blood might cause symptoms such as: Anxiety Sweating Dizziness Confusion Nervousness Warning signs of dangerously high levels of blood sugar include sleepiness or confusion, dry mouth, extreme thirst, high fever, hallucinations, loss of vision, or skin that is warm and dry. A blood sugar test requires a finger prick or needle stick. A doctor might order a, 'fasting,' blood glucose test. What this means is a person will not be able to drink or eat for 8-10 hours before the test, or the doctor may order the test for a random time or right after the person eats. If a woman is pregnant, her doctor might order a, 'glucose-tolerance test,' which involves drinking glucose solution and having blood drawn a specified amount of time later. The re Continue reading >>

* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?

* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?

Normal blood sugars after a high carbohydrate breakfast eaten at 7:30 AM. The blue line is the average for the group. The brown lines show the range within which most readings fell (2 standard deviations). Bottom lines show Insulin and C-peptide levels at the same time. Click HERE if you don't see the graph. Graph is a screen shot from Dr. Christiansen's presentation cited below. The term "blood sugar" refers to the concentration of glucose, a simple, sugar, that is found in a set volume of blood. In the U.S. it is measured in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dl. In most of the rest of the world it is measured in millimoles per liter, abbreviated as mmol/L. The concentration of glucose in our blood changes continually throughout the day. It can even vary significantly from minute to minute. When you eat, it can rise dramatically. When you exercise it will often drop. The blood sugar measures that doctors are most interested in is the A1c, discussed below. When you are given a routine blood test doctors usually order a fasting glucose test. The most informative blood sugar reading is the post-meal blood sugar measured one and two hours after eating. Doctors rarely test this important blood sugar measurement as it is time consuming and hence expensive. Rarely doctors will order a Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, which tests your response to a huge dose of pure glucose, which hits your blood stream within minutes and produces results quite different from the blood sugars you will experience after each meal. Below you will find the normal readings for these various tests. Normal Fasting Blood Sugar Fasting blood sugar is usually measured first thing in the morning before you have eaten any food. A truly normal fasting blood sugar (which is also the blood sugar a norm Continue reading >>

Are You At Risk For Diabetes?

Are You At Risk For Diabetes?

Who Gets Diabetes and How to Manage It Diabetes is a metabolic disease that can lead to serious health complications if left untreated. Several factors, such as body weight, family history and race and ethnicity may increase your risk of diabetes. Diabetes can be effectively managed by exercising and eating a healthy diet. What is diabetes? Diabetes (medically known as diabetes mellitus) is a common, chronic disorder marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, or sugar. It occurs when your cells don’t respond appropriately to insulin (a hormone secreted by the pancreas), and when your pancreas can’t produce more insulin in response. Diabetes usually can’t be cured. Left untreated—or poorly managed—it can lead to serious long-term complications, including kidney failure, amputation, and blindness. Moreover, having diabetes increases your risk for cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Your body and sugar To understand diabetes, it’s helpful to understand the basics of how your body metabolizes (breaks down) sugar. Most of the cells in your body need sugar as a source of energy. When you eat carbohydrates, such as a bowl of pasta or some vegetables, your digestive system breaks the carbohydrates down into simple sugars such as glucose, which travel into and through your bloodstream to nourish and energize cells. A key player in the breakdown of sugar is the pancreas, a fish-shaped gland behind your stomach and liver. The pancreas fills two roles. It produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine to help break down the nutrients in your food—proteins, carbohydrates, and fats—to provide sources of energy and building material for the body’s cells. It makes hormones that regulate the disposal of nutrients, including sugars. Cells in Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Blood Sugar Level Ranges

Tweet Understanding blood glucose level ranges can be a key part of diabetes self-management. This page states 'normal' blood sugar ranges and blood sugar ranges for adults and children with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and blood sugar ranges to determine people with diabetes. If a person with diabetes has a meter, test strips and is testing, it's important to know what the blood glucose level means. Recommended blood glucose levels have a degree of interpretation for every individual and you should discuss this with your healthcare team. In addition, women may be set target blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The following ranges are guidelines provided by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) but each individual’s target range should be agreed by their doctor or diabetic consultant. Recommended target blood glucose level ranges The NICE recommended target blood glucose levels are stated below for adults with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and children with type 1 diabetes. In addition, the International Diabetes Federation's target ranges for people without diabetes is stated. [19] [89] [90] The table provides general guidance. An individual target set by your healthcare team is the one you should aim for. NICE recommended target blood glucose level ranges Target Levels by Type Upon waking Before meals (pre prandial) At least 90 minutes after meals (post prandial) Non-diabetic* 4.0 to 5.9 mmol/L under 7.8 mmol/L Type 2 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L under 8.5 mmol/L Type 1 diabetes 5 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L Children w/ type 1 diabetes 4 to 7 mmol/L 4 to 7 mmol/L 5 to 9 mmol/L *The non-diabetic figures are provided for information but are not part of NICE guidelines. Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges For the majority of healthy ind Continue reading >>

A Spoonful Of Sugar

A Spoonful Of Sugar

Whenever I give a talk and make the statement that a normal blood sugar represents less than one teaspoon of sugar dissolved in the blood, I’m often met with scepticism. It really is true, however. Let’s go through the calculations so we can see exactly how this plays out. First, we need some basic measures. one liter (l)= 10 deciliters (dl) one gram (gm) = 1000 milligrams (mg) one teaspoon = 5 grams According to the American Diabetes Association the line between a healthy fasting blood sugar and a pre-diabetic fasting blood sugar is set at 100 mg/dl (pronounced 100 milligrams per deci-liter). A fasting blood sugar of between 100 mg/dl and 125 mg/dl earns a diagnosis of pre-diabetes, and a fasting blood sugar of over 125 mg/dl is diabetic. So how much sugar is 99 mg/dl, the highest fasting blood sugar you can have and not be diagnosed as pre-diabetic? Let’s figure it out. We know that a typical human has about 5 liters of blood, so we need to figure out how much sugar dissolved into this 5 liters of blood will give us a reading of 99 mg/dl. Since one liter contains 10 deciliters we multiply 99 mg/dl by 10, which gives us 990 mg, the amount of sugar in one liter. Multiply the 990 mg in one liter times 5, the number of liters of blood in the human body, and we have 4950 mg of sugar. If we divide the 4950 by 1000, the number of mg in a gram, we get 4.95 grams of sugar. Since one teaspoon contains 5 grams, the 4.95 grams of sugar in the blood of a person just short of being pre-diabetic equals a little less than one teaspoon. If you run all these calculations for a blood sugar of 80 mg/dl, which is a much healthier blood sugar than the 99 mg/dl one that is knocking on the door of pre-diabetes, it turns out to be about 4/5 of a teaspoon. If you run the calculations for Continue reading >>

Q&a: How To Lower Your Blood Sugar When It’s Over 200 Mg/dl

Q&a: How To Lower Your Blood Sugar When It’s Over 200 Mg/dl

Q: How do I lower my blood sugar when it goes over 200 mg/dl? I have Type 2 diabetes. A: An excellent question, but a complicated one to answer. Your doctor or nurse educator should be contacted any time your blood sugar runs consistently higher than 250 mg/dl for more than two days. When a person with Type 2 diabetes encounters a high blood sugar, the strategy used in bringing it down will vary from individual to individual. This is because of the differences in treatment concerning diet, exercise, and medication. It will also depend upon the guidelines for glucose control that you and your doctor have mutually agreed upon. When high blood sugars do occur, there are a number of strategies that can be employed to adjust the glucose level back down to a normal range. These might include: 1) Eating less food at the next meal, eliminating a snack and/or eating foods with a lower glycemic index. A general rule of thumb to follow is decreasing 15 grams of carbohydrate (the amount found in one starch exchange, one fruit exchange, or one cup skim milk exchange) will lower blood glucose by 30 mg/dl. If you test your blood sugar at 182 mg/dl before a meal or snack, then eliminate one starch and one cup milk at the next meal to bring the glucose value as close to 120 mg/dl as a baseline. Although people with diabetes will respond differently to this adjustment, it provides a basic guideline to start with. For persons with Type 2 diabetes who are overweight, the loss of only 5% to 10% of total weight loss can dramatically improve blood glucose values (so just cutting calories moderately can achieve better blood glucose control). Lastly, choosing foods with a lower glycemic index, i.e., foods that do not raise blood sugar as quickly or dramatically, can help to bring blood glucose Continue reading >>

A High Sugar Level After A Meal

A High Sugar Level After A Meal

It's normal for your blood sugar level to rise after you eat, especially if you eat a meal high in refined carbohydrates. But if your blood sugar rises more than most people's, you might have diabetes or pre-diabetes, a condition that indicates a strong risk for developing diabetes in the future. If you already have diabetes, you doctor will recommend keeping your blood sugar within a prescribed range. A glucose tolerance test, done one to three hours after you eat a high-carbohydrate meal, can check your blood sugar levels. Why Does Your Blood Sugar Rise? When you eat carbohydrates, your body breaks down the sugars they contain into glucose. Your body can't absorb most sugars without breaking them down first. Simple sugars such as refined sugar break down very quickly; you absorb them rapidly into your bloodstream, which raises your blood sugar. In healthy people, the levels don't rise very high and they drop back to normal quickly. If you have diabetes, your levels after a meal will rise higher and stay high longer than levels in other people. This occurs because your pancreas either don't release enough insulin, the hormone that helps cells absorb glucose, or because the cells don't respond properly to insulin release. Normal Levels If your doctor suspects that you have abnormal glucose levels, he might suggest doing a glucose tolerance test. You are given around 75 grams of carbohydrate after fasting for 12 hours. At one- to three-hour intervals, your doctor draws blood and analyzes your glucose levels. A normal fasting glucose is 60 to 100 milligrams per deciliter; your levels should rise no higher than 200 mg/dl one hour after eating and no more than 140 mg/dl two hours after finishing the snack. Most healthy people without diabetes have two-hour readings below 12 Continue reading >>

Normal Glucose Levels: Check Your Numbers

Normal Glucose Levels: Check Your Numbers

Normal glucose levels are important to monitor, even if you have not been diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is the name of a group of diseases in which the body is unable to properly utilize blood sugar (glucose) for energy. There are three primary forms of diabetes—type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes—and, in each case, the body is unable to effectively move the glucose that results from the metabolism of the sugar and starches we eat into the cells of our muscles, brain, and other vital tissues. The end result: The body’s cells are deprived of their energy source and the blood sugar or glucose builds up in the blood. Most adults will have their blood glucose tested to determine their normal glucose levels as part of their annual visit with their healthcare provider. This is usually done after fasting overnight or for at least eight hours—hence its name: fasting blood glucose or FPG. Download this expert FREE guide, Diabetes Symptoms and Treatments: How to lower blood sugar with a diabetic diet, medications, and lifestyle changes. This new report tells you how you can take command of your diabetes, simplify blood sugar management, and make the most of today’s breakthroughs in treatment. What are Normal Glucose Levels? Experts have established criteria to define normal glucose levels and what is considered to be an FPG indicative of diabetes or prediabetes: Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose: 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) to 100 mg/dl Prediabetes Fasting Plasma Glucose: 100 mg/dl to 125 mg/dl Diabetes Fasting Plasma Glucose: 126 mg/dl or higher If your healthcare provider suspects you have diabetes because you have not achieved normal glucose levels, they will likely perform additional blood tests includ Continue reading >>

Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?

Controlling Blood Sugar In Diabetes: How Low Should You Go?

Diabetes is an ancient disease, but the first effective drug therapy was not available until 1922, when insulin revolutionized the management of the disorder. Insulin is administered by injection, but treatment took another great leap forward in 1956, when the first oral diabetic drug was introduced. Since then, dozens of new medications have been developed, but scientists are still learning how best to use them. And new studies are prompting doctors to re-examine a fundamental therapeutic question: what level of blood sugar is best? Normal metabolism To understand diabetes, you should first understand how your body handles glucose, the sugar that fuels your metabolism. After you eat, your digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars that are small enough to be absorbed into your bloodstream. Glucose is far and away the most important of these sugars, and it's an indispensable source of energy for your body's cells. But to provide that energy, it must travel from your blood into your cells. Insulin is the hormone that unlocks the door to your cells. When your blood glucose levels rise after a meal, the beta cells of your pancreas spring into action, pouring insulin into your blood. If you produce enough insulin and your cells respond normally, your blood sugar level drops as glucose enters the cells, where it is burned for energy or stored for future use in your liver as glycogen. Insulin also helps your body turn amino acids into proteins and fatty acids into body fat. The net effect is to allow your body to turn food into energy and to store excess energy to keep your engine running if fuel becomes scarce in the future. A diabetes primer Diabetes is a single name for a group of disorders. All forms of the disease develop when the pancreas is unable to Continue reading >>

Diabetes-related High And Low Blood Sugar Levels [en Español]

Diabetes-related High And Low Blood Sugar Levels [en Español]

Topic Overview When you have diabetes , you may have high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) or low blood sugar levels ( hypoglycemia ) from time to time. A cold, the flu, or other sudden illness can cause high blood sugar levels. You will learn to recognize the symptoms and distinguish between high and low blood sugar levels. Insulin and some types of diabetes medicines can cause low blood sugar levels. Learn how to recognize and manage high and low blood sugar levels to help you avoid levels that can lead to medical emergencies, such as diabetic ketoacidosis or dehydration from high blood sugar levels or loss of consciousness from severe low blood sugar levels. Most high or low blood sugar problems can be managed at home by following your doctor's instructions. You can help avoid blood sugar problems by following your doctor's instructions on the use of insulin or diabetes medicines, diet, and exercise. Home blood sugar testing will help you determine whether your blood sugar is within your target range . If you have had very low blood sugar, you may be tempted to let your sugar level run high so that you do not have another low blood sugar problem. But it is most important that you keep your blood sugar in your target range. You can do this by following your treatment plan and checking your blood sugar regularly. Sometimes a pregnant woman can get diabetes during her pregnancy. This is called gestational diabetes . Blood sugar levels are checked regularly during the pregnancy to keep levels within a target range. Children who have diabetes need their parents' help to keep their blood sugar levels in a target range and to exercise safely. Be sure that children learn the symptoms of both high and low blood sugar so they can tell others when they need help. There are ma Continue reading >>

Testing Your Blood Glucose

Testing Your Blood Glucose

Testing your blood glucose, also known as Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG), is a method of checking how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood using a glucose meter -- anywhere, anytime. Here, you'll learn some basics about: Blood sugar targets for adults How your doctor tests your blood The importance of self-testing When to test and what to look for How to share results with your doctor Blood glucose targets for non-pregnant adults* Before meal After meal 80-120 mg/dL Less than 180 mg/dL How your doctor tests your blood -- the A1C test† Your doctor uses what is called an A1C (Glycosylated Hemoglobin) test to see what your average blood glucose level has been over the last two to three months. Used for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, it gives you and your doctor an indication on how well you are responding to your treatment regimen, and if any adjustments are necessary. The goal is to keep your level below seven percent (7%).* The A1C test is sometimes referred to as the hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c or glycohemoglobin test. The connection between A1C and average blood sugar levels.† Your A1C test result will not show the daily effects of food choices and your activity. A blood glucose meter is the best way to observe and track the immediate effects of food choices and activity on your blood glucose levels. This allows you to take immediate action to bring your glucose levels within range if needed. Your doctor will also rely upon your blood glucose meter results to assess and adjust your treatment regimen. When to test and what to look for – a practical guide Use this simple chart to remind you when to test and what to observe to help you manage your blood glucose level on a daily basis. When to test What to look for First thing in the morning, before you eat How Continue reading >>

Why Your “normal” Blood Sugar Isn’t Normal (part 2)

Why Your “normal” Blood Sugar Isn’t Normal (part 2)

Hi, I just found this site and would like to participate. I will give my numbers, etc. First, my last A1c was 6.1, the doc said it was Pre-diabetes in January of 2014, OK, I get it that part, but what confuses me is that at home, on my glucometer, all my fastings were “Normal” however, back then, I had not checked after meals, so maybe they were the culprits. Now, I am checking all the time and driving myself crazy. In the morning sometimes fasting is 95 and other times 85, it varies day to day. Usually, after a low carb meal, it drops to the 80’s the first hour and lower the second. On some days, when I am naughty and eat wrong, my b/s sugar is still low, and on other days, I can eat the same thing, and it goes sky high, again, not consistent. Normally, however, since February, my fbs is 90, 1 hour after, 120, 2nd hour, back to 90, but, that changes as well. In February, of 2014, on the 5th, it was horrible. I think I had eaten Lasagne, well, before, my sugars did not change much, but that night, WHAM-O I started at 80 before the meal, I forgot to take it at the one and two hour mark, but did at the 3 hour mark, it was 175, then at four hours, down to 160, then at 5 hours, back to 175. I went to bed, because by that time, it was 2 AM, but when I woke up at 8:00 and took it, it was back to 89!!!! This horrible ordeal has only happened once, but, I have gone up to 178 since, but come down to normal in 2 hours. I don’t know if I was extra stressed that day or what, I am under tons of it, my marriage is not good, my dear dad died 2 years ago and my very best friend died 7 months ago, I live in a strange country, I am from America, but moved to New Zealand last year, and I am soooo unhappy. Anyway, what does confuse me is why the daily differences, even though I may Continue reading >>

What Type 2s Can Do When Blood Sugar Soars

What Type 2s Can Do When Blood Sugar Soars

The emergency condition most type 2s dread is hypoglycemia, where plummeting blood sugar levels can bring on a dangerous semi-conscious state, and even coma or death. However, hyperglycemia, high-blood sugar levels consistently above 240 mg/dL, can be just as dangerous. Left untreated, at its most extreme high-blood sugar, can induce ketoacidosis, the build-up of toxic-acid ketones in the blood and urine. It can also bring on nausea, weakness, fruity-smelling breath, shortness of breath, and, as with hypoglycemia, coma. However, once they’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, most type 2s have taken steps to prevent or lessen the most dangerous effects of high-blood sugar levels. Their concern shifts to dealing with unexpected, sometimes alarming spikes in blood sugar levels. The symptoms of those spikes are the classic ones we associate with the onset of diabetes—unquenchable thirst, excessive urination, fatigue, weight loss, and headaches. When you do spike, what can you do right away to bring blood sugar levels down? Immediate Steps You Can Take: 1. Insulin—If you are on an insulin regimen; a bolus injection should drive numbers down fairly rapidly. 2. If you are not on insulin or don’t use fast-acting insulin, taking a brisk walk or bike ride works for most people to start bringing their numbers down. 3. Stay hydrated. Hyperglycemic bodies want to shed excess sugar, leading to frequent urination and dehydration. You need to drink water steadily until your numbers drop. 4. Curb your carb intake. It does not matter how complex the carbs in your diet are, your body still converts them to glucose at some point. Slacking off on carb consumption is a trackable maneuver that lets you better understand how to control your numbers. Preventative Steps: These are extensions Continue reading >>

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