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A1c 7.3 Average Blood Sugar

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

Thank you for visiting my website! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D. * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinol Continue reading >>

Normal Range For Blood Sugar Two Hours After Eating

Normal Range For Blood Sugar Two Hours After Eating

Your blood glucose levels can determine whether you have or are at risk for developing diabetes, a condition in which your body no longer effectively processes and absorbs glucose from the bloodstream. Blood glucose levels fluctuate during the day, particularly after meals. Postprandial -- which means after eating -- glucose levels that rise beyond a certain level may mean you have diabetes or prediabetes. However, two-hour postprandial blood sugar testing is not recommended to screen for or diagnose diabetes. Video of the Day Two to 3 hours after eating a meal, blood glucose levels typically fall to normal fasting levels. For people without diabetes, this is typically 125 mg/dL or less, according to criteria established by the American Diabetes Association. If your 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level is higher than 125 mg/dL, your doctor will likely order one of the ADA-recommended blood tests for diagnosing diabetes. The options include a hemoglobin A1c test and an oral glucose tolerance test. Before developing type 2 diabetes, many people go through a phase called "prediabetes." With this condition, postprandial blood sugar levels are typically abnormally high -- but not elevated enough to meet the criteria for a diagnosis of diabetes. Modest weight loss, increased physical activity and dietary changes can often prevent prediabetes from progressing to type 2 diabetes. Continue reading >>

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

Why Hemoglobin A1c Is Not A Reliable Marker

i was recently tested for Hemoglobin A1c because i presented to an endocrinologist with extremely low blood glucose on lab test and some scary symptoms, not the ordinary hypoglycemia symptoms. My A1c was 4.7 which registered as low (L) on the lab print out–it was only slightly low. Does a low score on this suggest a possibility of short-lived RBCs? Does it have any relationship with extremely low blood glucose? my result at the lab, fasting, was 32mg/dL. Not long after that i got a home glucometer and i get the same kind of results on that as the lab got, in the 20s and 30s first thing in the morning, every day. did not know i had hypoglycemia until i had that lab test, though i had had one episode where i woke up with ataxia, i fell while walking to the bathroom first thing in the morning, i got up and immediately fell again. I soon found that i had very impaired coordination. i did not know why and i was very worried. Eventually i wanted to have breakfast but had great difficulty holding the measuring cup under the faucet, to get some water to heat, to make instant oatmeal, i lacked the coordination to get the water into the cup. I persisted and did make the instant oatmeal (pour hot water onto flakes and it’s done), and i got my lap top and was eating the oatmeal and i suddenly was aware that the symptoms were going away. Previously i had been unable to type. While eating the small amount of oatmeal, i realized i could type. That was about a month before the lab test. Since it only happened that once, i put it out of my mind. About 5 days after the lab test, i had the second episode, worse than the first, i woke falling out of bed to the floor, couldn’t use my arm to break the fall, i didn’t have the coordination. i sat on the floor, i could not get up and wa Continue reading >>

Type 2 Diabetes May Be Bad For Brain Health

Type 2 Diabetes May Be Bad For Brain Health

THURSDAY, April 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Previous research has linked type 2 diabetes and memory loss. Now, new research may be closing in on some of the reasons why. The study found that people with type 2 diabetes -- particularly those who are overweight or obese -- have thinner gray matter in several areas of the brain. These brain regions are related to memory, executive function, movement generation and visual information processing, said the study's senior author, Dr. In Kyoon Lyoo. He's director of the Ewha University Brain Institute in Seoul, South Korea. "Obesity leads to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic dysfunction and is also associated with brain alterations independently," Lyoo said. "We aimed to investigate whether overweight/obesity influenced brain structure and cognitive function in individuals with early stage of type 2 diabetes." The study included: 50 overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes; 50 normal-weight people with type 2 diabetes, and 50 normal-weight people without diabetes. The Korean study volunteers were between 30 and 60 years old. Those with diabetes had it for five years or less, and they were attempting lifestyle modifications and/or taking oral medication to lower blood sugar levels. No one was taking insulin. The normal-weight group with type 2 diabetes had slightly better blood sugar control -- a hemoglobin A1C level of 7 percent. The overweight folks with type 2 diabetes had hemoglobin A1C levels of 7.3 percent. Hemoglobin A1C is a two- to three- month estimate of average blood sugar levels. The American Diabetes Association generally recommends an A1C of 7 percent or less. All study participants underwent MRI brain scans and tests to measure memory and thinking skills. "Cortical thickness was decreased in se Continue reading >>

Hba1c Test Results Don't Tell The Full Story

Hba1c Test Results Don't Tell The Full Story

back to Overview When I was a teenager, the HbA1c test results cut straight through my lies and made-up paper logbook. It’s often viewed as the number to rule all numbers. But hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test results can be misleading and don’t tell the full story. As I learned in my teens, the HbA1c test shines a light on things I was trying to hide. Overall, It’s not good at getting to the details of blood sugars, but when used with other pieces of information it can draw attention to (sometimes unseen) problem areas in our diabetes management, and that’s a good thing. How do HbA1c test results work? Let’s take a quick look at the basics of the HbA1c test. A certain amount of sugar in your blood sticks to your red blood cells and can’t be unstuck. It’s there for the life of the cell, which is, on average, about 8-12 weeks. Those red blood cells in your body are constantly recycled, and by checking your HbA1c value every 8-12 weeks (or as often as recommended by your doctor – the ADA recommends at least twice a year), you get to see a fresh new grouping of them. So – A higher blood sugar for a longer time means more sugar on more cells – which means a higher HbA1c. Get it? Ideal HbA1c range HbA1c goals are very individual, which makes sense. We’re all different, right? Of course, there are reference values as a guide, and that’s a good place to start. The ADA suggests an HbA1c of 7%, but also say that “more or less stringent glycemic goals may be appropriate for each individual.” Why have different goals? Because, as you know, there’s a lot to consider with diabetes. Avoiding lows (hypoglycemia) while pushing for lower A1c’s is really important because low blood sugars are immediately dangerous. It’s simply not safe to push for a very low H Continue reading >>

Misunderstanding Ukpds - 7% Is Not A Good A1c.

Misunderstanding Ukpds - 7% Is Not A Good A1c.

The ADA board is full of people with A1c test results over 7% whose doctors tell them they are doing fine. They aren't. The doctors who tell them this are as irresponsible as if they told them not to worry about a "touch of cancer." My guess is that uneducated doctors think an A1c near 7% is "fine" because they've only read the one line summary of the findings of the UKPDS. That "25 words or less" version is that people with Type 2 Diabetes who attained A1cs of 7% reduced the incidence of complications. What this summary statement ignores, is that UKPDS also showed that, while the rate of complications in the population with A1cs of 7% was better than that in the population with A1cs of 9%, people with those 7% A1cs still developed microvascular complications at a very significant rate, and, even more importantly, they had not decreased their likelihood of dying from a heart attack or stroke. Here's what the actual findings published in the British Medical Journal said: Each 1% reduction in updated mean HbA1c was associated with reductions in risk of 21% for any end point related to diabetes . . . No threshold of risk was observed for any end point. [i.e. this stayed true as the A1cs continued to drop] . . .Any reduction in HbA1c is likely to reduce the risk of complications, with the lowest risk being in those with HbA1c values in the normal range (<6.0%)." Does this sound to you like 7% is a good A1c? I don't think so. Even more significant is that other studies show that to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular "incidents" i.e. heart attack and stroke, you need to lower A1c far below 7%. The chart below, derived from the huge EPIC-Norfolk study makes it very clear that the risk of heart attack DEATH has already doubled at an A1c 6%. (from Medscape New Avenues for Continue reading >>

Diabetes Tied To Memory Loss

Diabetes Tied To Memory Loss

Previous research has linked Type 2 diabetes and memory loss. Now, new research may be closing in on some of the reasons why. The study found that people with Type 2 diabetes -- particularly those who are overweight or obese -- have thinner gray matter in several areas of the brain. These brain regions are related to memory, executive function, movement generation and visual information processing, said the study's senior author, Dr. In Kyoon Lyoo. He's director of the Ewha University Brain Institute in Seoul, South Korea. "Obesity leads to increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, metabolic dysfunction and is also associated with brain alterations independently," Lyoo said. "We aimed to investigate whether overweight/obesity influenced brain structure and cognitive function in individuals with early stage of Type 2 diabetes." The study included: 50 overweight or obese people with Type 2 diabetes; 50 normal-weight people with type 2 diabetes, and 50 normal-weight people without diabetes. The Korean study volunteers were between 30 and 60 years old. Those with diabetes had it for five years or less, and they were attempting lifestyle modifications and/or taking oral medication to lower blood sugar levels. No one was taking insulin. The normal-weight group with Type 2 diabetes had slightly better blood sugar control -- a hemoglobin A1C level of 7 percent. The overweight folks with type 2 diabetes had hemoglobin A1C levels of 7.3 percent. Hemoglobin A1C is a two- to three- month estimate of average blood sugar levels. The American Diabetes Association generally recommends an A1C of 7 percent or less. All study participants underwent MRI brain scans and tests to measure memory and thinking skills. "Cortical thickness was decreased in several regions of the diabetic brains. Further Continue reading >>

Pre-diabetes Impaired Glucose Tolerance

Pre-diabetes Impaired Glucose Tolerance

In pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance), your blood sugar (glucose) is raised beyond the normal range. Whilst this raised glucose level is not so high that you have diabetes, you are at increased risk of developing diabetes when you have pre-diabetes. You are also at increased risk of developing conditions such as heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and stroke (cardiovascular diseases). If pre-diabetes is treated, it can help to prevent the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The most effective treatment is lifestyle changes, including eating a healthy balanced diet, losing weight if you are overweight, and doing regular physical activity. What is pre-diabetes? Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00Playback Rate1xChapters Chapters Descriptions descriptions off, selected Subtitles undefined settings, opens undefined settings dialog captions and subtitles off, selected Audio TrackFullscreen This is a modal window. Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window. TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal Dialog End of dialog window. If you have pre-diabetes (impaired glucose tolerance), your blood sugar (glucose) is raised beyond the normal range but it is not so high that you have diabetes. However, if y Continue reading >>

What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?

What Is The A1c Test? How Does A1c Relate To Blood Glucose?

Anyone with diabetes will be familiar with finger-prick testing for monitoring blood glucose to see how well they are managing their disease. This kind of regular testing is essential for most people with diabetes, but what role does an occasional hemoglobin A1C blood test play in controlling blood sugars, and how does it work? Contents of this article: What is the A1C test? The abbreviation A1C is used in the US (sometimes with a lower-case 'c' - A1c) and is short for glycated hemoglobin (sometimes called 'glycosylated' hemoglobin or glycohemoglobin). The other abbreviations in use are: HbA1c (widely used internationally) HbA1c Hb1c HgbA1C. The A1C test is a blood test used to measure the average level of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This test is used to check how well blood sugar levels are being controlled in a person with diabetes and can also be used in the diagnosis of diabetes.1 Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells which is responsible for transporting oxygen around the body. When blood glucose levels are elevated, some of the glucose binds to hemoglobin and, as red blood cells typically have a lifespan of 120 days, A1C (glycated hemoglobin) is a useful test because it offers an indication of longer term blood glucose levels.2 The particular type of hemoglobin that glucose attaches to is hemoglobin A, and the combined result is call glycated hemoglobin. As blood glucose levels rise, more glycated hemoglobin forms, and it persists for the lifespan of red blood cells, about four months.2 Therefore, the A1C level directly correlates to the average blood glucose level over the previous 8-12 weeks; A1C is a reliable test that has been refined and standardized using clinical trial data.3 There are two key things to know about the appl Continue reading >>

Half Of All Adults Will Develop Pre-diabetic High Blood Sugar

Half Of All Adults Will Develop Pre-diabetic High Blood Sugar

By Dr. Mercola According to data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than one out of three Americans aged 20 and older has prediabetes, a condition in which your glucose, or blood sugar, levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diagnosed as full-blown diabetes.1 For those with prediabetes (86 million Americans in all), 15 percent to 30 percent will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within five years, if no lifestyle changes are made, again according to CDC data. These numbers are already dismal, but new data from a large study out of The Netherlands predicts the problem is only going to get worse. Nearly Half of Adults May Develop Prediabetes After tracking and analyzing data from about 10,000 adults for a period of 15 years, researchers found that nearly half of 45-year-olds will develop prediabetes, also known as impaired glucose metabolism, at some point during their lifetime. Further, three-quarters of those with elevated blood sugar levels at age 45 will go on to develop full-blown diabetes, according to the study.2 While previous studies have looked into population risks of pre-diabetes, this study is among the first to consider a person’s lifetime risk of developing this condition – which is remarkably high. If you’re wondering what blood sugar levels are considered healthy:3 6 millimoles/per liter (108 milligrams per deciliter) or less are considered normal or healthy 6mmol/L and below 7mmol/L (108 to 128 mg/dl) are considered elevated or prediabetic 7mmol/L or greater are diagnosed as diabetes The silver lining to this finding is that prediabetes can typically be cured by altering your lifestyle; a diagnosis does not mean you’re destined to develop type 2 diabetes. So if you’ve been diagnosed with pr Continue reading >>

The American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists (aace) 16th Annual Meeting & Clinical Congress

The American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists (aace) 16th Annual Meeting & Clinical Congress

The AACE (American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists) took place in early April in Seattle. The main themes, we found, were the lowering of glycemic targets (like A1c) and the growing recognition of the harmful effects of glycemic variability (when blood glucose fluctuates). Better, tighter glycemic control is always a theme at this meeting. This year, the focus was on postprandial glucose management and the greater use of combination therapy to push A1c values below 6.5 percent. The American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and AACE will soon publish a joint “roadmap” for the prevention and care of diabetes. We were able to get a preview: Compared to the ADA’s guidelines, it will emphasize a lower A1c target as well as the need for patients to receive different treatments depending on their A1c level. Fasting and postprandial glucose make different contributions to overall hyperglycemia. We note that this is based on the work of Dr. Louis Monnier, who published an important paper in 2003 that showed that post-meal glucose spikes are a bigger contributor to overall hyperglycemia for patients at lower A1c, while high fasting glucose is a bigger contributor for patients at higher A1c. For example, for patients with A1c <7.3 percent, postprandial glucose accounts for 70 percent of overall hyperglycemia while fasting glucose accounts for only 30 percent . The contributions are reversed for patients with A1c >10.3 percent. For patients with A1c between 7.4 percent and 10.3 percent, postprandial and fasting glucose make equal contributions to overall hyperglycemia. Combination therapy is needed to treat both fasting and postprandial glucose. The logic, then, is that in order for patients to achieve lower A1c targets, they need a combination of treatments that targe Continue reading >>

If I Am Diabetic, My A1c Is 6.0-6.7, Is My Current Diet Enough? If My A1c Is In The Target Range, Is Any Further Reduction In My Diet Called For? Do I Have To Cut Out All Desserts And Candy?

If I Am Diabetic, My A1c Is 6.0-6.7, Is My Current Diet Enough? If My A1c Is In The Target Range, Is Any Further Reduction In My Diet Called For? Do I Have To Cut Out All Desserts And Candy?

It seems you are good. Try to have a HBA1c of <7% if you're otherwise healthy and not on insulin. Cutting deserts, candy etc., calories in general and carbs especially is useful especially if you are overweight, or tend to gain weight, most type 2 diabetic are overweight, and being overweight will up your insulin resistance, so making you need meds sooner or more some of which the sulfonylureas (see Sulfonylureas Increase Mortality by 50 Percent) are correlated with a higher mortality (metformin is the only antidiabetic drug which correlates with a lower mortality see Can people with type 2 diabetes live longer than those without? A comparison of mortality in people initiated with metformin or sulphonylurea monot... - PubMed - NCBI) We now know that in type 2 diabetics on insulin, the addition of metformin lowers one’s risk of dying Association between Insulin Monotherapy versus Insulin plus Metformin and the Risk of All-Cause Mortality and Other Serious Outcomes: A Retrospecti... - PubMed - NCBI Besides not growing fat physical exercise is the only other way one can lower one's insulin resistance which is part of being a type 2 diabetic. The idea that a diabetic isn't allowed to have any sugar is obsolete and based on a wrongly interpreted 1903 experiment in which dogs in whom the pancreas had been surgically removed were fed either a sugar rich or a fat rich diet. Those on a fat rich diet weren't able to digest all this fat, since the pancreas also produces the digestive enzyme lipase needed to digest fat, causing enormous fatty diarrhea (steathorrhea) so losing all the food in the process, thus having lower blood sugar levels, while those fed a high sugar feed didn't suffer this fatty diarrhea, took up the sugars and had very high blood sugar levels because they la Continue reading >>

Target For Glycemic Control

Target For Glycemic Control

Go to: IMPORTANCE OF THE FOUR-POINT DIURNAL GLYCEMIC PROFILE A tool for integrating the different periods of daytime Whereas many physicians continue to emphasize fasting glucose and A1C to guide management of diabetes, observational studies have indicated that glucose testing at postprandial and postabsorptive time points could play an important role (5,6). For instance, lessons from physiology tell us that humans spend half of their lives in postprandial states (7,8). The postprandial state, with respect to glucose, is defined as a 4-h period that immediately follows ingestion of a meal (7). During this period, dietary carbohydrates are progressively hydrolyzed through several sequential enzymatic actions. Even though the insulin response rapidly reduces the postprandial glucose excursion with a return to baseline levels within <2 h, the overall period of absorption has approximately a 4-h duration that corresponds to the postprandial state. The postabsorptive state consists of a 6-h period that follows the postprandial period. During this time interval, glucose concentrations remain within a normal range in nondiabetic individuals through the breakdown of the glycogen (glycogenolysis) stored during the postprandial period. The “real” fasting state commences only at the end of the postabsorptive period (∼10–12 h after the beginning of the last meal intake). During the fasting state, plasma glucose is maintained at a near-normal level by the gluconeogenesis: glucose derived from lactate, alanine, and glycerol. Therefore, it appears that in a nondiabetic patient who takes three meals per day at relatively fixed hours, the 24-h period of the day can be divided into three periods corresponding to fasting, postprandial, and postabsorptive states. The postprandial p Continue reading >>

H-b-a-1-c

H-b-a-1-c

(What It Is and Why It Matters) You’ve pulled out your logbook and are taking off your jacket to bare your upper arm for the blood pressure cuff, when the nurse walks in and asks you to hold out a finger. “Does it matter that I had breakfast this morning?” you ask, trying to remember if you were supposed to fast before coming in, as she pricks your finger and collects a blood sample. “No, it doesn’t,” she says. “There; all done. The doctor will be in shortly to discuss your result.” And, indeed, several minutes later, your doctor walks in and says with a smile, “Looks like things are coming together for you. You’re at 6.8%.” For some people, the doctor’s words would be enough for them to realize that the fingerstick in the imaginary scenario above was for a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test. What is Hba1c? The HbA1c test gives an indication of your blood glucose control over the previous 2–3 months and is an important part of your diabetes-care regimen. This article discusses what the test is, why it’s important, and how it’s used to help better blood glucose control. What is HbA1c? The ABCs Figuring out how the HbA1c test can help with your blood glucose control starts with understanding a bit about the test and what it measures. Hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a molecule found in great quantities in each of the body’s red blood cells. As red blood cells travel through the circulatory system, the hemoglobin molecules join with oxygen from the lungs for delivery to the peripheral tissues, where they exchange it for some of the carbon dioxide destined for release to the lungs. The hemoglobin molecule is made up of two pairs of protein chains (two alpha chains and two beta chains) and four heme groups (iron-containing structures that act as th Continue reading >>

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c Test (hba1c, A1c, Hb1c)

Hemoglobin A1c definition and facts Hemoglobin A1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells that sugar molecules stick to, usually for the life of the red blood cell (about three months). The higher the level of glucose in the blood, the higher the level of hemoglobin A1c is detectable on red blood cells. Hemoglobin A1c levels correlate with average levels of glucose in the blood over an approximately three-month time period. Normal ranges for hemoglobin A1c in people without diabetes is about 4% to 5.9%. People with diabetes with poor glucose control have hemoglobin A1c levels above 7%. Hemoglobin A1c levels are routinely used to determine blood sugar control over time in people with diabetes. Decreasing hemoglobin A1c levels by 1% may decrease the risk of microvascular complications (for example, diabetic eye, nerve, or kidney disease) by 10%. Hemoglobin A1c levels should be checked, according to the American Diabetic Association, every six months in individuals with stable blood sugar control, and every three months if the person is trying to establish stable blood sugar control. Hemoglobin A1c has many other names such as glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and HbA1c. To explain what hemoglobin A1c is, think in simple terms. Sugar sticks to things, and when it has been stuck to something for a long time it's harder to the get sugar (glucose) off. In the body, sugar sticks too, particularly to proteins. The red blood cells that circulate in the body live for about three months before they die. When sugar (glucose) sticks to these red blood cells by binding to hemoglobin A1c, it gives us an idea of how much glucose has been around in the blood for the preceding three months. Hemoglobin A1c is a minor component of hemoglobin to which gl Continue reading >>

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