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Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia is the medical term for a high blood sugar (glucose) level. It's a common problem for people with diabetes. It can affect people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, as well as pregnant women with gestational diabetes. It can occasionally affect people who don't have diabetes, but usually only people who are seriously ill, such as those who have recently had a stroke or heart attack, or have a severe infection. Hyperglycaemia shouldn't be confused with hypoglycaemia, which is when a person's blood sugar level drops too low. This information focuses on hyperglycaemia in people with diabetes. Is hyperglycaemia serious? The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as near to normal as possible. But if you have diabetes, no matter how careful you are, you're likely to experience hyperglycaemia at some point. It's important to be able to recognise and treat hyperglycaemia, as it can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Occasional mild episodes aren't usually a cause for concern and can be treated quite easily or may return to normal on their own. However, hyperglycaemia can be potentially dangerous if blood sugar levels become very high or stay high for long periods. Very high blood sugar levels can cause life-threatening complications, such as: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a condition caused by the body needing to break down fat as a source of energy, which can lead to a diabetic coma; this tends to affect people with type 1 diabetes hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) – severe dehydration caused by the body trying to get rid of excess sugar; this tends to affect people with type 2 diabetes Regularly having high blood sugar levels for long periods of time (over months or years) can result in permanent damage to parts Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

About Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when blood glucose drops below normal levels. Glucose, an important source of energy for the body, comes from food. Carbohydrates are the main dietary source of glucose. Rice, potatoes, bread, tortillas, cereal, milk, fruit, and sweets are all carbohydrate-rich foods. After a meal, glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to the body's cells. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps the cells use glucose for energy. If a person takes in more glucose than the body needs at the time, the body stores the extra glucose in the liver and muscles in a form called glycogen. The body can use glycogen for energy between meals. Extra glucose can also be changed to fat and stored in fat cells. Fat can also be used for energy. When blood glucose begins to fall, glucagon—another hormone made by the pancreas—signals the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the bloodstream. Blood glucose will then rise toward a normal level. In some people with diabetes, this glucagon response to hypoglycemia is impaired and other hormones such as epinephrine, also called adrenaline, may raise the blood glucose level. But with diabetes treated with insulin or pills that increase insulin production, glucose levels can't easily return to the normal range. Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly. It is usually mild and can be treated quickly and easily by eating or drinking a small amount of glucose-rich food. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can get worse and cause confusion, clumsiness, or fainting. Severe hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death...Read more about Hypoglycemia NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Prevalence of type 2 di Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Print Overview A diabetic coma is a life-threatening diabetes complication that causes unconsciousness. If you have diabetes, dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can lead to a diabetic coma. If you lapse into a diabetic coma, you're alive — but you can't awaken or respond purposefully to sights, sounds or other types of stimulation. Left untreated, a diabetic coma can be fatal. The prospect of a diabetic coma is scary, but fortunately you can take steps to help prevent it. Start by following your diabetes treatment plan. Symptoms Before developing a diabetic coma, you'll usually experience signs and symptoms of high blood sugar or low blood sugar. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) If your blood sugar level is too high, you may experience: Increased thirst Frequent urination Fatigue Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Stomach pain Fruity breath odor A very dry mouth A rapid heartbeat Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Signs and symptoms of a low blood sugar level may include: Shakiness or nervousness Anxiety Fatigue Weakness Sweating Hunger Nausea Dizziness or light-headedness Difficulty speaking Confusion Some people, especially those who've had diabetes for a long time, develop a condition known as hypoglycemia unawareness and won't have the warning signs that signal a drop in blood sugar. If you experience any symptoms of high or low blood sugar, test your blood sugar and follow your diabetes treatment plan based on the test results. If you don't start to feel better quickly, or you start to feel worse, call for emergency help. When to see a doctor A diabetic coma is a medical emergency. If you feel extreme high or low blood sugar signs or symptoms and think you might pass out, call 911 or your local emergency nu Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia is defined as blood glucose (sugar) levels that are higher than the target values for the majority of people with diabetes: above 7 mmol/L fasting or before a meal above 10 mmol/L two hours after a meal Hyperglycemia occurs when the amount of insulin in the blood is insufficient or ineffective. When glucose circulating in the blood cannot enter the cells because of a lack of insulin, it accumulates in the blood and raises a person’s glycemia (blood glucose levels) . Symptoms Some people may not notice their hyperglycemia. However, above a certain threshold, high blood sugar can lead to the following symptoms: drowsiness increased urination intense thirst excessive hunger involuntary weight loss irritability dizziness Causes The primary causes of hyperglycemia are: insufficient insulin and/or antidiabetic medication (dosage error or a skipped dose) physical stress (illness, surgery, infection, etc.) or psychological stress (mourning a death, new job, moving, etc.) taking certain drugs (e.g.: cortisone) Hyperglycemia can also be caused by two lesser known phenomena: the dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect. Preventing hyperglycemia In most cases, hyperglycemia can be avoided by taking the following precautions: Measure your blood glucose (sugar) levels regularly. Follow a daily meal plan designed by a dietitian. Take your insulin or antidiabetic medication as prescribed. Adjust your insulin dose based on your medical prescription Treatment If you experience hyperglycemic symptoms, you should: take your blood glucose (sugar) readings frequently if you have type 1 diabetes: if your blood glucose level is higher than 14 mmol/L, check for ketones in your urine or blood drink lots of water to prevent dehydration (250 ml of water every hour) adjust your insuli Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In People Without Diabetes

Hypoglycemia (low Blood Sugar) In People Without Diabetes

Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is most common in people who have diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes and need more information about low blood sugar, see the topics: You may have briefly felt the effects of low blood sugar when you've gotten really hungry or exercised hard without eating enough. This happens to nearly everyone from time to time. It's easy to correct and usually nothing to worry about. But low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, can also be an ongoing problem. It occurs when the level of sugar in your blood drops too low to give your body energy. What causes hypoglycemia in people who don't have diabetes? Ongoing problems with low blood sugar can be caused by: Symptoms can be different depending on how low your blood sugar level drops. Mild hypoglycemia can make you feel hungry or like you want to vomit. You could also feel jittery or nervous. Your heart may beat fast. You may sweat. Or your skin might turn cold and clammy. Moderate hypoglycemia often makes people feel short-tempered, nervous, afraid, or confused. Your vision may blur. You could also feel unsteady or have trouble walking. Severe hypoglycemia can cause you to pass out. You could have seizures. It could even cause a coma or death. If you've had hypoglycemia during the night, you may wake up tired or with a headache. And you may have nightmares. Or you may sweat so much during the night that your pajamas or sheets are damp when you wake up. To diagnose hypoglycemia, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask you questions about your health and any medicines you take. You will need blood tests to check your blood sugar levels. Some tests might include not eating (fasting) and watching for symptoms. Other tests might involve eating a meal that could cause symptoms of low Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia Overview

Hypoglycemia Overview

Hypoglycemia means low (hypo) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates (e.g., fruit, bread, potatoes, milk, and rice) are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet, and your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. The glucose is then transported in your blood to cells that need it; it gives your body energy. However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. Sometimes, your blood glucose level can drop too low—that's hypoglycemia. It usually happens quite quickly, and it can be handled quite quickly, as well. People with type 1 diabetes do not make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes fall into two categories when it comes to insulin: either their body doesn't make enough, or their body is unable to use it well (insulin resistance). Normal Blood Glucose The American Diabetes Association published the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes that provide recommended target blood glucose ranges for people with and without diabetes. The standard for measuring blood glucose is “mg/dL,” which means milligrams per deciliter. People without Diabetes After eating (called postprandial) 70 to 140 mg/dL Goals for People with Diabetes Type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus) is more common than type 1 diabetes. Around 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National 2014 Diabetes Statistics Report, 29.1 million A Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar 31 Mg/dl - Good Or Bad? - Bloodsugareasy.com

Blood Sugar 31 Mg/dl - Good Or Bad? - Bloodsugareasy.com

General information about Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia) Low blood sugar, clinical name hypoglycemia, is a condition in which blood sugar levels in the body fall too low. Generally, a blood sugar level between 80 and 110 milligrams per deciliter is considered to be in normal range. When this level falls below 80, individuals may develop symptoms of low blood sugar. This condition often occurs in people with diabetes, when they try to control high glucose levels and the level falls too low. However, low blood sugar can occur from other causes, such as going for long periods without eating, from certain medications and from specific medical conditions. The disturbance in normal blood sugar levels can cause a variety of symptoms, which may be different in each individual. Common symptoms include: Individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes learn to monitor their blood sugar levels closely. When blood sugar drops below normal levels, they learn to recognize the signs, such as dizziness or nausea. Diabetics often have a glucometer to determine if low blood sugar is the cause. Test strips can also determine if blood sugar levels have dropped too low. They can then take measures to raise their blood sugar to a normal range. To quickly raise low blood sugar to a normal level, medical professionals advise consuming one of the following: Continue reading >>

Low Blood Sugar

Low Blood Sugar

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. Insulin is needed to move glucose into cells where it is stored or used for energy. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into the cells. This leads to symptoms of diabetes. Low blood sugar occurs due to any of the following: Your body's sugar (glucose) is used up too quickly Glucose production by the body is too low or it is released into the bloodstream too slowly Too much insulin is in the bloodstream Low blood sugar is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or certain other medicines to control their diabetes. However, many other diabetes medicines do not cause low blood sugar. Exercise can also lead to low blood sugar in people taking insulin to treat their diabetes. Babies born to mothers with diabetes may have severe drops in blood sugar right after birth. In people who do not have diabetes, low blood sugar may be caused by: Drinking alcohol Insulinoma, which is a rare tumor in the pancreas that produces too much insulin Lack of a hormone, such as cortisol, growth hormone, or thyroid hormone Severe heart, kidney, or liver failure Infection that affects the whole body (sepsis) Some types of weight-loss surgery (usually 5 or more years after the surgery) Medicines not used to treat diabetes (certain antibiotics or heart drugs) Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Preventing High Blood Sugar Emergencies

Diabetes: Preventing High Blood Sugar Emergencies

Introduction High blood sugar in diabetes occurs when the sugar (glucose) level in the blood rises above normal. It is also called hyperglycemia. When you have diabetes, high blood sugar may be caused by not getting enough insulin or missing your diabetes medicine. It may also be caused by eating too much food, skipping exercise, or being ill or stressed. Unlike low blood sugar, high blood sugar usually happens slowly over hours or days. Blood sugar levels above your target range may make you feel tired and thirsty. If your blood sugar keeps rising, your kidneys will make more urine and you can get dehydrated. Signs of dehydration include being thirstier than usual and having darker urine than usual. Without treatment, severe dehydration can be life-threatening. Over time, high blood sugar can damage the eyes, heart, kidneys, blood vessels, and nerves. Watch for symptoms of high blood sugar. Symptoms include feeling very tired or thirsty and urinating more often than usual. As long as you notice the symptoms, you will probably have time to treat high blood sugar so that you can prevent an emergency. Three things can help you prevent high blood sugar problems: Test your blood sugar often, especially if you are sick or not following your normal routine. Testing lets you see when your blood sugar is above your target range, even if you don't have symptoms. Then you can treat it early. Call your doctor if you often have high blood sugar or your blood sugar is often above your target range. Your medicine may need to be adjusted or changed. Drink extra water or drinks that don't have caffeine or sugar to prevent dehydration. How do you prevent high blood sugar emergencies? Treat infections early Infections that aren't treated (such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Tweet Hyperglycemia occurs when people with diabetes have too much sugar in their bloodstream. Hyperglycemia should not be confused with hypoglycemia, which is when blood sugar levels go too low. You should aim to avoid spending long periods of time with high blood glucose levels. What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, the term for expressing high blood sugar, has been defined by the World Health Organisation as: Blood glucose levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl) when fasting Blood glucose levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) 2 hours after meals Although blood sugar levels exceeding 7 mmol/L for extended periods of time can start to cause damage to internal organs, symptoms may not develop until blood glucose levels exceed 11 mmol/L. What causes hyperglycemia? The underlying cause of hyperglycemia will usually be from loss of insulin producing cells in the pancreas or if the body develops resistance to insulin. More immediate reasons for hyperglycemia include: Missing a dose of diabetic medication, tablets or insulin Eating more carbohydrates than your body and/or medication can manage Being mentally or emotionally stressed (injury, surgery or anxiety) Contracting an infection What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia? The main 3 symptoms of high blood sugar levels are increased urination, increased thirst and increased hunger. High blood sugar levels can also contribute to the following symptoms: Regular/above-average urination Weakness or feeling tired Increased thirst Vision blurring Is hyperglycemia serious? Hyperglycemia can be serious if: Blood glucose levels stay high for extended periods of time - this can lead to the development of long term complications Blood glucose levels rise dangerously high - this can lead to short term complications In the shor Continue reading >>

What Is Hyperglycemia?

What Is Hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia, a high level of sugar in the blood, is a hallmark of diabetes. Your blood sugar levels fluctuate over the course of a day: Levels are higher right after meals, as carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (sugar), and lower after exercise, when glucose has been burned to fuel the activity. In someone who doesn't have diabetes, blood sugar levels stay within a narrow range. Between meals, the concentration of sugar in the blood ranges from about 60 to 100 mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter). After meals it may reach 120 to 130 mg/dl, but rarely goes higher than 140 mg/dl. But if you have type 2 diabetes, blood sugar levels can go much higher — to 200, 300, or even 400 mg/dl and beyond — and will go much higher unless you take the necessary steps to bring them down. Hyperglycemia Symptoms High blood sugar doesn't always produce symptoms, so it's important to check your blood sugar regularly, as indicated by your doctor. Hyperglycemia symptoms include: Frequent urination Extreme thirst Feeling tired and weak Blurry vision Feeling hungry, even after eating Causes of Hyperglycemia If you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, a treatment plan is put in place to lower blood sugar and keep it as close to the normal range as possible. But even after you start treatment, you may still develop hyperglycemia at times. When you have diabetes, it's almost impossible not to have hyperglycemia — and high blood sugar can happen for no identifiable reason. Some of the reasons blood sugar may go too high include: Missing prescribed medicines or taking medication at the wrong times or in the wrong amounts High food intake or larger consumptions of carbohydrate than expected or intended Lack of sleep Emotional stress Intense exercise Illness is another important — and Continue reading >>

What To Do If Your Blood Sugar Is Too Low

What To Do If Your Blood Sugar Is Too Low

What to Do if Your Blood Sugar Is Too Low What to Do if Your Blood Sugar Is Too Low You'll need to test your blood sugar if you think you have hypoglycemia.(ARTIGA PHOTO/CORBIS)Although type 2 diabetes is characterized by blood sugar that is too high, some people take insulin and others medications (such as sulfonylureas) that can occasionally drive blood sugar too low. When blood sugar is too lowgenerally less than 70 mg/dLit's called hypoglycemia, and it can become a medical emergency. (The normal range for fasting blood sugar is 70 to 99 mg/dL, though it varies somewhat with age, and is lower during pregnancy and in children.) Hypoglycemia is more likely to occur when you start taking a new medication (it can take practice to match your food intake to your insulin dose, for example) or if you exercise more than usual. As blood sugar drops to low levels, you may feel: This can occur within 10 to 15 minutes, and in extreme cases you can even lose consciousness and experience seizures if you don't consume some glucose (though hypoglycemia is usually mild in people with type 2 diabetes, and readily fixed by drinking juice or eating other sugar-containing items, such as glucose tablets or four to six pieces of hard candy). 6 Things to Do If Your Blood Sugar Is Too High You'll need to test your blood sugar to confirm that you're having hypoglycemiasome people become irritable if blood sugar is too high, so it's not always obvious. If you drink sugar-containing juice, or some other form of carbohydrate, it should bring blood sugar back into the normal range. You can also purchase glucose pills or gels in the pharmacy that can get blood sugar back on track. You should always have a glucose source in the car, says Yvonne Thigpen, RD, diabetes program coordinator at Mount Cle Continue reading >>

6 Diabetes Mistakes And How To Avoid Them

6 Diabetes Mistakes And How To Avoid Them

It takes work to manage your type 2 diabetes. That includes the little things you do every day, such as what you eat and how active you are. Start by avoiding these common mistakes. Your medical team is essential. But you're not in the doctor's office every day. “You are your own doctor 99.9% of the time,” says Andrew Ahmann, MD. He's director of the Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center at Oregon Health & Science University. You’re the one in charge, so it’s up to you to watch your diet, exercise, and take your medication on schedule. You can make better decisions about how to track and manage your diabetes by understanding how the disease works. Sign up for a class or a support group on managing diabetes. “Not enough patients seek them out, and not enough doctors send their patients to them," Ahmann says. "Not only do these resources offer essential information, but they also bring together people who have the same challenges, giving them a place to meet and talk with each other." It's a big step to shift your eating and exercise habits. You need to give it time to see results and for it to feel permanent. “Most people expect something dramatic is going to happen right away,” says UCLA endocrinologist Preethi Srikanthan, MD. “But it has taken them a decade or two to get to this point, and it will take a while for them to even get to that initial 5% to 10% reduction in weight.” To make a lasting change, take small steps, Ahmann says. If you try to do more than you can handle, you might quit. Before you start a new exercise program, talk with your doctor, especially if you aren’t active now. They can help you set goals and plan a routine that’s safe and effective. Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugars (ketoacidosis)

High Blood Sugars (ketoacidosis)

Fri, 11/19/2010 - 14:41 -- Richard Morris Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome Severe high blood sugars, ketosis (the presence of ketones prior to acidification of the blood), and ketoacidosis (DKA) are serious and potentially life-threatening medical problems which can occur in diabetes. High blood sugars become life-threatening in Type 1 or long-term Type 2 diabetes only when that person does not receive enough insulin from injections or an insulin pump. This can be caused by skipping insulin or not receiving enough insulin when large amounts are required due to an infection or other major stress. Ketoacidosis surprisingly occurs almost as often in Type 2 diabetes as it does in Type 1. However, people with Type 2 diabetes also encounter another dangerous condition called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, which is roughly translated as thick blood due to very high blood sugars. Here, coma and death can occur simply because the blood sugar is so high. The blood will have ketones at higher levels but does not become acidotic. HHS usually occurs with blood sugar readings above 700 mg/dl (40 mmol) as the brain and other functions begin to shut down. When insulin levels are low, the body cannot use glucose present at high levels in the blood. The body then starts burning excessive amounts of fat which causes the blood to become acidic as excess ketone byproducts are produced. Even though the blood pH which measures acidity only drops from its normal level of 7.4 down to 7.1 or 7.0, this small drop is enough to inactivate enzymes that depend on a precise acid-base balance to operate. High blood sugars and ketoacidosis can be triggered by: In Type 1 diabetes, ketoacidosis often occurs under the duress of an infection, and is also frequently present when a Continue reading >>

Causes And Risk Factors Of Hypoglycemia

Causes And Risk Factors Of Hypoglycemia

By Craig Stoltz | Reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) occurs when your blood sugar (glucose) levels are less than or equal to 70 mg/dL and symptoms are present . It can be caused by a number of factors, depending on whether or not you also have diabetes. In those with diabetes, hypoglycemia causes include not eating enough carbohydrates, exercise, alcohol consumption, taking medications incorrectly, and weight loss. In people without diabetes, hypoglycemia can be caused by medication, drinking too much alcohol, and certain illnesses and disorders. It's also important to note that hypoglycemia usually doesn't occur in people with type 2 diabetes who are only using dietary modifications. If you have diabetes and take insulin or oral medications that stimulate insulin secretion, there are a number of factors that can cause hypoglycemia, including: Lack of carbohydrates:Carbs are the body's main source of glucose , so if you don't eat enough of them, your blood sugar may dip, especially if you reduce the number of carbs you're taking in, but don't adjust your medication accordingly. Delaying or skipping meals:If you take insulin or oral medications for diabetes, eating a meal later than you planned or skipping it altogether can result in hypoglycemia. Make sure you talk to your doctor about whether or not you should also skip your medication if you skip a meal. Exercise:While exercise is great for helping to reduce your blood sugar levels, lose weight, burn calories, and have more energy, if you have diabetes and you exercise without eating, exercise more than you normally do, or you delay your meal, you may become hypoglycemic. Make sure you have a snack along with you for before or after your workout, as well as a fast-acting source of carbo Continue reading >>

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