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Beta D Glucose

What's The Difference Between Alpha-glucose And Beta-glucose?

What's The Difference Between Alpha-glucose And Beta-glucose?

What's the difference between alpha-glucose and beta-glucose? beta D-glucose units makes up the structure of cellulose polysaccharides while alpha D-glucose units makes up the structure of polysaccharides starch. user9873 Nov 18 '14 at 14:12 $\alpha$-D-glucose and $\beta$-D-glucose are stereoisomers - they differ in the 3-dimensional configuration of atoms/groups at one or more positions. Note that the structures are almost identical, except that in the $\alpha$ form, the $\ce{OH}$ group on the far right is down, and, in the $\beta$ form, the $\ce{OH}$ group on the far right is up. More specifically, they are a class of stereoisomer called an anomer . Anomers are capable of interconverting in solution. All cyclic structures of monosaccharides exhibit anomeric $\alpha$ (down) and $\beta$ (up) versions. These differences occur at the anomeric acetal carbon (the only carbon with two $\ce{C-O}$ bonds. These two forms exist because all monosaccharides also have an open-chain form with one fewer stereocenter. When the chain closes to the cyclic structure, the aldehyde or ketone carbon becomes a stereocenter , and it can do so in either configuration. One configuration is preferred ($\beta$), but both exist. In the presence of acid or base (although water can fulfill this role if need be), the two anomers interconvert through the open form until dynamic equilibrium is established. The mechanism below starts with $\alpha$ in the upper left and finishes with $\beta$ in the lower right. The open-chain form is in the middle. Just to add, in the L-configuration, the situation is reversed, since you draw the CH2OH below the ring in the Haworth projection. In both cases, the structure is when the relevant groups are on the same side of the ring, and when they're on opposite sides. H Continue reading >>

Beta-d-glucose - Drugbank

Beta-d-glucose - Drugbank

A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. (2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol OC[ [emailprotected] ]1O[ [emailprotected] @H](O)[ [emailprotected] ](O)[ [emailprotected] @H](O)[ [emailprotected] @H]1O U Malto-oligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase Deinococcus radiodurans (strain ATCC 13939 / DSM 20539 / JCM 16871 / LMG 4051 / NBRC 15346 / NCIMB 9279 / R1 / VKM B-1422) Chen Gong, "Method for preparation of 2'-deoxy-2', 2'-difluoro-beta-cytidine or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof by using 1,6-anhydro-beta-D-glucose as raw material." U.S. Patent US20060003963, issued January 05, 2006. This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity. Hexose monosaccharide / Oxane / Secondary alcohol / Hemiacetal / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Polyol / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary alcohol / Alcohol DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [ PubMed:17139284 ] Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [ PubMed:17016423 ] Pedobacter heparinus (strain ATCC 13125 / DSM 2366 / NCIB 9290) Cleaves the glycosaminoglycan, dermatan sulfate. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [ PubMed:17139284 ] Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the Continue reading >>

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Metabocard For Beta-d-glucose 6-phosphate (hmdb0003498)

Human Metabolome Database: Showing Metabocard For Beta-d-glucose 6-phosphate (hmdb0003498)

You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database. Showing metabocard for Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate (HMDB0003498) Beta-D-Glucose 6 phosphate (b-G6P) is the beta-anomer of glucose-6-phosphate. There are two anomers of glucose 6 phosphate, the alpha anomer and the beta anomer. Specifically, beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate is glucose sugar phosphorylated on carbon 6. It is a very common metabolite in cells as the vast majority of glucose entering a cell will become phosphorylated in this way. The primary reason for the immediate phosphorylation of glucose is to prevent diffusion out of the cell. The phosphorylation adds a charged phosphate group so the glucose 6-phosphate cannot easily cross the cell membrane. b-G6P is involved in the glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, and glycogen and sucrose metabolic pathways [Kegg ID: C01172]. Beta-D-Glucose 6 phosphate can be generated through beta-D-fructose phosphate or alpha-D-glucose 6 phosphate (via glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) or beta-D glucose (via hexokinase). It can then be sent off to the pentose phosphate pathway which generates the useful cofactor NADPH as well as ribulose 5-phosphate, a carbon source for the synthesis of other molecules. Alternately if the cell needs energy or carbon skeletons for synthesis then glucose 6-phosphate is targeted for glycolysis. A third route is to have glucose 6 phosphate stored or converted to glycogen, especially if blood glucose levels are high. Continue reading >>

The Suitability Of -d-glucose Pentaacetate For Food Use: I. The Subacute Toxicity Of -d-glucose Pentaacetate

The Suitability Of -d-glucose Pentaacetate For Food Use: I. The Subacute Toxicity Of -d-glucose Pentaacetate

Volume 2, Issue 3 , May 1960, Pages 270-280 The suitability of -d-glucose pentaacetate for food use: I. The subacute toxicity of -d-glucose pentaacetate Author links open overlay panel B.R.Zeitlin R.ThiessenJr. C.L.Long Get rights and content The presence of GPA in diets of young growing rats at levels as high as 10% for a period of 90 days (10% of life span) does not alter their normal growth and food efficiency patterns. The mortality among test rats was not increased; organ weights were not significantly altered from those of controls; no significant histopathologic trends were discerned, nor was there shown to be any alteration in the physiological function studied as determined by the urine analysis, renal function studies, blood chemistry, or hematologic findings. On the other hand, the presence of GPA in the diets appears to bring about a more efficient food utilization, probably by providing for an increase in caloric content of the food. Continue reading >>

-d-glucopyranose | C6h12o6 | Chemspider

-d-glucopyranose | C6h12o6 | Chemspider

CSID:58238, (accessed 23:57, Apr 5, 2018) Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users -D-Glucopyranose [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] -D-Glucopyranose [German] [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] -D-Glucopyranose [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name] L-Iduronic acid [ACD/Index Name] [ACD/IUPAC Name] Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users D-Glucopyranose with beta configuration at the anomeric centre. ChEBI CHEBI:15903 , CHEBI:18246 , CHEBI:27380 , CHEBI:27517 , CHEBI:37671 A beta-D-glucan in which the glucose units are connected by (1right3) linkages. ChEBI CHEBI:15903 , CHEBI:18246 , CHEBI:27380 , CHEBI:27517 , CHEBI:37671 A beta-D-glucan in which the glucose units are connected by (1right4) linkages. ChEBI CHEBI:15903 , CHEBI:18246 , CHEBI:27380 , CHEBI:27517 , CHEBI:37671 Predicted data is generated using the ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agencys EPISuite Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC): Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) = -2.89 Log Kow (Exper. database match) = -3.24 Exper. Ref: Sangster (1994) Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42): Boiling Pt (deg C): 380.68 (Adapted Stein & Brown method) Melting Pt (deg C): 132.79 (Mean or Weighted MP) VP(mm Hg,25 deg C): 1.33E-007 (Modified Grain method) MP (exp database): < 25 deg C VP (exp database): 8.02E-14 mm Hg at 25 deg C Water Solubility Estimate from Log Kow (WSKOW v1.41): Water Solubility at 25 deg C (mg/L): 1e+006 log Kow used: -3.24 (expkow database) no-melting pt equation used Water Sol (Exper. database match) = 1.2e+006 mg/L (30 deg C) Exper. Ref: M Continue reading >>

I-(indole-3-acetyl)--d-glucose, A New Compound In The Metabolism Of Indole-3-acetic Acid In Plants

I-(indole-3-acetyl)--d-glucose, A New Compound In The Metabolism Of Indole-3-acetic Acid In Plants

I-(Indole-3-acetyl)--D-Glucose, a New Compound in the Metabolism of Indole-3-acetic Acid in Plants Nature volume 191, pages 493494 (29 July 1961) STUDYING the fate of exogenously applied indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in pea epicotyls, we observed, besides indoleacetylaspartic acid1 (IAAsp), a trace amount of a compound which showed definitely indole reactive properties and which was split on alkaline hydrolysis into IAA. The amount of this metabolite proved too small for identification, therefore we carried out a rough survey on one species from 20 plant families using 2-14CIAA in the hope of finding an accumulation of this metabolite. This unknown compound was found in the leaves of the monocotyledonous plant Colchicum neapolitanum Ten. to about 65 per cent of the total amount of IAA taken up, the rest being unchanged IAA (20 per cent) and minor components (Fig. 1, top). IAAsp was detected, if at all, only in very small quantities. In order to isolate a larger amount of this compound, 70 gm. of mature Colchicum leaves were cut into pieces and incubated with 1 litre of a 4 104 M solution of IAA for 24 hr. with good aeration. The compound was extracted from the leaves with boiling 80 per cent aqueous ethanol; the extract was then concentrated to a small volume and made up to a powder with Hyflo supercel and then extracted in a Soxhlet-type extractor for 6 hr. with ether. The ether containing only the IAA was discarded, and extraction continued with ethyl acetate for another 6 hr. This solution was taken to dryness and the residue containing the compound chromatographed as streaks on Whatman No. 3 paper in n-butanol / glacial acetic acid / water (5 : 1 : 2.2, RF 0.56) and in isopropanol / benzine / water (55 : 30 : 11, RF 0.39). By elution and rechromatography between the t Continue reading >>

Ecmdb: Beta-d-glucose 6-phosphate (ecmdb03498) (m2mdb000506)

Ecmdb: Beta-d-glucose 6-phosphate (ecmdb03498) (m2mdb000506)

beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate (ECMDB03498) (M2MDB000506) Beta-D-Glucose 6 phosphate (b-G6P) is the beta-anomer of glucose-6-phosphate. There are two anomers of glucose 6 phosphate, the alpha anomer and the beta anomer. Specifically, beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate is glucose sugar phosphorylated on carbon 6. It is a very common metabolite in cells as the vast majority of glucose entering a cell will become phosphorylated in this way. The primary reason for the immediate phosphorylation of glucose is to prevent diffusion out of the cell. The phosphorylation adds a charged phosphate group so the glucose 6-phosphate cannot easily cross the cell membrane. b-G6P is involved in the glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, and glycogen and sucrose metabolic pathways [Kegg ID: C01172]. Beta-D-Glucose 6 phosphate can be generated through beta-D-fructose phosphate or alpha-D-glucose 6 phosphate (via glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) or beta-D glucose (via hexokinase). It can then be sent off to the pentose phosphate pathway which generates the useful cofactor NADPH as well as ribulose 5-phosphate, a carbon source for the synthesis of other molecules. Alternately if the cell needs energy or carbon skeletons for synthesis then glucose 6-phosphate is targeted for glycolysis. A third route is to have glucose 6 phosphate stored or converted to glycogen. Continue reading >>

Ch25: Alpha And Beta Forms

Ch25: Alpha And Beta Forms

The cyclic forms of carbohydrates can exist in two forms, -and - based on the position of the substituentat the anomeric center. The two forms are sometimes described as "anomers" since they areisomersatthe anomeric center. To assign the cyclic form of a carbohydrate as the -or - form look at the relative positions ofthe -CH2OH group and -OH (or -OR) group at the anomeric center. In the - form, the exocyclic Ogroup at the anomeric center is on the opposite face to the-CH2OH group, and In the - form, the exocyclic Ogroup at the anomeric center is on the same face as the -CH2OHgroup. If a mixture of the - and -anomers are present, then this is often represented by using a "wavy" lineto represent the bond: In general the two forms are stable solids, but in solution they rapidlyequilibrate (see mutarotation). The following figures shows several representations of the - and - anomers of D-glucose. You should Manipulate the 3D JMOL images until you can confirm the important relationship. Dr. Ian Hunt , Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary Continue reading >>

24.3: Anomers Of Simple Sugars: Mutarotation Of Glucose

24.3: Anomers Of Simple Sugars: Mutarotation Of Glucose

24.3: Anomers of Simple Sugars: Mutarotation of Glucose Define what is meant by anomers and describe how they are formed. So far we have represented monosaccharides as linear molecules, but many of them also adopt cyclic structures. This conversion occurs because of the ability of aldehydes and ketones to react with alcohols: In some cases, OH and carbonyl groups on the same molecule are able to react with one another in an intramolecular reaction. Thus, monosaccharides larger than tetroses exist mainly as cyclic compounds (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)). You might wonder why the aldehyde reacts with the OH group on the fifth carbon atom rather than the OH group on the second carbon atom next to it. Recall that cyclic alkanes containing five or six carbon atoms in the ring are the most stable. The same is true for monosaccharides that form cyclic structures: rings consisting of five or six carbon atoms are the most stable. Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Cyclization of D-Glucose. D-Glucose can be represented with a Fischer projection (a) or three dimensionally (b). By reacting the OH group on the fifth carbon atom with the aldehyde group, the cyclic monosaccharide (c) is produced. When a straight-chain monosaccharide, such as any of the structures shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\), forms a cyclic structure, the carbonyl oxygen atom may be pushed either up or down, giving rise to two stereoisomers, as shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\). The structure shown on the left side of Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\), with the OH group on the first carbon atom projected downward, represent what is called the alpha () form. The structures on the right side, with the OH group on the first carbon atom pointed upward, is the beta () form. These two stereoisomers of a cyclic monosaccharide are known as Continue reading >>

Glucose

Glucose

This article is about the naturally occurring D-form of glucose. For the L-form, see L-Glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6, which means that it is a molecule that is made of six carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. It is made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. It is the most important source of energy for cellular respiration. Glucose is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and in animals as glycogen. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a hexose, a subcategory of the monosaccharides. D-Glucose is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The D-isomer, D-glucose, also known as dextrose, occurs widely in nature, but the L-isomer, L-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), maltose, cellulose, glycogen, etc. It is commonly commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization.[3] In 1747, Andreas Marggraf was the first to isolate glucose.[4] Glucose is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[5] The name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine.[6][7] The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a carbohydrate. Function in biology[edit] Glucose is the most widely used aldohexose in living organisms. One possible explanation for this is that glucose has a lower tendency than other aldohexoses to react nonspecific Continue reading >>

Is Alpha (d+) Glucose Same As Beta (d-) Glucose?

Is Alpha (d+) Glucose Same As Beta (d-) Glucose?

Is alpha (D+) glucose same as beta (D-) glucose? No. In the name D(+) Glucose, D represents the orientation of the hydroxyl group at the chiral carbon that is farthest from the highest oxidised carbon (Aldehyde group in this case) with respect to glyceraldehyde. D says that the hydroxyl group is on the right side (In fischer projection). L says the opposite. Where as (+) and (-) represent the direction of rotation of plane polarised light {Optical rotation} (Determined experimentally) by the solution as a whole. When a water molecule adds to the glucose molecule, the aldehyde group turns into hemiacetal (Ring is formed between 1st and 5th carbon), making the first carbon (previously aldehyde) chiral. Alpha and Beta represent the orientation of hydroxide group (R and S) at that new chiral carbon (Anomeric carbon). Hence those forms are called anomers. Pure Alpha glucose has a positive optical rotation and the Beta form has the opposite rotation (but of different magnitude). The compounds which you have mentioned in the question are pure alpha and pure beta forms of glucose. If you get some random D glucose from somewhere and you some how determined that it has a positive optical rotation,it doesnt mean that it is alpha D glucose. It may also contain beta D glucose each cancelling the effect of other and ultimately resulting a positive optical rotation (Overall dominated by alpha D glucose). Continue reading >>

Sucrose

Sucrose

Another disaccharide of particular importance is sucrose. It is a disaccharide that can be made from the combinations of the two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. In particular, it involves the use of the alpha form of D-glucose and the beta form ofD-fructose. In the diagrams below, note that the a-D-glucose isin the conventional orientation (the #6C is up). The b-D-fructose,however, is shown in two orientations. In the standard orientation the #6C is up on theleft side and the b-2-OH is up on the right. Because it will bethe b-2-OH group that bond to the -1-OH of the a-D-glucose, the b-D-fructose moleculemust be inverted. Take a moment to study the diagrams and identify the location of thenumbered carbon atoms in each diagram. (Similar diagrams are shown in Example 27 of yourworkbook for reference. The carbon atoms are numbered in those diagrams.) As you look at these diagrams in the equation below (and in your workbook), be sure tonote the numbering for fructose is opposite from the conventional orientation, and that isjust because we want the two reacting OH's to be next to one another. When these two OH'sreact by an enzyme-catalyzed dehydration reaction, the resulting product is sucrose. The glycosidic bond for the sucrose is sometimes referred to as an a-b-1-2 bond, because there's an alpha-OHfrom the glucose bonding to a beta-OH from the sucrose, and we're going from the #1 carbonon the glucose to the #2 carbon on the fructose. There are a few other ways of indicatingthis designation, (a-1)(b-2) is probably the most descriptive, but they all try tosay the same kind of thing, that we're dealing with the #1-OH in the alpha position bondedto the #2-OH in the beta position. Sucrose is an unusual disaccharide in that it is a nonreducing sugar. This is becauseboth Continue reading >>

Penta- O -galloyl-beta- D -glucose Suppresses Tumor Growth Via Inhibition Of Angiogenesis And Stimulation Of Apoptosis: Roles Of Cyclooxygenase-2 And Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathways

Penta- O -galloyl-beta- D -glucose Suppresses Tumor Growth Via Inhibition Of Angiogenesis And Stimulation Of Apoptosis: Roles Of Cyclooxygenase-2 And Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathways

Penta- O -galloyl-beta- d -glucose suppresses tumor growth via inhibition of angiogenesis and stimulation of apoptosis: roles of cyclooxygenase-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways To whom correspondence should be addressed Email: [email protected] Search for other works by this author on: Carcinogenesis, Volume 26, Issue 8, 1 August 2005, Pages 14361445, Jeong-Eun Huh, Eun-Ok Lee, Min-Seok Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Cheol-Ho Kim, Bae-Cheon Cha, Young-Joon Surh, Sung-Hoon Kim; Penta- O -galloyl-beta- d -glucose suppresses tumor growth via inhibition of angiogenesis and stimulation of apoptosis: roles of cyclooxygenase-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways , Carcinogenesis, Volume 26, Issue 8, 1 August 2005, Pages 14361445, Recent studies have revealed that 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O -galloyl-beta- d -glucose (PGG) has anti-tumorigenic activity in vitro . In the present work, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of PGG and examined its molecular mechanisms. PGG significantly inhibited the proliferation and tube formation in basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at non-cytotoxic concentrations. PGG effectively disrupted the bFGF-induced neo-vascularization in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in Matrigel plugs in the mice. When mice were intraperitoneally injected, PGG also significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis induced by Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and the growth of LLC by 57 and 91% of control tumor weight at 4 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed decreased microvessel density, decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased tumor ce Continue reading >>

Animation: Interconversion Between Glucose Isomers

Animation: Interconversion Between Glucose Isomers

In this animation, you can see D-glucose switch between its different forms (or isomers): -glucose to the open chain form to -glucose, back to the open chain form, and then back to -glucose (and on and on and on...) To help make this easier to see, we've used a short-cut way of drawing molecules that doesn't show some of the carbons and hydrogens. Click here for more info about drawing molecules like this. When the ring opens up, watch the red O and the blue H rotate around. So, when the ring closes again, that red O can be either out or down. In the -glucose, that red O is pointed down. In -glucose, it's pointed out. Watch the green carbon - in each structure it always has four bonds. If D-glucose molecules are dissolved in water, some molecules will be in each one of these forms. Most of them will be in the -glucose form, though, because that's the most stable. It turns out that in a ring like this, when all the -OH groups are sticking out, the molecule is the most comfortable, that is, it has the most amount of "elbow room", or, the least amount of "clutter", so to speak. (O.k., do ya want the big cheesy science talk?! Here it is! -D-glucose has less 1,3-diaxial interactions and less steric hindrance than -D-glucose. Phew!) Note: (O.k, now this is a disclaimer to all the folks who want to know exactly how the ring opens and closes...) There's more to the mechanism of ring opening and closing that's really not shown here; this animation is intended to illustrate what happens as opposed to exactly how it happens. Continue reading >>

Enzymic Synthesis Of Indole-3-acetyl-1-o--d-glucose

Enzymic Synthesis Of Indole-3-acetyl-1-o--d-glucose

Enzymic Synthesis of Indole-3-Acetyl-1-O--d-Glucose II. Metabolic Characteristics of the Enzyme 1988 American Society of Plant Biologists The synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O--d-glucose from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) has been shown to be a reversible reaction with the equilibrium away from ester formation and toward formation of IAA. The enzyme occurs primarily in the liquid endosperm of the corn kernel but some activity occurs in the embryo. It is relatively specific showing no glucose ester formation with oxindole-3-acetic acid or 7-hydroxy-oxindole-3-acetic acid, and low activity with phenylpropene acids, such as -coumaric acid. The enzyme is also specific for the nucleotide sugar showing no activity with UDPGalactose or UDPXylose. The enzyme is inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate, by phosphate esters and by phospholipids, particularly phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The enzyme is inhibited by zeatin, by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, by IAA-myo-inositol and IAA-glucan, but not by zeatin riboside, and only weakly by gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, and kinetin. The reaction is slightly stimulated by both calcium and calmodulin and, in some cases, by thiol compounds. The role of this enzyme in the homeostatic control of indole-3-acetic acid levels in Zea mays is discussed. Continue reading >>

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