* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?
Normal blood sugars after a high carbohydrate breakfast eaten at 7:30 AM. The blue line is the average for the group. The brown lines show the range within which most readings fell (2 standard deviations). Bottom lines show Insulin and C-peptide levels at the same time. Click HERE if you don't see the graph. Graph is a screen shot from Dr. Christiansen's presentation cited below. The term "blood sugar" refers to the concentration of glucose, a simple, sugar, that is found in a set volume of blood. In the U.S. it is measured in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dl. In most of the rest of the world it is measured in millimoles per liter, abbreviated as mmol/L. The concentration of glucose in our blood changes continually throughout the day. It can even vary significantly from minute to minute. When you eat, it can rise dramatically. When you exercise it will often drop. The blood sugar measures that doctors are most interested in is the A1c, discussed below. When you are given a routine blood test doctors usually order a fasting glucose test. The most informative blood sugar reading is the post-meal blood sugar measured one and two hours after eating. Doctors rarely test this important blood sugar measurement as it is time consuming and hence expensive. Rarely doctors will order a Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, which tests your response to a huge dose of pure glucose, which hits your blood stream within minutes and produces results quite different from the blood sugars you will experience after each meal. Below you will find the normal readings for these various tests. Normal Fasting Blood Sugar Fasting blood sugar is usually measured first thing in the morning before you have eaten any food. A truly normal fasting blood sugar (which is also the blood sugar a norm Continue reading >>
What Is Normal Blood Sugar?
Thank you for visiting my website! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D. * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinol Continue reading >>
7 Techniques To Reduce Post-meal Spikes During Pregnancy
“Gary, I think I need more insulin at breakfast.” “Why do you say that, Julianne?” “Because I’m always having high readings right afterwards, and my obstetrician said I shouldn’t spike after I eat.” “And what happens after the spike?” “It usually comes down to normal before lunch. So do you think I should take more insulin?” After-meal blood sugar spikes can create quite a quandary for anyone with diabetes, particularly during pregnancy. Research has shown that fetal macrosomia (overgrowth of the baby) becomes more common when post-meal blood sugars exceed 120 mg/dl (6.7 mmol). With post-meal readings above 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol), the risk more than doubles from baseline. Fetal macrosomia can cause many problems during pregnancy. When the baby grows and develops too rapidly, it can lead to a premature and more complicated birth. It may also cause injuries to occur to the baby during delivery. Why do after-meal blood sugars have such a major influence on the baby’s growth? Nobody knows for certain. Perhaps, when the mother’s blood sugar “spikes” suddenly after meals, the baby is fed more sugar than its pancreas can “cover” with insulin, and high fetal blood sugar results. And because the baby’s kidneys spill almost all excess sugar from the baby’s bloodstream back into the amniotic fluid, the baby then drinks in the extra glucose and winds up growing more than it should. Suffice to say that post-meal blood sugar spikes are something to avoid during pregnancy. But how do we do it? Getting back to Julianne’s question, if she takes more insulin, she’ll probably wind up hypoglycemic before lunch. Luckily, we have some excellent techniques for preventing the after-meal highs without having to take more mealtime insulin. What Causes Sp Continue reading >>
Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels Chart [printable]
JUMP TO: Intro | Blood sugar vs blood glucose | Diagnostic levels | Blood sugar goals for people with type 2 diabetes | Visual chart | Commonly asked questions about blood sugar Before Getting Started I was talking to one of my clients recently about the importance of getting blood sugar levels under control. So before sharing the diabetes blood sugar levels chart, I want to OVER EMPHASIZE the importance of you gaining the best control of your blood sugar levels as you possibly can. Just taking medication and doing nothing else is really not enough. You see, I just don’t think many people are fully informed about why it is so crucial to do, because if you already have a diabetes diagnosis then you are already at high risk for heart disease and other vascular problems. Maybe you've been better informed by your doctor but many people I come across haven't. So if that's you, it's important to know that during your pre-diabetic period, there is a lot of damage that is already done to the vascular system. This occurs due to the higher-than-normal blood sugar, that's what causes the damage. So now that you have type 2 diabetes, you want to prevent any of the nasty complications by gaining good control over your levels. Truly, ask anyone having to live with diabetes complications and they’ll tell you it’s the pits! You DO NOT want it to happen to you if you can avoid it. While medications may be needed, just taking medication alone and doing nothing is really not enough! Why is it not enough even if your blood sugars seem reasonably under control? Well, one common research observation in people with diabetes, is there is a slow and declining progression of blood sugar control and symptoms. Meaning, over time your ability to regulate sugars and keep healthy gets harder. I Continue reading >>
What Happens To Your Body An Hour After Eating Sugar?
INDYEATS What happens to your body an hour after eating sugar? Sugar is an important – and popular – part of our daily diet. Along with starch, it falls within the carbohydrate group as it consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms and acts as fuel for the body. In fact, carbohydrates are our main source of energy, converted by the body to power our cells and keep us alive and growing. However, many of us are overindulging in the white stuff, with the average adult consuming approximately 63 grams (2.2 ounces), nearly 16 teaspoons, of sugar each day. That’s over twice the recommended daily intake. The main attraction to sugar, for both humans and animals, is its sweet taste. In nature, this is a useful indication of which foods are safe to eat, as poisonous fruits and plants tend to be sour or bitter, but in the modern world of processed foods and fizzy drinks, sweetness is mainly associated with pleasure. As a result, sugar is added to many of the foods we consume each day to artificially boost the flavour or texture, or act as a preservative by hindering the growth of bacteria. This may be good news for our taste buds, but it’s not so good for our health. By eating more sugar than our bodies actually need, we are storing the excess as fat, leading to an increase in obesity and many other health problems throughout the world. Keeping track of how much sugar we eat can be difficult, though, as it goes by many different names and is hidden in some unlikely foods. Plus, not all sugars are bad, but working out which ones are good can be a challenge. Find out below exactly what sugar does to your body. Sugar in the body When we digest sugar, enzymes in the small intestine break it down into glucose. This glucose is then released into the bloodstream, where it is Continue reading >>
The Hidden Epidemic Of Early Diabetes
Many people with high blood sugar levels are told by their doctors that they do not have diabetes because their fasting blood sugar levels are below 100 mg/dl, which is considered normal. Early in the disease, diabetics often have a "normal" fasting blood sugar, but one hour after they eat, their blood sugar levels rise above 140, which signals that they are at increased risk for heart attacks, strokes, cancers, nerve damage and premature death. Not knowing that you have early diabetes is a real tragedy because most cases of early diabetes can be cured with lifestyle changes. Early Diabetics Often Have Normal Fasting Blood Sugar Levels Everybody's blood sugar levels rise after they eat. If blood sugar levels rise above 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after you eat, the sugar in your bloodstream can stick to the outer membranes of all types of cells in your body. Once stuck on a cell, blood sugar cannot get off and it is eventually converted by a series of chemical reactions to sorbitol that destroys that cell. This month, researchers showed that people whose blood sugar levels rise above 140 one hour after a meal already have all the same markers of arteriosclerosis as proven diabetics, even though they may have normal fasting blood sugar levels and a normal glucose tolerance test (Atherosclerosis, Jan 2017;256:15-20). Another study followed people with one-hour-after-eating-blood-sugar levels over 155 and showed that they die significantly earlier than those whose blood sugar levels do not rise that high after eating (Diabet Med, March 21, 2016. 10.1111/dme.13116). The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, composed of doctors who treat diabetics regularly, recommends that blood sugar levels should not be allowed to rise above 140 mg/dl two hours after a meal. Havin Continue reading >>
What Is Normal Blood Sugar?
Blood sugar, or glucose, is an important source of energy and provides nutrients to your body's organs, muscles and nervous system. The body gets glucose from the food you eat, and the absorption, storage and production of glucose is regulated constantly by complex processes involving the small intestine, liver and pancreas. Normal blood sugar varies from person to person, but a normal range for fasting blood sugar (the amount of glucose in your blood six to eight hours after a meal) is between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter. For most individuals, the level of glucose in the blood rises after meals. A normal blood-sugar range after eating is between 135 and 140 milligrams per deciliter. These variations in blood-sugar levels, both before and after meals, are normal and reflect the way that glucose is absorbed and stored in the body. After you eat, your body breaks down the carbohydrates in food into smaller parts, including glucose, which can be absorbed by the small intestine. As the small intestine absorbs glucose, the pancreas releases insulin, which stimulates body tissues and causes them to absorb this glucose and metabolize it (a process known as glycogenesis). This stored glucose (glycogen) is used to maintain healthy blood-sugar levels between meals. When glucose levels drop between meals, the body takes some much-needed sugar out of storage. The process is kicked off by the pancreas, which releases a hormone known as glucagon, which promotes the conversion of stored sugar (glycogen) in the liver back to glucose. The glucose is then released into the bloodstream. When there isn't enough glucose stored up to maintain normal blood-sugar levels, the body will even produce its own glucose from noncarbohydrate sources (such as amino acids and glycerol). This pro Continue reading >>
Hypoglycemia Or Low Blood Glucose
Hypoglycemia means that your blood glucose is low - generally below 60 to 80 mg/dL. Symptoms occur quickly and need to be treated as soon as possible. Causes Prevention Not enough food Eat all your meals and snacks on time. More physical activity than usual Eat extra food to match your increased activity. Too much diabetes medicine Take only the dose that has been prescribed. Symptoms You may have one or more of the following symptoms: sweating shaking feeling weak or tired feeling anxious or nervous racing heart feeling hungry having a mild headache tingling sensation around lips and tongue Treating hypoglycemia You are never harming yourself if you take glucose tablets or eat a simple sugar food because you suspect you have low blood glucose. If you are injecting insulin, always carry a simple sugar food with you. These include raisins, marshmallows, glucose tablets or a juice box. Test your blood glucose as soon as you feel symptoms. If your level is low, treat with 15 grams of carbohydrate. Examples include: 1/2 cup of fruit juice (you don't need to add sugar) 1/2 cup of regular pop 1 tablespoon of honey or sugar 2 tablespoons of raisins 3 large marshmallows 1 cup of skim milk 3 to 4 glucose tablets 15 grams of glucose gel After eating one of these foods, test your blood glucose every 10 to 15 minutes. If it is still low, eat another 15 grams of carbohydrate until your symptoms are gone or your blood glucose level is above 80. Follow-up treatment after hypoglycemia After you've experienced hypoglycemia, you may need more food. If your next meal or snack is less than one hour away, eat at your normal time. If your next meal or snack is one to two hours away, eat an extra snack that contains 15 grams of carbohydrate. If your next meal or snack is more than two hours a Continue reading >>
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Lab Tests & Type 1 Diabetes
Many of the tests you have done at the laboratory can help you to understand where things are at with your diabetes. They can also help you see changes over time and whether the strategies you are using in your diabetes management are working or not. Laboratories in New Zealand operate under strict quality control. This means that the tests you have done at the laboratory are likely to be very reliable and accurate. The start of this section deals with the tests you may have done to find out if you have diabetes. If you already know you have diabetes, go to the second section: “What tests do I have to find out how my diabetes management is going?”. What tests can be done to find out if I have diabetes? There are a number of tests that may be done to find out if you have diabetes. Fasting blood glucose A fasting blood glucose level is a measure of how much glucose is in your blood when you have not eaten anything for the past eight to ten hours. The test is normally taken first thing in the morning. Your doctor or nurse will ask you to have nothing to eat after you go to bed at night. When you wake up in the morning you visit the laboratory for the test before you have had anything to eat or drink (except water). A fasting blood glucose level of either 7mmol/L or greater tells you that you have diabetes. If you have no symptoms of diabetes (thirst, tiredness, repeated infections and needing to pass urine often), the test should be repeated on another day. Fasting blood glucose level is now the recommended test for finding out if you have diabetes. A fasting blood glucose level can tell you other things as well. If your fasting blood glucose level is between 6.1mmol/L and 6.9mmol/L, you may have a condition called “impaired fasting glycaemia” (IFG) or pre-diabetes Continue reading >>
7 Blood Sugar Testing Mistakes To Avoid
1 / 8 Understand Diabetes Testing If you have diabetes, it's imperative that you learn to effectively self-test your blood sugar to keep your glucose levels in check. For example, results from a study of more than 5,000 people living with diabetes showed that even those people who don't take medication for diabetes have better blood sugar control if they test regularly. The study participants' risk of early kidney damage, strokes, and death from diabetes-related causes was also reduced by one-third. Of course, the accuracy of your results is tied to the accuracy of your checking — and to your understanding of what all the numbers mean. "The most important point to me is that people are learning something from checking their blood sugar," says Sacha Uelmen, RDN, CDE, director of nutrition for the American Diabetes Association. "Don't just look at those numbers, write them down, and move on. If you have diabetes, take an active role in your health." To get the most useful readings, learn these common blood sugar testing mistakes and how to avoid them. Continue reading >>
What Is Ok For A Sugar Level?
Normal Fasting Blood Sugar Levels Your body uses glucose for energy. When you wake up in the morning after fasting for at least eight hours, your blood sugar should fall between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter, or mg/dL. Levels between 100 and 120 mg/dL in the morning indicate that you have pre-diabetes, a condition that makes it likely that you'll develop type II diabetes in the future, the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse warns. Blood Sugar After Eating What you eat and how much you eat influences how high your blood sugar level rises after eating. If you have a normal blood sugar level, your level even after eating normally won't rise above 125 mg/dL most of the time, according to MedlinePlus. When testing for diabetes, a level of less than 200 mg/dL one hour after ingesting a high-glucose drink or snack and less than 140 mg/dL two hours after ingestion is considered non-diabetic, MedlinePlus also reports. A blood sugar level that is between 140 to 199 mg/dL zero to two hours after ingestion indicates pre-diabetes, however. Diabetic Fasting Levels The American Diabetes Association says diabetics should maintain a normal fasting blood sugar level between 70 to 130 mg/dL. Some diabetics are prone to hypoglycemia, a condition in which blood glucose levels are less than 70 mg/dL. Hypoglycemia can lead to shakiness, sweating, trouble concentrating and loss of consciousness if not treated. If you have a tendency toward hypoglycemia, your doctor might suggest testing your blood sugar level more frequently or changing your diet. Diabetic Levels After Eating Compared to non-diabetics, blood sugar level in diabetics generally rises higher after a meal. According to the ADA, blood sugar level of diabetics should remain less than 180 mg/dL even after eating. If yo Continue reading >>
Expected Blood Glucose After A High-carb Meal
Expected Blood Glucose After a High-Carb Meal Written by Sharon Perkins ; Updated June 22, 2017 Checking your blood glucose after meals helps determine how well you're controlling your blood sugar. 4 Should You Skip a Meal if Your Blood Glucose Is High? Blood glucose levels normally rise after a high-carbohydrate meal and drop back to normal levels within a few hours. But if your glucose levels rise higher than normal and recover more slowly, you might have diabetes. Your doctor can administer tests that measure your blood glucose levels immediately before you consume a high-carbohydrate meal and for several hours afterward. If you already have diabetes, your doctor might want you to check your blood glucose levels after meals, to make sure you're keeping your glucose within the expected range. Healthy, non-diabetic people normally have blood glucose levels of less than 120 milligrams per deciliter two hours after a normal meal, rarely exceeding 140 mg/dL, according to the American Diabetes Association. Levels return to normal within two to three hours. When you undergo a glucose tolerance test, you consume a high-carbohydrate drink or snack containing 75 grams of carbohydrate. At one hour, your test falls into the normal, non-diabetic range if your blood glucose remains below 200 mg/dL. Two hours after your meal, blood glucose should remain below 140 mg/dL. A level of over 200 mg/dL at two hours post-prandial -- which means after a meal -- indicates diabetes. Levels between 140 and 200 mg/dL indicate pre-diabetes, a condition with a strong risk of developing diabetes in the future. Diabetics experience larger spikes in blood glucose that take longer to return to baseline. For diabetics, blood glucose an hour after eating should remain below 180 mg/dL or no more than 8 Continue reading >>
Healthy Blood Sugar Targets
If you have been told your blood sugar is higher than normal, you may wonder what blood sugar levels you should be aiming for to ensure ongoing health. Doctors and organizations like the American Diabetes Association suggest various blood sugar targets, but before you adopt any such target, it is worth remembering that the point of setting and adhering to any blood sugar target is to avoid diabetic complications. "Complications" is a euphemism for some very ugly outcomes that include blindness, amputation, kidney failure and death. So the obvious question to ask about any blood sugar target is "What evidence suggests that this blood sugar level is low enough to prevent complications." Research conducted with human patients, mice, and pancreas beta cell cultures all point to a single threshold at which elevated blood sugars cause permanent damage to your body. What is that level? 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after meals You can read in detail about the research that establishes this as the highest level you should allow your blood sugars to rise after meals here: Research Connecting Blood Sugar Level with Organ Damage The AACE Recommends A Post-Meal Blood Sugar Target Below 140 mg/dl In 2007, The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, an organization of specialists who treat diabetes, published a White Paper recommending that blood sugar should not be allowed to rise above 140 mg/dl two hours after a meal. The white paper explained this stating: . .a large number of highly robust cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies have clearly implicated a close association between postchallenge or postprandial hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk. These studies encompass diverse populations and disparate geographic regions, from Honolulu to Chicago to Islington Continue reading >>
What Are Normal Blood Sugar Levels?
Normal blood sugar levels are less than 100 mg/dL after not eating (fasting) for at least eight hours. And they're less than 140 mg/dL two hours after eating. During the day, levels tend to be at their lowest just before meals. For most people without diabetes, blood sugar levels before meals hover around 70 to 80 mg/dL. For some people, 60 is normal; for others, 90 is the norm. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: "Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2." American Diabetes Association: "Checking Your Blood Glucose;" "Type 2 Diabetes Complications;" and ''National Diabetes Fact Sheet 2011.'' Robertson, R. 2003. Diabetes, Brownlee, M. 1994. Diabetes, Wautier, J. 1994. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Christiansen, J. "What Is Normal Glucose?" presentation at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting, September 13, 2006. Fuller, J. 1980. Lancet, Riddle, M. 1990. Diabetes Care, Rao, S. 2004. American Family Physician, Cryer, P. 1993. American Journal of Physiology, Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy on December 19, 2017 National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: "Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2." American Diabetes Association: "Checking Your Blood Glucose;" "Type 2 Diabetes Complications;" and ''National Diabetes Fact Sheet 2011.'' Robertson, R. 2003. Diabetes, Brownlee, M. 1994. Diabetes, Wautier, J. 1994. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, Christiansen, J. "What Is Normal Glucose?" presentation at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting, September 13, 2006. Fuller, J. 1980. Lancet, Riddle, M. 1990. Diabetes Care, Rao, S. 2004. American Family Physician, Continue reading >>
If you have gestational diabetes, the chances of having problems with the pregnancy can be reduced by controlling your blood sugar (glucose) levels. You'll also need to be more closely monitored during pregnancy and labour to check if treatment is working and to check for any problems. Checking your blood sugar level You'll be given a testing kit that you can use to check your blood sugar level. This involves using a finger-pricking device and putting a drop of blood on a testing strip. You'll be advised: how to test your blood sugar level correctly when and how often to test your blood sugar – most women with gestational diabetes are advised to test before breakfast and one hour after each meal what level you should be aiming for – this will be a measurement given in millimoles of glucose per litre of blood (mmol/l) Diabetes UK has more information about monitoring your glucose levels. Diet Making changes to your diet can help control your blood sugar level. You should be offered a referral to a dietitian, who can give you advice about your diet, and you may be given a leaflet to help you plan your meals. You may be advised to: eat regularly – usually three meals a day – and avoid skipping meals eat starchy and low glycaemic index (GI) foods that release sugar slowly – such as wholewheat pasta, brown rice, granary bread, all-bran cereals, pulses, beans, lentils, muesli and porridge eat plenty of fruit and vegetables – aim for at least five portions a day avoid sugary foods – you don't need a completely sugar-free diet, but try to swap snacks such as cakes and biscuits for healthier alternatives such as fruit, nuts and seeds avoid sugary drinks – sugar-free or diet drinks are better than sugary versions; be aware that fruit juices and smoothies contain s Continue reading >>
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