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Baby Low Blood Sugar After C Section

2017 The Nemours Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

2017 The Nemours Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

Some newborns have very fast or labored breathing in the first few hours of life because of a lung condition called transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). Babies with TTN will be closely watched in the hospital and some might need extra oxygen for a few days. Most babies make a full recovery. TTN usually does not have any lasting effects on a child's growth or development. While inside the mother, a developing fetus does not use the lungs to breathe — all oxygen comes from the blood vessels of the placenta. During this time, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. As the baby's due date nears, the lungs begin to absorb the fluid. Some fluid also may be squeezed out during birth as the baby passes through the birth canal. After delivery, as a newborn takes those first breaths, the lungs fill with air and more fluid is pushed out. Any remaining fluid is then coughed out or slowly absorbed through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. In babies with TTN, though, extra fluid stays in the lungs or is cleared out too slowly. This makes it harder for a baby to breathe in oxygen properly. As a result, the baby must breathe faster and harder to get enough oxygen into the lungs. Transient tachypnea of the newborn is often diagnosed in the first few hours after a baby is born. Transient means it does not last long (usually, less than 24 hours) and tachypnea refers to the baby's very fast breathing (more than 60 breaths per minute). TTN can happen in babies of all ages, but is more common in: babies born via rapid vaginal deliveries or C-sections without labor. They don't undergo the usual hormonal changes of labor, so their lungs don't have time to absorb much fluid. babies whose mothers have asthma or diabetes very fast, labored breathing of more than 60 breaths a minute gru Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar In Pregnancy Puts Baby At Risk

High Blood Sugar In Pregnancy Puts Baby At Risk

Print Font: CHICAGO — The higher a pregnant woman’s level of blood sugar, the greater the risk to her newborn — whether the mother has diabetes or not, the largest study on the problem suggests. More women opting for preventive mastectomy - but should they be? Rates of women who are opting for preventive mastectomies, such as Angeline Jolie, have increased by an estimated 50 percent in recent years, experts say. But many doctors are puzzled because the operation doesn't carry a 100 percent guarantee, it's major surgery -- and women have other options, from a once-a-day pill to careful monitoring. The findings released Friday may lead to more women being diagnosed with diabetes during pregnancy and given stricter diet advice or medication to lower blood sugar. The research involved more than 23,000 pregnant women in nine countries. It found a surprisingly strong relationship between the blood sugar levels of the women and the rate of big babies and first-time Caesarean sections, said lead investigator Dr. Boyd Metzger of Northwestern University. The newborns also were more likely to have low blood sugar levels and high insulin levels if their mothers’ blood sugar levels were higher. The problems can lead to obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure later in life. Risks for large babies Large babies risk shoulder damage and other injuries if delivered vaginally and lead to more C-sections, which also pose health risks to mothers and babies. Large babies were defined in the study as those bigger than 90 percent of those born in the local population, so large Thai babies would be smaller than large U.S. babies. Researchers reported the findings Friday at the American Diabetes Association’s annual scientific meeting. The higher the mother’s blood sugar, the more Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes Complications

Gestational Diabetes Complications

Most Gestational diabetes complications can be avoided if you keep a tight rein on the management of your diabetes. Gestational diabetes is just as dangerous as any of the other types of diabetes, even though it is short-lived (only lasting during gestation). Considering that it is not only your own health, but also the health of your unborn child that are affected by it. From this point of view, it must be seen as even more serious as the other types of diabetes. The development of your baby during the pregnancy will determine largely the lifelong health of your child. This will of course be determined on how well you've managed to avoid the gestational diabetes complications. It really is up to you. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels can be quite dangerous, as it can cause severe problems for you and your baby. These problems are highlighted in the gestational diabetes complications listed below. Most women however, who have gestational diabetes, deliver healthy babies. You can also be counted amongst them, all it takes is to manage your disease with care. It really is up to you. The dangers of gestational diabetes complications does not lie so much with the fact that your body does not control its sugar levels adequately. The danger is more in these elevated blood glucose levels. You can and must assist your body to keep your blood sugar levels within the normal range. If your blood sugar are kept at normal levels, then you or your baby will not fall victim to gestational diabetes complications. How can your Baby be Affected by Gestational Diabetes Complications? When you have gestational diabetes, your baby could be at increased risk for these gestational diabetes complications: Fetal macrosomia. Excessive growth. Extra glucose will cross the placenta, which triggers y Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes And Pregnancy

Gestational Diabetes And Pregnancy

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that is first seen in a pregnant woman who did not have diabetes before she was pregnant. Some women have more than one pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually shows up in the middle of pregnancy. Doctors most often test for it between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Often gestational diabetes can be controlled through eating healthy foods and regular exercise. Sometimes a woman with gestational diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well controlled in a woman with gestational diabetes can lead to problems for the pregnant woman and the baby: An Extra Large Baby Diabetes that is not well controlled causes the baby’s blood sugar to be high. The baby is “overfed” and grows extra large. Besides causing discomfort to the woman during the last few months of pregnancy, an extra large baby can lead to problems during delivery for both the mother and the baby. The mother might need a C-Section to deliver the baby. The baby can be born with nerve damage due to pressure on the shoulder during delivery. C-Section (Cesarean Section) A C-section is an operation to deliver the baby through the mother’s belly. A woman who has diabetes that is not well controlled has a higher chance of needing a C-section to deliver the baby. When the baby is delivered by a C-section, it takes longer for the woman to recover from childbirth. High Blood Pressure (Preeclampsia) When a pregnant woman has high blood pressure, protein in her urine, and often swelling in fingers and toes that doesn’t go away, she might have preeclampsia. It is a serious problem that needs to be watched closely and managed by her doctor. High blood pressure can cause harm to both Continue reading >>

Booby Traps Series: Say No To Routine Blood Glucose Monitoring For Healthy Babies

Booby Traps Series: Say No To Routine Blood Glucose Monitoring For Healthy Babies

This is the 30th in a series on Booby Traps, made possible by the generous support of Motherlove Herbal Company. Blood sugar. It’s a concept familiar to those of you who are diabetic or have had gestational diabetes, but to others it’s the last thing we think we have to learn in preparation for our babies’ birth. But in some hospitals, all babies are checked for low blood sugar. In spite of recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics to the contrary, “many hospital nurseries,” says this journal article, “continue the clinical practice of routine early glucose screening on healthy, term newborns.” This has significant consequences for breastfeeding. But let’s back up a bit. Why would anyone want to know about a baby’s blood sugar levels? Glucose is the primary source of energy for our cells, and it’s transported by our bloodstream. Low glucose levels can cause anything from irritability and jitteriness to seizures in babies. But only a small percentage of babies are at risk for low blood glucose. Healthy, term newborns born after a normal pregnancy and delivery are not at risk, yet they are sometimes screened anyway. Why would routine screening of all babies for blood glucose levels be detrimental to breastfeeding? Because a low blood glucose reading often results in formula supplementation, and sometimes separation of the mother and baby. Supplementation can lead to problems with milk supply and sometimes with the ability of babies to feed from the breast. According to the Academy for Breastfeeding Medicine, “it is clear that the routine monitoring of blood glucose in healthy term infants is not only unnecessary but is potentially harmful to the establishment of a healthy mother-infant relationship and successful breastfeeding patterns. Continue reading >>

How Does A Cesarean Affect The Baby?

How Does A Cesarean Affect The Baby?

For the first time in more than a decade the U.S. cesarean birth rate decreased, if only by .1%. The rate decreased from 32.9% to 32.8% in 2010. But still, one in three mothers gives birth by cesarean and scheduled cesareans for non-medical reasons have been rising. Surgical birth without labor impacts the health of newborns. Birth by cesarean poses several challenges for a baby. Compared to babies born vaginally, babies born by cesarean are at risk for health complications they are less likely to face with a normal birth. Especially if the mother did not labor, babies are more likely to have difficulty breathing on their own. With a scheduled cesarean, babies are more likely to be born preterm, before the lungs have fully developed. Respiratory complications can be serious enough to require admission to a special care nursery. With a cesarean, mothers and babies are less likely to have skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth. Skin-to-skin contact has several adaptive benefits for the newborn. Pain medications that sedate the mother can affect the newborn’s ability to latch on and breastfeed. Drugs used for anesthesia, including epidurals, cross the placenta and can make it more difficult for babies to initiate breastfeeding. The American Academy of Pediatrics encourages all maternity care providers to collaborate to support breastfeeding. That includes avoiding common but often unnecessary procedures that interfere with breastfeeding and that may traumatize the newborn. Routine procedures following a cesarean birth such as suctioning the newborn’s mouth, esophagus and airways can also make it more difficult for babies to begin and continue breastfeeding. Planned Cesareans and Late Pre-Term Birth Many cesareans that are scheduled before labor put newborns at ri Continue reading >>

10 Benefits Of Skin-to-skin Contact

10 Benefits Of Skin-to-skin Contact

During pregnancy, babies are as close to their moms as they can be—getting warmth, food, protection, and oxygen from their mother’s body. Then, labor occurs and babies suddenly find themselves without immediate access to those essential needs. It is not surprising that study after study has shown a host of benefits for babies who experience skin-to-skin care (sometimes called ‘kangaroo care’) with their mothers. When babies are held naked against their mother’s skin, it is the closest they can get to being back in the warmth and security of the womb. Whenever possible, mothers and babies should be in direct contact for at least the first 1–2 hours after birth. In skin-to-skin care, the baby is naked (a dry cap is okay, as is a diaper), and is placed on the mother’s bare chest, between her breasts. A blanket should be draped over both of them for warmth. If the mother is unable to provide skin-to-skin care, due to labor or birth complications, then Dad can step in. Within minutes, you will see the benefits of skin-to-skin care become evident as both mother and baby relax. The baby’s body temperature, breathing, and heart rate stabilize. Benefits of skin-to-skin care during infancy may persist for years. A long-term study of babies who were in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) of an Israeli medical center after birth found that benefits persisted years later. After assessing the children at 10 years of age, the researchers found benefits for those who had skin-to-skin care, including better maternal attachment behavior, reduced maternal anxiety, enhanced child cognitive development, and mother-child reciprocity. Given the short-term and long-term benefits, it’s not surprising that proponents of skin-to-skin care recommend the practice continue thro Continue reading >>

Low Neonatal Blood Glucose Levels In Cesarean-delivered Term Newborns At Khartoum Hospital, Sudan

Low Neonatal Blood Glucose Levels In Cesarean-delivered Term Newborns At Khartoum Hospital, Sudan

Go to: Letter to the Editor There has been a recent dramatic increase in the rate of cesarean delivery [1,2]. There are many fetal and perinatal complications of cesarean delivery e.g. obesity, allergies, metabolic disturbance, and lower blood glucose levels in the offspring [3-6]. There are few published recent data on neonatal glucose levels during cesarean delivery [6-8]. Glucose is the main source of energy for organ function in neonates. In particular, glucose is an exclusive source of energy for the function of the central nervous system in neonates [9]. The definition and management of neonatal hypoglycemia are controversial and there is no constant cut-off point for low levels of neonatal glucose [10]. A case–control study was conducted at Khartoum Hospital, Sudan during April to June 2012 to investigate glucose levels in neonates born to women who delivered by elective cesarean. Cases were women delivered by elective cesarean (before labor) and controls were consecutive vaginal deliveries. In both arms of the study, women were at term (37–41 completed weeks of gestation), newborns were ≥ 2500 g at birth, there was no history of fetal problems, and Apgar scores were 8 or higher at 1 and 5 minutes. Newborns of mothers with any medical disorder, ante/intra-partum complications, newborns with signs suggestive of perinatal stress, and instrumental delivery, and those who required intensive resuscitation and care were excluded from both cases and controls. Mothers who underwent cesarean delivery were fasting for at least 6 h before cesarean delivery. All vaginally-delivered infants were placed at the breast immediately after delivery. Every newborn had a venous cord blood sample obtained from the umbilical cord and another sample was taken 2 h later from a peri Continue reading >>

Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes

Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes

www.CardioSmart.org Gestational diabetes can develop during pregnancy. When you have this condition, insulin (a hormone in your body) is not able to keep your blood sugar in a normal range. In most cases, gestational diabetes goes away after pregnancy. But you may be at risk of having it again in another pregnancy. You also are at risk of having type 2 diabetes later in life. If you have gestational diabetes, you will need to make certain changes in the way you eat and how often you exercise to help keep your blood sugar level within a target range. As you get farther along in your pregnancy, your body makes hormones that make it hard for insulin to work. This can make it harder and harder to control your blood sugar. If it is not possible to control your blood sugar with food and exercise, you may also need to take diabetes medicine or give yourself shots of insulin. How can it affect your baby? Most womenwith gestational diabetes give birth to healthy babies. But some babies may: • Grow too large in the womb. Your blood sugar passes to your unborn baby. A baby that gets toomuch sugar can grow larger than normal. A large baby can be injured during vaginal birth and may need surgical delivery by C-section. • Have problems after birth. Some babies have low blood sugar, low blood calcium levels, high bilirubin levels, too many red blood cells, or other problems that need treatment. What should you do at home? Here are some ways to care for yourself: • If your doctor prescribes insulin, follow his or her directions. Your doctor will tell you how and when to take your insulin. • Check your blood sugar. Your doctor will tell you how and when to check your blood sugar. • Keep track of your baby's movements. Your doctormay ask you to report howman Continue reading >>

What To Expect 38 Weeks And Beyond

What To Expect 38 Weeks And Beyond

Something has gone terribly wrong! You made it through your pregnancy, your due date is 2 weeks or less away, and you thought everything would be fine! If you had a scheduled c-section, your doctor assured you that your baby was “mature” even though you’re not quite at your due date. You may have even undergone an amniocentesis for “lung maturity” that came back as “mature.” But a bunch of nurses and other people you don’t know are taking your baby away from you, and you don’t really know why and nobody is telling you anything. WHAT IS HAPPENING ??? It’s an unfortunate fact that even term babies can be sick at birth and need specialized care from a neonatologist in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The most common reason for this is respiratory distress after birth – difficulty breathing. If you notice your baby is breathing really fast, and/or his/her chest is sinking in when s/he breathes, this is abnormal and could be dangerous. Your baby may have some congenital abnormalities that were unexpected, and require specialized care. Or, things may have started out fine, but your baby can’t keep his/her temperature normal, can’t feed properly, or doesn’t move normally. Anything that prevents your baby from breathing, feeding, and staying warm in a regular crib may require admission to an NICU. A NICU admission for a term baby is particularly unexpected, and so can be that much more stressful. Furthermore, the range of problems that can be experienced by term babies is much broader than with preterm babies, may show up very suddenly, and can be life-threatening if not immediately recognized and treated by people who are trained to take care of babies. Sometimes, a NICU admission is anticipated because of a prenatally-identified abnormality t Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Overview Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose). Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health. Any pregnancy complication is concerning, but there's good news. Expectant women can help control gestational diabetes by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, taking medication. Controlling blood sugar can prevent a difficult birth and keep you and your baby healthy. In gestational diabetes, blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you're at risk for type 2 diabetes. You'll continue working with your health care team to monitor and manage your blood sugar. Symptoms For most women, gestational diabetes doesn't cause noticeable signs or symptoms. When to see a doctor If possible, seek health care early — when you first think about trying to get pregnant — so your doctor can evaluate your risk of gestational diabetes as part of your overall childbearing wellness plan. Once you're pregnant, your doctor will check you for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care. If you develop gestational diabetes, you may need more-frequent checkups. These are most likely to occur during the last three months of pregnancy, when your doctor will monitor your blood sugar level and your baby's health. Your doctor may refer you to additional health professionals who specialize in diabetes, such as an endocrinologist, a registered dietitian or a diabetes educator. They can help you learn to manage your blood sugar level during your pregnancy. To make sure your blood sugar level has returned to normal after your baby is born, your health care team wil Continue reading >>

Large For Gestational Age

Large For Gestational Age

What is large for gestational age (LGA)? Large for gestational age is used to describe newborn babies who weigh more than usual for the number of weeks of pregnancy. Babies may be called large for gestational age if they weigh more than 9 in 10 babies (90th percentile) or more than 97 of 100 babies (97th percentile) of the same gestational age. This is based on U.S. statistics from 1991. About 1 in 10 babies born at 40 weeks' gestation in the U.S. in 1991 weighed more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams) at birth. Three in 100 babies weighed more than 9 pounds, 11 ounces 4,400 grams). Babies born earlier than 40 weeks are considered LGA at lighter weights. Babies born after 40 weeks are considered LGA at slightly higher weights. Overall, babies born in the U.S. in recent years weigh a little more than they used to. Normal ranges for birth weight may also be different, based on ethnic background. What causes babies to be LGA? Some babies are large because their parents are large. Parents may pass along this trait to their children. A high birth weight can also be related to the amount of weight a mother gains during pregnancy. Women who gain a lot of weight during pregnancy often give birth to babies who are large for gestational age. Diabetes in the mother is the most common cause of babies who are large for gestational age. When a pregnant woman has high blood sugar, she can pass that along to her baby. In response, the baby's body makes insulin. All the extra sugar and the extra insulin that is made can lead to fast growth and deposits of fat. This means a larger baby. It also means a risk for low blood sugar right after birth. At that point, the mother's supply is no longer there, but the baby's insulin levels stay high. Which babies are at risk for LGA? If a baby Continue reading >>

C-sections Vs. Natural Birth In Diabetic Moms

C-sections Vs. Natural Birth In Diabetic Moms

Childbirth and diabetes were once considered mutually exclusive. Thankfully, those days are over. But aiming for a healthy baby — and an uncomplicated birth — when you're living with diabetes is still a very tall order. It can be scary. And no one really wants to have a C-section, right? (I sure didn't, x3). Today, D-author and fellow mother of three Amy Stockwell Mercer joins us once more for a special report on new research providing insight into the precise effects of the Big D during childbirth. Special to the 'Mine by Amy Stockwell Mercer The myth that women with diabetes can't have babies is almost extinct. Shelby's premature death in the movie Steel Magnolias has slowly been replaced by images of healthy, vibrant women like former Miss America Nicole Johnson and fellow D-blogger Kerri Morrone Sparling as they navigate diabetes, pregnancy and motherhood. We've come a long way in understanding the importance of prenatal care for women with diabetes and as a result, more women are having healthy babies than ever before. However, 45%-70% of these pregnancies result in cesarean births and until now, no one could explain why. Researchers at the University of Liverpool have recently discovered that women with diabetes have "impaired uterine contractility." That means that even if we push for hours, some of us may never succeed. This groundbreaking research is based on 2010 United Kingdom government statistics, which show a high induction of labor rate (39%) and a high C-section rate (67%) in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (compared to 21% of the general maternal population). "We need to think about the enormously high C-section rate rather than just accepting it," says co-author Dr. Susan Wray. "As scientists we asked the question, could it be that these wome Continue reading >>

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

Infant Of Diabetic Mother

IDM; Gestational diabetes - IDM; Neonatal care - diabetic mother A fetus (baby) of a mother with diabetes may be exposed to high blood sugar (glucose) levels throughout the pregnancy. Causes Women may have diabetes during pregnancy in 2 ways: If the diabetes is not well controlled during pregnancy, the baby is exposed to high blood sugar levels. This can affect the baby and mom during the pregnancy, at the time of birth, and after birth. Infants who are born to mothers with diabetes are often larger than other babies. Larger infants make vaginal birth harder. This can increase the risk for nerve injuries and other trauma during birth. Also, C-sections are more likely. The infant is more likely to have periods of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth, and during first few days of life. Mothers with poorly controlled diabetes are also more likely to have a miscarriage or stillborn child. If the mother had diabetes before her pregnancy, her infant has an increased risk of birth defects if the disease was not well controlled. Symptoms The infant is often larger than most babies born after the same amount of time in the mother's womb (called gestational age.) Other symptoms, mostly caused by low blood sugar, may include: Blue or patchy (mottled) skin color, rapid heart rate, rapid breathing (signs of immature lungs or heart failure) Poor feeding, lethargy, weak cry, seizures (signs of severe low blood sugar) Puffy face Reddish appearance Tremors or shaking shortly after birth Exams and Tests Before the baby is born: Ultrasound performed on the mother in the last few months of pregnancy to monitor the baby's size. Lung maturity testing may be done on the amniotic fluid if the baby is going to be delivered more than a week before the due date. After the baby is bo Continue reading >>

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops only during pregnancy. Diabetes means your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Your body uses glucose for energy. Too much glucose in your blood is not good for you or your baby. Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed during late pregnancy. If you are diagnosed with diabetes earlier in your pregnancy, you may have had diabetes before you became pregnant. Treating gestational diabetes can help both you and your baby stay healthy. You can protect your baby and yourself by taking action right away to control your blood glucose levels. If you have gestational diabetes, a health care team will likely be part of your care. In addition to your obstetrician-gynecologist, or OB/GYN—the doctor who will deliver your baby—your team might include a doctor who treats diabetes, a diabetes educator, and a dietitian to help you plan meals. What causes gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes happens when your body can't make enough insulin during pregnancy. Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, an organ located behind your stomach. Insulin helps your body use glucose for energy and helps control your blood glucose levels. During pregnancy, your body makes more hormones and goes through other changes, such as weight gain. These changes cause your body's cells to use insulin less effectively, a condition called insulin resistance. Insulin resistance increases your body's need for insulin. If your pancreas can't make enough insulin, you will have gestational diabetes. All pregnant women have some insulin resistance during late pregnancy. However, some women have insulin resistance even before they get pregnant, usually because they are overweight. These women start pregnan Continue reading >>

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