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32 Blood Sugar

Hypoglycemia Overview

Hypoglycemia Overview

Hypoglycemia means low (hypo) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates (e.g., fruit, bread, potatoes, milk, and rice) are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet, and your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. The glucose is then transported in your blood to cells that need it; it gives your body energy. However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. Sometimes, your blood glucose level can drop too low—that's hypoglycemia. It usually happens quite quickly, and it can be handled quite quickly, as well. People with type 1 diabetes do not make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes fall into two categories when it comes to insulin: either their body doesn't make enough, or their body is unable to use it well (insulin resistance). Normal Blood Glucose The American Diabetes Association published the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes that provide recommended target blood glucose ranges for people with and without diabetes. The standard for measuring blood glucose is “mg/dL,” which means milligrams per deciliter. People without Diabetes After eating (called postprandial) 70 to 140 mg/dL Goals for People with Diabetes Type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus) is more common than type 1 diabetes. Around 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National 2014 Diabetes Statistics Report, 29.1 million A Continue reading >>

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

What Is Normal Blood Sugar?

Thank you for visiting my website! If you need help lowering your blood sugar level, check out my books at Amazon or Smashwords. If you’re outside of the U.S., Smashwords may be the best source. —Steve Parker, M.D. * * * Physicians focus so much on disease that we sometimes lose sight of what’s healthy and normal. For instance, the American Diabetes Association defines “tight” control of diabetes to include sugar levels as high as 179 mg/dl (9.94 mmol/l) when measured two hours after a meal. In contrast, young adults without diabetes two hours after a meal are usually in the range of 90 to 110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l). What Is a Normal Blood Sugar Level? The following numbers refer to average blood sugar (glucose) levels in venous plasma, as measured in a lab. Portable home glucose meters measure sugar in capillary whole blood. Many, but not all, meters in 2010 are calibrated to compare directly to venous plasma levels. Fasting blood sugar after a night of sleep and before breakfast: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) One hour after a meal: 110 mg/dl (6.11 mmol/l) Two hours after a meal: 95 mg/dl (5.28 mmol/l) Five hours after a meal: 85 mg/dl (4.72 mmol/l) (The aforementioned meal derives 50–55% of its energy from carbohydrate) ♦ ♦ ♦ Ranges of blood sugar for young healthy non-diabetic adults: Fasting blood sugar: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) One hour after a typical meal: 90–125 mg/dl (5.00–6.94 mmol/l) Two hours after a typical meal: 90–110 mg/dl (5.00–6.11 mmol/l) Five hours after a typical meal: 70–90 mg/dl (3.89–5.00 mmol/l) Blood sugars tend to be a bit lower in pregnant women. ♦ ♦ ♦ What Level of Blood Sugar Defines Diabetes and Prediabetes? According to the 2007 guidelines issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinol Continue reading >>

Faqs About Gestational Diabetes

Faqs About Gestational Diabetes

This is the most comprehensive page on some of the most frequently asked questions about GD. Let us know if we missed something and we will add it in our list of questions. Note: GD means Gestational Diabetes. What is GD? What are the signs and symptoms? What kind of weight gain should I expect? Gestational vs type 2 diabetes. How does apple cider vinegar effect? What are the cut off values for GD? What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes? What are the screening tests available? What should the fasting blood glucose be when pregnant? What is the correlation between GD and jaundice with the newborn? What foods should I avoid? What is the correlation with gestational hypertension and GD? When do you get tested for this issue? What causes it? Who is at risk? What is the risk of getting diabetes after being diagnosed with GD? What is the risk of my child getting diabetes after I am diagnosed? What are some healthy breakfast ideas for someone with this issue? Is there a risk if taking Zantac? Does Zofran cause it? Are Zone bars okay to eat while pregnant? Is the Zone diet okay to do while pregnant? What is the prevalence of GD in New Zealand? Is yogurt okay to eat? Is it normal to have yeast infections? Is it okay to take Xylitol during pregnancy? Is it okay to have a vbac? Does vitamin D help? What are the considerations for vegetarians? What are the risks if you don’t treat? Am I at greater risk of GD since I am carrying twins? What are the risks for the baby when mom has GD? What should I do about this issue after I deliver the baby? Is there any way to prevent it? What is the pathophysiology? PCOS and GD. What is the prevalence? Does oatmeal help? When is the usual onset? Does obesity increase the chance of getting it? When do I have to take Metformin Continue reading >>

What A Low Blood Sugar Feels Like.

What A Low Blood Sugar Feels Like.

Across the board, a low blood sugar seems to be considered as anything under 70 mg/dL. Revisiting the American Diabetes Association’s website this morning offers up a list of symptoms of low blood sugar, like: Shakiness Nervousness or anxiety Sweating, chills and clamminess Irritability or impatience Confusion, including delirium Rapid/fast heartbeat Lightheadedness or dizziness Hunger and nausea Sleepiness Blurred/impaired vision Tingling or numbness in the lips or tongue Headaches Weakness or fatigue Anger, stubbornness, or sadness Lack of coordination Nightmares or crying out during sleep Seizures Unconsciousness (As with most diabetes-related lists on the Internet, the further down the list you read, the worse shit seems to get.) The “what happens if a low blood sugar goes untreated” answer is short, and to the point: “If left untreated, hypoglycemia may lead to a seizure or unconsciousness (passing out, a coma). In this case, someone else must take over.” When my daughter hears my Dexcom beeping, she understands the difference between the alert signaling a high blood sugar and the alert signaling a low. If the high alarm goes off, she doesn’t react, but if the low alarm goes off, she perks up immediately and asks me if I need a “glupose tab.” The immediacy and seriousness of low blood sugars is noticed by my three year old because she’s seen me go from normal, functional Mom to confused, sweaty, and tangled-in-my-own-words Mom in a matter of minutes. The symptoms of low blood sugars don’t just vary from PWD to PWD, but often vary within the PWD’s own lifetime. When I was very small, my low blood sugar “tell” was when my mouth would go numb and my face felt like I’d had Novocaine hours earlier and it was just starting to wear off, with th Continue reading >>

Understanding And Preventing Diabetic Coma

Understanding And Preventing Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a serious, potentially life-threatening complication associated with diabetes. A diabetic coma causes unconsciousness that you cannot awaken from without medical care. Most cases of diabetic coma occur in people with type 1 diabetes. But people with other types of diabetes are also at risk. If you have diabetes, it’s important to learn about diabetic coma, including its causes and symptoms. Doing so will help prevent this dangerous complication and help you get the treatment you need right away. Diabetic coma can occur when blood sugar levels are out of control. It has three main causes: Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia occurs when you don’t have enough glucose, or sugar, in your blood. Low sugar levels can happen to anyone from time to time. If you treat mild to moderate hypoglycemia immediately, it usually resolves without progressing to severe hypoglycemia. People on insulin have the highest risk, though people who take oral diabetes medications that increase insulin levels in the body may also be at risk. Untreated or unresponsive low blood sugars can lead to severe hypoglycemia. This is the most common cause of diabetic coma. You should take extra precautions if you have difficulty detecting symptoms of hypoglycemia. This diabetes phenomenon is known as hypoglycemia unawareness. DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when your body lacks insulin and uses fat instead of glucose for energy. Ketone bodies accumulate in the bloodstream. DKA occurs in both forms of diabetes, but it’s more common in type 1. Ketone bodies may be detected with special blood glucose meters or with urine strips to check for DKA. The American Diabetes Association recommends checking for ketone bodies and DKA if your blood glucose is over 240 mg/dl. When left untreated, DKA can Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level During Pregnancy, What's Normal?

Blood Sugar Level During Pregnancy, What's Normal?

The form of diabetes which develops during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes. This condition has become predominant in the recent pastaccording to the 2009 article in American Family Physician. For instance, in the United States alone, it affects around 5% to 9% of all the pregnant women. Pregnancy aggravates the preexisting type 2 and type 1 diabetes. During pregnancy the sugar level may tend to be high sometimes, posing problems to the mother and the infant as well. However, concerning the sugar level during pregnancy, what's normal? Blood sugar control is one of the most essential factors that should be undertaken during pregnancy. When measures are taken to control blood sugar level during pregnancy, it increases chances of a successful pregnancy. The average fasting glucose for pregnant women without any diabetes condition range from 69 to 75 and from 105 to 108 immediately one hour after consuming food. If you have preexisting diabetes or you have developedgestational diabetes, the best way to handle the blood sugar level is to ensure that it remains in between the normal range, not going too low or high. According to the recommendations of the 2007, Fifth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes, which established blood glucose goals especially for diabetic women, during the period of pregnancy, the fasting blood sugar should not exceed 96. Blood sugar should remain below 140 just one hour after eating and below 120 two hours later. Why Is It Important to Keep Normal Blood Sugar Level During Pregnancy? The most effective way to prevent complications related to diabetes is to control the amount or the level of blood sugar. This blood sugar control is very significant during pregnancy as it can: Minimize the risk of stillbirth as well as m Continue reading >>

Telling Lies When My Blood Sugar Is Low

Telling Lies When My Blood Sugar Is Low

First, let me explain: I’ve never been good at telling a lie–which is why I’m very blunt with the truth, I don’t even both trying to lie. You see, I have no poker-face. I can’t even follow-through on a prank or a joke on a friend without a goofy grin making its way onto my face within ten seconds. When my blood sugar is low–I mean really low, like around 30 mg/dL–I become a liar (but still a bad one). And I blame it on the blood sugar, because our brains do rely on a second-by-second delivery of glucose in order to function. That’s why we become irritable, goofy, seem drunk, and why we might try to lie, even though lying about our blood sugars could put us in danger. During a low blood sugar, our brains simply don’t have the fuel they need to operate correctly or even think rationally. There are four especially great Type 3s (people who love people with diabetes) in my life, namely: my boyfriend Roger, Tara, Jess, and Beth. Beth has this impressively amazing ability to tell when my blood sugar is low, sometimes before I do. And most importantly, she will not relent until she has proof that my blood sugar has returned to a safe level. A few nights ago, Beth and I had dinner together and I completely over-estimated the carbohydrates in my meal, taking way too much insulin. By the end of dinner, I could easily feel my blood sugar was low. And Beth could tell by the goofy glimmer in my eyes, and the chuckle-like grin on my face. “I’m low,” I said as I climbed into my car. I checked my blood sugar to find it was 32 mg/dL. “You need LIFE!” she exclaimed. “Life” is Beth’s code-word for glucose whenever my blood sugar is low. Being one of my closest friends and exercise buddies, she’s been with me during quite a few lows. I pulled a Z-Fruit ( Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Driving

Diabetes And Driving

Of the nearly 19 million people in the U.S. with diagnosed diabetes (1), a large percentage will seek or currently hold a license to drive. For many, a driver's license is essential to work; taking care of family; securing access to public and private facilities, services, and institutions; interacting with friends; attending classes; and/or performing many other functions of daily life. Indeed, in many communities and areas of the U.S. the use of an automobile is the only (or the only feasible or affordable) means of transportation available. There has been considerable debate whether, and the extent to which, diabetes may be a relevant factor in determining driver ability and eligibility for a license. This position statement addresses such issues in light of current scientific and medical evidence. Sometimes people with a strong interest in road safety, including motor vehicle administrators, pedestrians, drivers, other road users, and employers, associate all diabetes with unsafe driving when in fact most people with diabetes safely operate motor vehicles without creating any meaningful risk of injury to themselves or others. When legitimate questions arise about the medical fitness of a person with diabetes to drive, an individual assessment of that person's diabetes management—with particular emphasis on demonstrated ability to detect and appropriately treat potential hypoglycemia—is necessary in order to determine any appropriate restrictions. The diagnosis of diabetes is not sufficient to make any judgments about individual driver capacity. This document provides an overview of existing licensing rules for people with diabetes, addresses the factors that impact driving for this population, and identifies general guidelines for assessing driver fitness and de Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Print Overview A diabetic coma is a life-threatening diabetes complication that causes unconsciousness. If you have diabetes, dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can lead to a diabetic coma. If you lapse into a diabetic coma, you're alive — but you can't awaken or respond purposefully to sights, sounds or other types of stimulation. Left untreated, a diabetic coma can be fatal. The prospect of a diabetic coma is scary, but fortunately you can take steps to help prevent it. Start by following your diabetes treatment plan. Symptoms Before developing a diabetic coma, you'll usually experience signs and symptoms of high blood sugar or low blood sugar. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) If your blood sugar level is too high, you may experience: Increased thirst Frequent urination Fatigue Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Stomach pain Fruity breath odor A very dry mouth A rapid heartbeat Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Signs and symptoms of a low blood sugar level may include: Shakiness or nervousness Anxiety Fatigue Weakness Sweating Hunger Nausea Dizziness or light-headedness Difficulty speaking Confusion Some people, especially those who've had diabetes for a long time, develop a condition known as hypoglycemia unawareness and won't have the warning signs that signal a drop in blood sugar. If you experience any symptoms of high or low blood sugar, test your blood sugar and follow your diabetes treatment plan based on the test results. If you don't start to feel better quickly, or you start to feel worse, call for emergency help. When to see a doctor A diabetic coma is a medical emergency. If you feel extreme high or low blood sugar signs or symptoms and think you might pass out, call 911 or your local emergency nu Continue reading >>

Will Bananas Raise Blood Sugar?

Will Bananas Raise Blood Sugar?

Bananas are a good source of potassium, fiber, vitamin C and vitamin B-6. As they ripen, the starch they contain turns into sugars, with riper bananas containing more sugar than green bananas. While they can be high in natural sugars, bananas are safe for diabetics as long as they take the carbohydrate content into account in their meal and snack planning. Carbohydrates are the type of macronutrient most likely to raise blood sugar levels. Bananas are relatively high in carbohydrates, with each medium banana containing 27 grams of carbs. Of these carbohydrates, 3 grams consist of fiber, 14 grams are sugars and 6 grams are starch. Sugars are the most rapidly digested type of carbohydrate, as starch has to be broken down into sugars by digestive enzymes. Fiber can't be digested at all because humans lack the enzymes necessary to break the bonds forming groups of sugars into fiber. Glycemic Index One of the ways to estimate the effect of a food on your blood sugar levels is to use the glycemic index, which compares the effect of carbohydrate-containing foods on blood sugar with the effect of pure glucose on blood sugar. Foods with a glycemic index under 55 are low-glycemic index foods and unlikely to cause large increases in your blood sugar levels. Bananas fall into this group with a glycemic index of 52. Limiting Blood Sugar Spikes Even foods low on the glycemic index will cause blood sugar spikes if you eat a lot of them, so watch your serving size. Eating foods that are high in carbohydrates or high on the glycemic index along with foods that don't contain much carbohydrate or foods that are very low on the glycemic index will help minimize increases in your blood sugar levels, since these foods typically make it so your meal takes longer to digest. This means glucose Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. On average however, chronic levels above 10–12 mmol/L (180–216 mg/dL) can produce noticeable organ damage over time. Signs and symptoms[edit] The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment.[1] Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. [1] During this asymptomatic period, an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism can occur which can be tested by measuring plasma glucose. [1] However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic n Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar

Blood Sugar

1. Homeostasis The control of blood sugar levels (The Regulation of Glucose in the blood) 2. The Regulation of Glucose in the Blood

  • Normal glucose level is about 5 to 5.5 mmol dm -3
  • If this level rises too high it would affect the water content of the body.
  • If glucose appears in the urine ( glycosuria) water reabsorbtion in the kidney will be reduced.
  • If glucose level in the tissue fluid is high water will be lost from cells by osmosis .
3. The Regulation of Glucose in the Blood
  • If levels fall below 3 mmol dm -3 ( hypoglycaemia) this would lead to a loss of consciousness (coma).
  • If level goes above 10 mmol dm -3 ( hyperglycaemia ) glucose will appear in the urine, the pH of the blood would fall and this also leads to coma.
  • Both conditions are a feature of diabetes mellitus .
4. Insulin is the “key” that allows special “gates” for sugar transport across cell membranes to be opened 7. The Regulation of Glucose in the Blood
  • If insulin can not be made the glucose is not removed from the blood and glycogen is broken down into sugar resulting in high blood sugar levels. This is Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes .
  • Possibly caused by the destruction of beta-cells due to viral infection.
  • It seems the immune system makes a mistake and cells that normally protect you from germs attack your beta cells instead
10. The Regulation of Glucose in the Blood
  • Type II (insulin-independent diabetes) is linked to the ageing process and obesity – often controlled by controlling the diet.
13. Normal blood sugar level 14. Normal blood sugar level 15. Normal blood sugar level If blood Continue reading >>

How Prednisone Affects Blood Sugar

How Prednisone Affects Blood Sugar

It isn’t unusual for people with diabetes to sometimes require corticosteroid treatment. Corticosteroids, or steroids for short, are used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. They are often a last resort for a wide variety of conditions, in everything from asthma to allergy attacks to arthritis and ulcerative colitis. Steroids are also prescribed to prevent the immune system from seeing donated organs as foreign bodies and rejecting them after an organ transplant. One of the most commonly used steroids is prednisone. “Among all medications available to treat different medical conditions, prednisone and similar steroids have the most profound effect on glucose metabolism. Medications such as prednisone can significantly increase glucose levels in patients with diabetes as well as individuals with impaired glucose tolerance or pre-diabetes,” says William Sullivan, M.D., a senior staff physician at Joslin Clinic in Boston and the Medical Director at the Joslin Clinic at Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital, Needham. Prednisone is amazingly effective at calming inflamed tissue and reducing pain, but that comfort sometimes comes at a high price. Prednisone’s list of side effects is long and scary. The longer you are on the drug and the higher the dose, the more likely it is that you will experience side effects. When you have diabetes, even a short course of prednisone at a low dose is likely to wreak havoc with your blood glucose levels. In fact, another name for corticosteroids is glucocorticoids in honor of the powerful effect they have on glucose metabolism. Prednisone induces elevated glucose levels by stimulating glucose secretion by the liver as well as reducing glucose transport into adipose and muscle cells. The overall effect is a reduction in g Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Levels Chart

Blood Sugar Levels Chart

Below chart displays possible blood sugar levels (in fasting state). Units are expressed in mg/dL and mmol/L respectively. Additional topics: What is diabetes? How do you know if you have diabetes? How to test for diabetes? Why is it important to measure your blood sugar levels frequently? Diet for people with diabetes You can also download or print this chart by clicking here. Reference: American Diabetes Association, Additional topics: What is diabetes? How do you know if you have diabetes? How to test for diabetes? What is normal blood sugar level? Why is it important to measure your blood sugar levels frequently? Diet for people with diabetes Continue reading >>

* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?

* What Is A Normal Blood Sugar?

Normal blood sugars after a high carbohydrate breakfast eaten at 7:30 AM. The blue line is the average for the group. The brown lines show the range within which most readings fell (2 standard deviations). Bottom lines show Insulin and C-peptide levels at the same time. Click HERE if you don't see the graph. Graph is a screen shot from Dr. Christiansen's presentation cited below. The term "blood sugar" refers to the concentration of glucose, a simple, sugar, that is found in a set volume of blood. In the U.S. it is measured in milligrams per deciliter, abbreviated as mg/dl. In most of the rest of the world it is measured in millimoles per liter, abbreviated as mmol/L. The concentration of glucose in our blood changes continually throughout the day. It can even vary significantly from minute to minute. When you eat, it can rise dramatically. When you exercise it will often drop. The blood sugar measures that doctors are most interested in is the A1c, discussed below. When you are given a routine blood test doctors usually order a fasting glucose test. The most informative blood sugar reading is the post-meal blood sugar measured one and two hours after eating. Doctors rarely test this important blood sugar measurement as it is time consuming and hence expensive. Rarely doctors will order a Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, which tests your response to a huge dose of pure glucose, which hits your blood stream within minutes and produces results quite different from the blood sugars you will experience after each meal. Below you will find the normal readings for these various tests. Normal Fasting Blood Sugar Fasting blood sugar is usually measured first thing in the morning before you have eaten any food. A truly normal fasting blood sugar (which is also the blood sugar a norm Continue reading >>

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