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Blood Glucose Level 280 Mg/dl

Diabetes Week 13

Diabetes Week 13

Sort Which statement by a nurse to a patient newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is correct? a. Insulin is not used to control blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. b. Complications of type 2 diabetes are less serious than those of type 1 diabetes. c. Changes in diet and exercise may control blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes. d. Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed when the patient is admitted with a hyperglycemic coma. C A 48-year-old male patient screened for diabetes at a clinic has a fasting plasma glucose level of 120 mg/dL (6.7 mmol/L). The nurse will plan to teach the patient about a. self-monitoring of blood glucose. b. using low doses of regular insulin. c. lifestyle changes to lower blood glucose. d. effects of oral hypoglycemic medications. C A 28-year-old male patient with type 1 diabetes reports how he manages his exercise and glucose control. Which behavior indicates that the nurse should implement additional teaching? a. The patient always carries hard candies when engaging in exercise. b. The patient goes for a vigorous walk when his glucose is 200 mg/dL. c. The patient has a peanut butter sandwich before going for a bicycle ride. d. The patient increases daily exercise when ketones are present in the urine. D The nurse is assessing a 22-year-old patient experiencing the onset of symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Which question is most appropriate for the nurse to ask? a. "Are you anorexic?" b. "Is your urine dark colored?" c. "Have you lost weight lately?" d. "Do you crave sugary drinks?" C A patient with type 2 diabetes is scheduled for a follow-up visit in the clinic several months from now. Which test will the nurse schedule to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for the patient? a. Urine dipstick for glucose b. Oral glucose tolerance Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes - Managing A Critical Ratio

Type 1 Diabetes - Managing A Critical Ratio

TEACHER NOTES ©2015 Texas Instruments Incorporated 1 education.ti.com Objectives  Students will learn about how ratios and proportions are a key part of managing Type 1 Diabetes  Students will learn about the regulation of blood glucose through insulin (hormone) binding with cell receptors to open glucose channels  Students will learn about Chelcie’s career choice of pediatric nursing. Vocabulary About the Lesson  The lesson follows a nursing student named Chelcie who has Type 1 Diabetes but doesn’t let it slow her down.  This lesson introduces the concepts of ratios, cell receptors, insulin, blood glucose, and other topics related to Type 1 Diabetes.  Teaching time: one to two 45-minute class period(s)  As a result, students will:  Understand how ratios apply to Type 1 Diabetes  Use simulations to understand the process of blood glucose regulation using insulin replacement therapy  Understand that entry into a cell is regulated by hormones (insulin) TI-Nspire™ Navigator™  Send out the Type_1_Diabetes_Managing_a_critical_ratio.tns file.  Monitor student progress using Class Capture.  Use Live Presenter to spotlight student answers.  Type 1 Diabetes  Glucose Meter  Ratios/proportions  Insulin  Insulin Pump  Carbohydrate  Autoimmunity  Cell Receptors  I:C Ratio  Hypoglycemia  Hyperglycemia  Pancreas  Beta Cells  Correction Factor Tech Tips:  This activity includes screen captures taken from the TI- Nspire CX handheld. It is also appropriate for use with the TI-Nspire family of products including TI-Nspire software and TI-Nspire App. Slight variations Continue reading >>

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Diagnosis Of Diabetes

Diagnosis of Diabetes On this page: What is diabetes? What is pre-diabetes? How are diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnosed? What factors increase my risk for type 2 diabetes? When should I be tested for diabetes? What steps can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes? How is diabetes managed? Points to Remember For More Information What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. People with diabetes have problems converting food to energy. After a meal, food is broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells use insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas, to help them convert blood glucose into energy. People develop diabetes because the pancreas does not make enough insulin or because the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat do not use insulin properly, or both. As a result, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy. Over the years, high blood glucose, also called hyperglycemia, damages nerves and blood vessels, which can lead to complications such as heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve problems, gum infections, and amputation. Types of Diabetes The three main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes, is usually first diagnosed in children, teenagers, or young adults. In this form of diabetes, the beta cells of the pancreas no longer make insulin because the body's immune system has attacked and destroyed them. Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form. People can develop it at any age, even during childhood. This form of diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat Continue reading >>

How To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

How To Reverse Type 2 Diabetes

Do you have type 2 diabetes, or are you at risk for diabetes? Do you worry about your blood sugar? Then you’ve come to the right place. The disease diabetes (any type) means that you have too much sugar in your blood. This page will show you how to best check this. You can normalize your blood sugar naturally as needed – without pills, calorie counting or hunger. Many people have already done so. As a bonus, a normalized blood sugar usually makes you healthier and leaner. Table of contents: A disastrous epidemic Two types of diabetes Normalize your blood sugar Become your own evidence A disastrous epidemic What’s wrong? Why do more and more people become diabetic? In the past, before our modern Western diet, diabetes was extremely rare. The disease is now becoming more and more common. Around the world, more and more people are becoming diabetic: The number of people with diabetes is increasing incredibly rapidly and is heading towards 500 million. This is a world epidemic. Will someone in your family be affected next? Your mother, father, cousin, your child? Or you? Is perhaps your blood already too sweet? Those affected by the most common form of diabetes (type 2) normally never regain their health. Instead, we take for granted that they’ll become a little sicker for every year that goes by. With time they need more and more drugs. Yet, sooner or later complications emerge. Blindness. Dialysis due to faulty kidneys. Dementia. Amputations. Death. Diabetes epidemic causes inconceivable suffering. Fortunately, there’s something that can be done. We just need to see through the mistake that has led to the explosion of disease – and correct it. This can normalize your blood sugar. Many have already succeeded in doing this. If you already know that you are diabe Continue reading >>

Research Connecting Organ Damage With Blood Sugar Level

Research Connecting Organ Damage With Blood Sugar Level

The studies you will read below, some of which are not cited in the AACE guidelines, make a cogent case that post-meal blood sugars of 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) and higher and fasting blood sugars over 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/L) when found in association with those higher than normal post-meal blood sugars, cause both permanent organ damage and the worsening of diabetes. Some of this data also suggests that maintaining an A1c of 5.7% to 6% is much safer for people with diabetes who wish to avoid developng diabetic complications. NOTE: All blood sugar levels discussed on these pages refer to plasma calibrated meter readings, which are the ones today's meters use. Nerve Damage Occurs when Blood Sugars Rise over 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) on Glucose Tolerance Tests A study conducted in the neurology clinic at the University of Utah examined patients who came to the clinic complaining of peripheral neuropathy of unknown origin. Peripheral neuropathy is the medical term for a kind of nerve damage which causes pain, tingling, "pins and needles," numbness or burning sensations in the hands and feet. The University of Utah neurologists found that patients who were not known to be diabetic, but who registered 140/mg or higher on the 2-hour sample taken during a glucose tolerance test were much more likely to have a diabetic form of neuropathy than those who had lower blood sugars. Even more telling, the researchers found that the length of time a patient had experienced this nerve pain correlated with how high their blood sugar had risen over 140 mg/dl on the 2-hour glucose tolerance test reading. It is important to note that this study also showed that only the glucose tolerance test results corresponded to the incidence of neuropathy in these patients, not their fasting blood sugar level Continue reading >>

Admission Hyperglycemia And Other Risk Factors As Predictors Of Hospital Mortality In A Medical Icu Population

Admission Hyperglycemia And Other Risk Factors As Predictors Of Hospital Mortality In A Medical Icu Population

Background: Tight glycemic control is recommended for patients in the ICU, as hyperglycemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Design: Observational cohort of patients admitted to a 12-bed, inner-city, medical ICU (MICU). Subjects: A total of 1,185 of 1,506 patients from July 1, 1999, to December 31, 2002, selected based on a diagnosis other than diabetic ketoacidosis or glycemia > 280 mg/dL or < 80 mg/dL. Purpose: To determine if the highest serum glucose level within 24 h after ICU admission is associated with increased hospital mortality when adjusted for confounders. Measurements: Age, gender, race, worst values within 24 h after ICU admission to construct the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, and highest glucose within 24 h after ICU admission. Hospital mortality was the primary outcome. Admitting diagnosis, MICU length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS were obtained. Glucose, albumin (n = 867), and lactic acid (n = 319) were stratified for analysis. Analysis: Univariate analysis identified factors included in the multivariate model. Results: Patients were predominantly African-American (79%) and men (56%; mean age, 49.2 years). The mean ICU admission highest glucose level was 139 ± 43.7 mg/dL (± SD). MICU LOS and hospital LOS were 6.2 days and 12.9 days, respectively, and 50% of patients received mechanical ventilation. MICU and hospital mortality were 18% and 20%, respectively; standardized mortality ratio was 66%. On univariate analysis, survivors (n = 945) and nonsurvivors (n = 240) showed APACHE II score, mechanical ventilation, hypoalbuminemia, lactic acidemia, and logistic organ dysfunction system score to be hospital mortality predictors; however, the highest admission serum glucose level was not. Logistic Continue reading >>

Strike The Spike

Strike The Spike

Controlling After-Meal Blood Glucose Highs Today’s the big day! After months of working hard to achieve tight blood glucose control and actually succeeding most of the time, you’re about to get the result of your latest glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, the blood test that gives you an indication of your overall blood glucose control over the previous 2–3 months. “It’s just got to be lower than last time,” you think as you wait in your doctor’s exam room. “I’ve been good. Really good. My average on my meter is lower than it’s been in years. He’s going to be impressed for sure. No lectures about the risks associated with a high A1c this time! I’ll be out of here in 10 minutes, easy.” In walks your doctor, with the results of your latest lab work in hand. Thirty minutes later, after a series of careful examinations and a lengthy lecture on the need to get your HbA1c down, you walk out shaking your head. “I don’t get it. How can my A1c still be so high? My mealtime readings are almost always where they should be. It just doesn’t make sense. Maybe the lab made a mistake. Maybe my blood is different from everyone else’s.” Or maybe you’ve been the victim of postprandial hyperglycemia. Post-what? Postprandial hyperglycemia refers to high blood glucose levels that occur soon after eating meals or snacks. For anyone with diabetes, it is normal for blood glucose to rise somewhat after eating. But if your after-meal rises are dramatic and occur consistently, they can result in higher HbA1c test results than your premeal blood glucose readings would otherwise indicate, and the higher your HbA1c, the higher your risk of serious diabetes complications. The HbA1c reflects an average of all blood glucose levels at all times of day — before ea Continue reading >>

December 2010/january 2011

December 2010/january 2011

About Diabetes Food & Diabetes Medications & Diabetes Current Issue Archive En Español Recommended Websites Your Guide to Diet and Diabetes Recipes for Diabetes Fiesta of Flavors: Traditional Hispanic Recipes for People with Diabetes In This Issue Diabetes - The Medical Perspective Diabetes and Food Medication Update Recipes To Try Menu Suggestions Diabetes - The Medical Perspective The “dawn effect” or “dawn phenomenon” are terms used for early morning high blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. These blood glucose levels are higher than when the person went to bed. This may happen more with those who have type 1 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes. However, other scientists think about half of all people with diabetes have this rise in the morning at some point. The blood glucose in these cases usually rises between 2 and 8 a.m. A rise is considered significant if it is greater than 10 mg/dl compared to when the person went to bed. Therefore, if your blood glucose was 100 mg/dl at bedtime and 115 mg/dl when you got up, you should talk to your doctor about this. These high blood glucose levels may be due to a natural overnight release of certain hormones. Those hormones include growth hormones, epinephrine, cortisol, and glucagon. They increase the release of glucose stored in the liver. They also decrease glucose use by other organs. Other possible causes for these high blood glucose levels include: Not enough insulin the night or day before if you take insulin; Eating a carbohydrate-rich snack close to bedtime; Eating more carbohydrate at the evening meal than your medication can adjust to. Your doctor will probably want you to check your bedtime and early morning blood glucose values for a few days. They may try to adjust your evening carbohydrate if Continue reading >>

Diabetics: How To Calculate High Blood Glucose Correction Using The Rule Of 1800

Diabetics: How To Calculate High Blood Glucose Correction Using The Rule Of 1800

The mantra of a diabetic is control. Having blood sugars out of control leads to all sorts of bad things. Like (for the guys) impotence. You want normal blood glucose levels. As a diabetic, this is one of the health choices you want to make. Trust me on this one. Some Diabetes 101: You need insulin for cells to use sugars. Type 1 Diabetics do not produce insulin, and need to take insulin shots or injections. Food makes blood sugar go up. Insulin makes it go down. Too much sugar for too long damages the body. Too little blood sugar makes you pass out. The job of a Type 1 diabetic is to walk a tightrope and keep the blood sugar in a certain range. Diabetics use a glucometer to test their blood sugar. (NOTE: This is a dramatic oversimplification. Stress raises blood sugar levels. Exercise will help drop it. But you get the picture). Step 1: Time to Play With Math! Blood glucose is the amount of sugar in your blood. The normal range for blood glucose on a fast is 80 to 110 milligrams per deciliter. As a diabetic, I fudge a little on that range...I might fall below 80 or run up a little higher. But the goal is to keep the blood glucose in a fairly tight range. One important lesson for the diabetic is how to calculate an insulin correction factor. The insulin correction factor (or insulin sensitivity factor) is a bolus of insulin to bring down a higher than range blood sugar level. In order to know this factor, you need to know how much one unit of rapid-acting insulin will drop the blood sugar! Time to play with math! Step 2: The Rule of 1800 There are several simple formulas for figuring this out. In general, one unit of rapid-acting insulin will take care of about 12-15 grams of carbohydrate, but this can range depending on a lot of factors. Besides, it is useful to do the Continue reading >>

Chart For Blood Sugar Levels

Chart For Blood Sugar Levels

Glucose is our body's primary source of energy. During digestion, the carbohydrate-rich food items get converted into glucose, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. The levels of blood glucose or blood sugar are regulated with the help of insulin. Insulin, which is a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas, facilitates the absorption of glucose by the cells and tissues of the body. Glucose is also stored by the liver or muscle cells as glycogen. It is normal for the sugar level to fluctuate throughout the day. Glucose levels are the lowest in the mornings, and mostly tend to rise for a couple of hours after meals, depending on the volume of carbohydrates consumed. The normal range of the blood sugar in the morning is about 70 to 100 mg/dL. Our body has an excellent mechanism to regulate blood sugar levels. Glucose that is stored in the liver as glycogen, gets reabsorbed in the bloodstream, when the sugar levels drop. Reference Range for Blood Sugar Normally, the blood sugar levels are tested on an empty stomach, usually after a gap of six to eight hours after having the last meal. This test is known as the fasting blood glucose test. The following chart provides the normal range for fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting Blood Sugar Levels Normal 70-100 mg/dL Prediabetes 101-125 mg/dL Diabetes 125 mg/dL and above The following table provides the average blood sugar levels of a normal healthy adult, 2 hours after eating a meal. Postprandial Blood Sugar Levels Normal 70-140 mg/dL Prediabetes 141-200 mg/dL Diabetes 200 mg/dL and above Note: As per the American Diabetes Association, for people with type 2 diabetes, the normal fasting blood sugar range is 70-130 mg/dL, whereas blood sugar levels after meals should be less than 180 mg/dL Blood Sugar Levels in Pregnant Wo Continue reading >>

Understanding Diabetes

Understanding Diabetes

This information describes diabetes, the complications related to the disease, and how you can prevent these complications. Blood Sugar Control Diabetes is a disease where the blood sugar runs too high, usually due to not enough insulin. It can cause terrible long-term complications if it is not treated properly. The most common serious complications are blindness ("retinopathy"), kidney failure requiring dependence on a dialysis machine to stay alive ("nephropathy"), and foot and leg amputations. The good news is that these complications can almost always be prevented if you keep your blood sugar near the normal range. The best way to keep blood sugar low is to eat a healthy diet and do regular exercise. Just 20 minutes of walking 4 or 5 times a week can do wonders for lowering blood sugar. Eating a healthy diet is also very important. Do your best to limit the number of calories you eat each day. Put smaller portions of food on your plate and eat more slowly so that your body has a chance to let you know when it's had enough to eat. It is also very important to limit saturated fats in your diet. Read food labels carefully to see which foods are high in saturated fats. Particular foods to cut down on are: whole milk and 2% milk, cheese, ice cream, fast foods, butter, bacon, sausage, beef, chicken with the skin on (skinless chicken is fine), doughnuts, cookies, chocolate, and nuts. Often, diet and exercise alone are not enough to control blood sugar. In this case, medicine is needed to bring the blood sugar down further. Often pills are enough, but sometimes insulin injections are needed. If medicines to lower blood sugar are started, it is still very important to keep doing regular exercise and eating a healthy diet. Keeping Track of Blood Sugar Checking blood sugar wi Continue reading >>

What Is A Normal Blood Glucose Level For Someone With Diabetes?

What Is A Normal Blood Glucose Level For Someone With Diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus (MEL-ih-tus), often referred to as diabetes, is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels that result from the body’s inability to produce enough insulin and/or effectively utilize the insulin. Diabetes is a serious, life-long condition and the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism (the body's way of digesting food and converting it into energy). There are three forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that accounts for five- to 10-percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes may account for 90- to 95-percent of all diagnosed cases. The third type of diabetes occurs in pregnancy and is referred to as gestational diabetes. Left untreated, gestational diabetes can cause health issues for pregnant women and their babies. People with diabetes can take preventive steps to control this disease and decrease the risk of further complications. Continue reading >>

How To Avoid Blood Sugar Highs And Lows

How To Avoid Blood Sugar Highs And Lows

Blood sugar control is a main goal for people living with type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar levels can lead to a variety of complications over time, including nerve damage, heart disease, and vision problems. Blood sugar levels that are too low can cause more immediate problems, such as dizziness, confusion, and potentially a loss of consciousness. Keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible is key to preventing these complications and living well with type 2 diabetes. Blood Sugar Highs and Lows Glucose, or blood sugar, comes from two places — the food you eat and your liver. “Blood sugar is basically used to supply energy to the body,” explains Deborah Jane Wexler, MD, an endocrinologist in practice at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. For instance, one of your most valued organs — your brain — runs entirely on glucose, she notes. Insulin is used to move glucose into cells to be used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does produce. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, leading to high blood sugar levels. Low blood sugar can occur when you take too much diabetes medication, skip a meal, or increase your physical activity. Monitoring your blood sugar — by making sure it doesn’t spike too high or dip too low — is an important part of managing your type 2 diabetes. And you can start by learning the signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and steps to take to bring those levels back to normal: Hypoglycemia: If blood sugar is too low — usually below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — you may have symptoms such as confusion, sweating, nervousness, nausea, and dizziness. You could even pass out Continue reading >>

Ask The Diabetes Team

Ask The Diabetes Team

Question: From Shawnee, Kansas, USA: For the past three years, I have noticed behavioral changes with my son. We went to see an endocrinologist and began testing his sugars. Some of his morning readings, when he is in a great mood, are 94 mg/dl [5.2 mmol/L]. If they are over 130 mg/dl [7.2 mmol/L], he is moody and refuses to get up. His morning sugars vary from 110 mg/dl [6.1 mmol/L] to 180 mg/dl [10.0 mmol/L]. His bedtime sugars are 130 mg/dl [7.2 mmol/L], 188 mg/dl [10.4 mmol/L], 312 mg/dl [17.3 mmol/L], 147 mg/dl [8.2 mmol/L], 280 mg/dl [15.6 mmol/L], 194 mg/dl [10.8 mmol/L], 302 mg/dl [16.8 mmol/L], 335 mg/dl [18.6 mmol/L], etc. This would be two or more hours after his dinner. Two hours after lunch may yield sugars at 152 mg/dl [8.4 mmol/L], 153 mg/dl [8.5 mmol/L], etc. His highest reading has been 387 mg/dl [21.5 mmol/L]. When he is in the 300 mg/dl [16.7 mmol/L] range, he becomes withdrawn, his eyes glaze over, and he won't talk. I call it his "zone." By testing his sugars, I can now tell when they are going high. My son's A1c was 5.1. He then went for a three hour glucose test which came back normal. The doctor then suggested he be tested for MODY, based on a two month monitoring of his sugar. Those tests just came back negative. I am still not sure if that means he is negative for MODY or they could not determine which type of MODY he may have. I had gestational diabetes with him. My mother, grandmother, and great grandmother all had diabetes. My mother was diagnosed at age 30 and is now taking shots of insulin. I am extremely frustrated with doctors right now. I just want to be assured it is okay that my son has high blood sugar with no possible explanation at this point. We had his eyes checked and he has gone from 20/30 to 20/50 in a matter of six months. I Continue reading >>

Diabetes: More Than Just Sugar Overload?

Diabetes: More Than Just Sugar Overload?

I walk every day, eat a healthful diet, and have no diabetes in my immediate family. I'm not model skinny (truth be told, I've been known to pack on a few extra pounds), but I'm certainly not a couch potato or junk food addict. So, imagine my surprise when a routine blood test showed that my blood sugar was elevated and I was officially prediabetic. Prediabetic, meaning I have higher-than-normal blood sugar levels that put me at risk of developing diabetes, the seventh-leading cause of death in the United States. Yikes! The fact that I'm not alone doesn't make me feel any better -- 57 million Americans have prediabetes and another 24 million have diabetes (90 to 95 percent of all diabetes diagnosed is type 2, which typically appears in adults and is associated with obesity, physical inactivity, family history, and other factors). Being part of what's shaping up to be a diabetes epidemic in America isn't a club I want to join. Health.com: How to lower your risks for developing diabetes Another wake-up call It turns out that prediabetes isn't really "pre" anything, according to Mark Hyman, M.D., author of "UltraMetabolism" and "The UltraMind Solution: Fix Your Broken Brain by Healing Your Body First." "It's a danger in and of itself that sets off a whole cascade of problems," he says. In fact, there's now evidence that a prediabetic patient's risks for eye, kidney, and nerve damage, as well as heart disease, are nearly as great as a diabetic's, says Alan J. Garber, M.D., chairman of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists task force that's currently writing new guidelines for managing prediabetes. What's more, diabetes can be especially dangerous for mothers and their unborn children, potentially leading to miscarriage or birth defects. Women with diabetes a Continue reading >>

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