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Blood Glucose Level Normal Range

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring Of Diabetes

According to the latest American Heart Association's Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, about 8 million people 18 years and older in the United States have type 2 diabetes and do not know it. Often type 1 diabetes remains undiagnosed until symptoms become severe and hospitalization is required. Left untreated, diabetes can cause a number of health complications. That's why it's so important to both know what warning signs to look for and to see a health care provider regularly for routine wellness screenings. Symptoms In incidences of prediabetes, there are no symptoms. People may not be aware that they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes because they have no symptoms or because the symptoms are so mild that they go unnoticed for quite some time. However, some individuals do experience warning signs, so it's important to be familiar with them. Prediabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes No symptoms Increased or extreme thirst Increased thirst Increased appetite Increased appetite Increased fatigue Fatigue Increased or frequent urination Increased urination, especially at night Unusual weight loss Weight loss Blurred vision Blurred vision Fruity odor or breath Sores that do not heal In some cases, no symptoms In some cases, no symptoms If you have any of these symptoms, see your health care provider right away. Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your healthcare provider. Who should be tested for prediabetes and diabetes? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that you should be tested if you are: If your blood glucose levels are in normal range, testing should be done about every three years. If you have prediabetes, you should be checked for diabetes every one to two years after diagnosis. Tests for Diagnosing Prediabetes and Diabetes There are three ty Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Levels

Blood Glucose Levels

What is the blood sugar level? The blood sugar level is the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is also known as plasma glucose level. It is expressed as millimoles per litre (mmol/l). Normally blood glucose levels stay within narrow limits throughout the day: 4 to 8mmol/l. But they are higher after meals and usually lowest in the morning. In diabetes the blood sugar level moves outside these limits until treated. Even with good control of diabetes, the blood sugar level will still at times drift outside this normal range. Why control blood sugar levels? When very high levels of blood glucose are present for years, it leads to damage of the small blood vessels. This in turn increases your risk of developing late-stage diabetes complications including: With type 1 diabetes, these complications may start to appear 10 to 15 years after diagnosis. They frequently appear less than 10 years after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, because this type of diabetes is often present for years before it is recognised. By keeping the blood sugar level stable, you significantly reduce your risk of these complications. How can I measure blood sugar levels? Home testing kits come in a variety of shapes and sizes. A pharmacist or the diabetes clinic nurse can advise you about the best model. You can usually obtain a blood glucose meter at little or no cost via the diabetes clinic. Testing strips are available on NHS prescription. You can learn to measure blood sugar levels simply and quickly with a home blood glucose level testing kit. All kits have at least two things: a measuring device (a 'meter') and a strip. To check your blood sugar level, put a small amount of blood on the strip. Now place the strip into the device. Within 30 seconds it will display the blood glucose level. The Continue reading >>

Diabetes & Me

Diabetes & Me

Diabetes is a chronic disease with serious complications, currently affecting an estimated 1.7 million Australians. Almost 300 Australians develop diabetes every day, yet research shows that most Australians think diabetes is not a serious illness and believe they have a lower risk of developing it than they actually do. Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is the name given to a group of conditions that occurs when the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood becomes higher than normal. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose from your blood stream, into the cells of your body where it is used for energy. When you have diabetes, the body either can’t make enough insulin or the insulin that is being made does not work properly. This causes your blood glucose level to become too high. High blood glucose levels can affect both your short and long term health. There are two main types of diabetes – type 1 and type 2. At this stage there is no known cure for either type of diabetes, although diabetes can be well managed. Diabetes Facts Over 100,000 Australian adults develop diabetes each year More than 1.2 million Australians are currently diagnosed with diabetes. Including undiagnosed Australians, it is estimated that about 1.7 million people in Australia have diabetes An estimated 2–3 million Australians have pre-diabetes and are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes Every year 20,000 women in Australia develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy How is diabetes diagnosed? Diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test. Most people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes will present with symptoms of diabetes such as: increased thirst, urination and tiredness. Some people will also have signs of slow healing of wounds or persistent infections. However many p Continue reading >>

How To Maintain Normal Blood Sugar

How To Maintain Normal Blood Sugar

If you are one of the millions of people who has prediabetes, diabetes, metabolic syndrome or any other form of “insulin resistance,” maintaining normal blood sugar levels can be challenging. Over the past several decades, these chronic disorders have swept through the U.S. and many other nations, reaching epidemic proportions and causing serious, but often preventable, side effects like nerve damage, fatigue, loss of vision, arterial damage and weight gain. Elevated blood sugar levels maintained for an extended period of time can push someone who is “prediabetic” into having full-blown diabetes (which now affects about one in every three adults in the U.S.). (1) Even for people who aren’t necessarily at a high risk for developing diabetes or heart complications, poorly managed blood sugar can lead to common complications, including fatigue, weight gain and sugar cravings. In extreme cases, elevated blood sugar can even contribute to strokes, amputations, coma and death in people with a history of insulin resistance. Blood sugar is raised by glucose, which is the sugar we get from eating many different types of foods that contain carbohydrates. Although we usually think of normal blood sugar as being strictly reliant upon how many carbohydrates and added sugar someone eats, other factors also play a role. For example, stress can elevate cortisol levels, which interferes with how insulin is used, and the timing of meals can also affect how the body manages blood sugar. (2) What can you do to help avoid dangerous blood sugar swings and lower diabetes symptoms? As you’ll learn, normal blood sugar levels are sustained through a combination of eating a balanced, low-processed diet, getting regular exercise and managing the body’s most important hormones in othe Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Understand Your Blood Glucose Test Results

Understand Your Blood Glucose Test Results

Get the most out of your blood glucose test results – know what they mean, when to test, and how to respond. Daily glucose tests, routine A1C lab tests – that’s a lot of numbers to make sense of, which can be intimidating. Try to see them as your body talking to you. It’s telling you if there are things that throw your blood glucose levels off, when this is happening, and if you need to do something about it. Knowing what your numbers mean can help you take control of your diabetes and have more days feeling at your best. What Is A Normal Glucose Level The Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) recommends an A1C of less than 7 per cent.1 For blood glucose, the recommended target ranges are 4-7 mmol/L before meals and 5-10 mmol/L two hours after a meal. It’s a good idea to sit down with your healthcare professional and discuss what target ranges are right for you. Things like your age, medications and time of day can impact your levels. If you start the day with a fasting test A fasting blood glucose test sets a “benchmark” for the day. It tells you how you did through the night, and also reveals how well your liver is working – which is responsible for releasing glucose as you sleep. If you test 2 hours after meals This is an immediate way to know how your meal plan might be affecting your blood glucose levels. The CDA recommends an after-meal target of 5-10 mmol/L.1 Your results will tell you if you need to adjust what you eat or by how much. If your glucose is low, take action right away It’s normal for glucose levels to go up and down over the course of a day. But know when they’re too low. Hypoglycemia happens when your blood glucose (measured with your meter) goes below 4 mmol/L. Learn how to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia and ways to manag Continue reading >>

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

All About The Hemoglobin A1c Test

People with diabetes used to depend only on urine tests or daily finger sticks to measure their blood sugars. These tests are accurate, but only in the moment. As an overall measurement of blood sugar control, they’re very limited. This is because blood sugar can vary wildly depending on the time of day, activity levels, and even hormone changes. Some people may have high blood sugars at 3 a.m. and be totally unaware of it. Once A1C tests became available in the 1980s, they became an important tool in controlling diabetes. A1C tests measure average blood glucose over the past two to three months. So even if you have a high fasting blood sugar, your overall blood sugars may be normal, or vice versa. A normal fasting blood sugar may not eliminate the possibility of type 2 diabetes. This is why A1C tests are now being used for diagnosis and screening of prediabetes. Because it doesn’t require fasting, the test can be given as part of an overall blood screening. The A1C test is also known as the hemoglobin A1C test or HbA1C test. Other alternate names include the glycosylated hemoglobin test, glycohemoglobin test, and glycated hemoglobin test. A1C measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating, but they have a lifespan of approximately three months. Glucose attaches, or glycates, to hemoglobin, so the record of how much glucose is attached to your hemoglobin also lasts for about three months. If there’s too much glucose attached to the hemoglobin cells, you’ll have a high A1C. If the amount of glucose is normal, your A1C will be normal. The test is effective because of the lifespan of the hemogl Continue reading >>

A Guide To Blood Sugar Levels

A Guide To Blood Sugar Levels

(Q) My doctor says that my sugar level was 8.0. Can you tell me if this is very high or just above normal? (A) Usually blood sugar levels are tested in the 'fasting' state – when you have not had anything to eat or drink for eight hours. The normal range for fasting blood sugar is anything from 3.0 to 5.5 mmol/L. If you have not fasted, the normal range for random blood sugar is between 3.0 and 7.8 mmol/L. The body can usually keep the blood sugar within this range despite variations in food intake and energy expenditure, but if the blood test is done very soon after eating it is possible it may be slightly above. Other conditions which may temporarily cause increased blood sugar readings include acute infection, trauma and physical or psychological stress. In such cases the raised blood sugar may not be indicative of diabetes and the test should be repeated once the condition of circumstances have stabilised or resolved. If your blood test was done immediately after eating a large amount of carbohydrates or if you had a concurrent health condition or circumstances such as those described above, this might explain the result being mildly above the range for random glucose. But if your result of 8.0 was after fasting for eight hours this is very concerning as it could well indicate a diagnosis of diabetes. If you did not fast for your last test, your doctor may advise you to repeat the test and fast this time and hopefully it will be in range (below 5.5 mmol/L). If your level of 8.0 was already fasting your doctor may advise repeating the test (a fasting blood sugar that is repeatedly over 7.0 indicates a diagnosis of diabetes) and possibly doing a further test known as a 'glucose tolerance test' (GTT). With the GTT you have a baseline fasting blood sugar level done an Continue reading >>

Overview Of Diabetes

Overview Of Diabetes

Diagnosis The biochemical hallmark of diabetes is elevated blood glucose. Therefore, diagnosis of diabetes is made by estimation of glucose concentrations in the blood. When the fasting plasma glucose is ≥ 126 mg/dl or random blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl on more than one occasion.1 Fasting Plasma Glucose: Elevated fasting plasma glucose is always regarded to have a high degree of specificity for the diagnosis of diabetes. It is more consistent and reproducible than postprandial plasma glucose because there are more variable in the latter, such as timing and carbohydrate load. FPG may be easier to control with medications than PPG. An overnight fasting for 8 – 12 hours is considered desirable. The ADA and WHO have recommended FPG value of ≥ 126 mg/dl as the diagnostic value for diabetes and the value of 110 – 125 mg/dl have been termed as impaired fasting glucose which is a prediabetic stage.1 Postprandial Blood Glucose: The word postprandial means after a meal and hence it refers to plasma glucose concentration after food intake. The optimal time to measure postprandial glucose concentrations is 2 hr after the start of a meal. An elevated PPG concentration is one of the earliest abnormalities of type 2 diabetes, and represents an independent risk for cardiovascular disease. Postprandial changes precipitate atherosclerosis before FPG concentrations are affected. The recommended PPG goal of treatment is a value of <160mg/dl. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test It is recommended for diagnosis/exclusion for diabetes. The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) is done in the morning after 8-10hrs of overnight fast (water may be taken). A fasting blood sample should be taken before giving glucose load. The person then drinks 75gm of glucose in 250-300 ml of water (the glucose load Continue reading >>

Perth Diet Clinic

Perth Diet Clinic

Articles Understanding Your Blood Sugar If you have diabetes then it is important to understand and regulate your blood sugars. Being too high or too low can lead to problems. Blood sugars are best within the range of 4 to 7mmol/l. Many doctors will accept blood sugars under 10mmol/l. Maintaining tight control can minimize damage to kidneys, heart, eyes and circulation. Normal blood sugars The NHMRC (National Health Medical Research Council) of Australia says that blood sugars should be in range of 3.5-to 7.8mmol/l. Impaired Glucose Tolerance People are diagnosed with Impaired Glucose Tolerance if their fasting blood glucose levels are between 6.1 and 6.9mmol/l or 2 hours after a meal or glucose load they are between 7.8 and 11.1mmol/l. This means there is impairment in the body's ability to control blood glucose levels. If diet and exercise are maintained and an ideal weight is achieved then often Diabetes Mellitus can be prevented or delayed. Diabetes Mellitus Once levels are greater than or equal to 7mmol/l fasting or 11.0mmol/l two hours after a glucose tolerance test or meal then Diabetes is diagnosed. Even if you lose weight and blood sugars return to normal, you will still have diabetes, as so far there is no cure. If weight is regained, you are ill or stressed; blood sugars can still climb. Guidelines for Testing Blood Sugars Self - blood glucose testing is a method of measuring how much sugar is in your blood. It is done by using a drop of blood from a finger. The blood is applied to a test strip, which is read by a blood glucose machine. It is always wise advice to test blood sugar with a blood glucose monitor at least 4 times a week, two fasting (first thing in the morning) and two, two hours after the evening meal or the main meal of the day. If you have a m Continue reading >>

What Is The Normal Range For Blood Sugar Levels, And What Blood Sugar Level Constitutes A True Emergency?

What Is The Normal Range For Blood Sugar Levels, And What Blood Sugar Level Constitutes A True Emergency?

Question:What is the normal range for blood sugar levels, and what blood sugar level constitutes a true emergency? Answer:Now, in a normal individual we measure blood sugar under different circumstances. What we call fasting blood sugar or blood glucose levels is usually done six to eight hours after the last meal. So it's most commonly done before breakfast in the morning; and the normal range there is 70 to 100 milligrams per deciliter. Now when you eat a meal, blood sugar generally rises and in a normal individual it usually does not get above a 135 to 140 milligrams per deciliter. So there is a fairly narrow range of blood sugar throughout the entire day. Now in our diabetic patients we see both low blood sugar levels that we call hypoglycemia, or elevated blood sugars, hyperglycemia. Now, if the blood sugar drops below about 60 or 65 milligrams per deciliter, people will generally get symptoms, which are some shakiness, feeling of hunger, maybe a little racing of the heart and they will usually be trenchant or if they eat something, it goes away right away. But if blood sugar drops below 50 and can get down as low as 40 or 30 or even 20, then there is a progressive loss of mental function and eventually unconsciousness and seizures. And of course that is very dangerous and a medical emergency. On the other side, if blood sugar gets up above 180 to 200, then it exceeds the capacity of the kidneys to reabsorb the glucose and we begin to spill glucose into the urine. And if it gets way up high, up in the 400s or even 500s, it can be associated with some alteration in mental function. And in this situation, if it persists for a long time, we can actually see mental changes as well. So either too low or very exceedingly high can cause changes in mental function. Next: W Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level?

The aim of diabetes treatment is to bring blood sugar (“glucose”) as close to normal as possible. What is a normal blood sugar level? And how can you achieve normal blood sugar? First, what is the difference between “sugar” and “glucose”? Sugar is the general name for sweet carbohydrates that dissolve in water. “Carbohydrate” means a food made only of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. There are various different kinds of sugars. The one our body uses most is called “glucose.” Other sugars we eat, like fructose from fruit or lactose from milk, are converted into glucose in our bodies. Then we can use them for energy. Our bodies also break down starches, which are sugars stuck together, into glucose. When people talk about “blood sugar,” they mean “blood glucose.” The two terms mean the same thing. In the U.S., blood sugar is normally measured in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (mg/dl). A milligram is very little, about 0.00018 of a teaspoon. A deciliter is about 3 1/3 ounces. In Canada and the United Kingdom, blood sugar is reported in millimoles/liter (mmol/L). You can convert Canadian or British glucose levels to American numbers if you multiply them by 18. This is useful to know if you’re reading comments or studies from England or Canada. If someone reports that their fasting blood glucose was 7, you can multiply that by 18 and get their U.S. glucose level of 126 mg/dl. What are normal glucose numbers? They vary throughout the day. (Click here for a blood sugar chart.) For someone without diabetes, a fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. “Postprandial” sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 140 mg/dl. Those are the normal numbers for someone w Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose

Blood Glucose

Test Overview A blood glucose test measures the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in your blood. Glucose comes from carbohydrate foods. It is the main source of energy used by the body. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body's cells use the glucose. Insulin is produced in the pancreas and released into the blood when the amount of glucose in the blood rises. Normally, your blood glucose levels increase slightly after you eat. This increase causes your pancreas to release insulin so that your blood glucose levels do not get too high. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage your eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. There are several different types of blood glucose tests. Fasting blood sugar (FBS). This test measures blood glucose after you have not eaten for at least 8 hours. It is often the first test done to check for prediabetes and diabetes. 2-hour postprandial blood sugar. This test measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after you start eating a meal. This is not a test used to diagnose diabetes. This test is used to see if someone with diabetes is taking the right amount of insulin with meals. Random blood sugar (RBS). It measures blood glucose regardless of when you last ate. Several random measurements may be taken throughout the day. Random testing is useful because glucose levels in healthy people do not vary widely throughout the day. Blood glucose levels that vary widely may mean a problem. This test is also called a casual blood glucose test. Oral glucose tolerance test. This test is used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance test is a series of blood glucose measurements taken after you drink a sweet liquid that contains glucose. This test is commonly used to diagnose diabetes that occurs during Continue reading >>

Introduction To Self-monitoring Blood Glucose

Introduction To Self-monitoring Blood Glucose

The tiny drop of blood you see on your test strip contains a wealth of information. You can use this to help you within the blood glucose target ranges recommended by your healthcare provider, as well as your own lifestyle goals.1 Blood sugar target ranges In general, the American Diabetes Association's (ADA) recommended blood sugar levels are: Between 80 and 130 mg/dL before meals2 Less than 180 mg/dL after meals2 Your range is yours alone—based on your health, age, level of activity and other factors. And remember that your target is a range you'd like to stay within, not a single number. But what if you're out of range? These results provide valuable information, too. You can review your numbers over time to find patterns in highs and lows. Then you can work with your healthcare team to make adjustments to your diabetes management plan that will bring you closer to your target range. Gaining insights from routine testing Day-to-day blood sugar checks—also known as routine testing—can give you a good idea of how you're doing at this moment, and they can be reviewed overall to see trends. They can help answer questions such as: Are your medications working as they should? How does the type or amount of food you eat affect your blood sugar? How does activity or stress affect your blood sugar? Your healthcare team will probably recommend a schedule of routine or daily testing to help you manage your blood sugar. Recognizing patterns with structured testing You can take self-monitoring a step further with structured testing—checking your blood sugar at specific times over a short period to see how the things you do may affect your blood sugar. For example, if you're interested in insights into your overall blood glucose control, you can identify patterns with the Continue reading >>

Tests For Blood Sugar (glucose) And Hba1c

Tests For Blood Sugar (glucose) And Hba1c

Blood sugar (glucose) measurements are used to diagnose diabetes. They are also used to monitor glucose control for those people who are already known to have diabetes. Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. If your glucose level remains high then you have diabetes. If the level goes too low then it is called hypoglycaemia. The main tests for measuring the amount of glucose in the blood are: Random blood glucose level. Fasting blood glucose level. The HbA1c blood test. Oral glucose tolerance test. Capillary blood glucose (home monitoring). Urine test for blood sugar (glucose). Blood tests for blood sugar (glucose) Random blood glucose level A sample of blood taken at any time can be a useful test if diabetes is suspected. A level of 11.1 mmol/L or more in the blood sample indicates that you have diabetes. A fasting blood glucose test may be done to confirm the diagnosis. Fasting blood glucose level Continue reading >>

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