Have Diabetes? New Drugs Can Help You Pee Out Excess Sugar
An abnormally high level of sugar in your urine has traditionally been a sign of uncontrolled diabetes and something to be corrected. But that notion has been turned on its head by a new class of diabetes drugs that work by increasing how much sugar patients pass in their urine. New path to blood sugar control To date, two of these new drugs have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating type 2 diabetes. The first, canagliflozin (Invokana®), was cleared last March; the second, dapagliflozin (Farxiga®), was approved just this week. Both drugs are so-called SGLT2 inhibitors that act by blocking the kidneys’ reabsorption of sugar, or glucose. The result is that more glucose is released in the urine and the patient’s blood glucose level goes down — a major goal of diabetes treatment. Most other available drugs for diabetes work by targeting the liver, pancreas or gut to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce insulin resistance or stimulate insulin secretion. In contrast, SGLT2 inhibitors work completely independent of insulin. The two new medications, which are taken by mouth in pill form, are approved for use as stand-alone drug therapy, in addition to changes in diet and increased exercise, or in combination with other drugs for diabetes. Their approvals were based on multiple clinical studies — nine for canagliflozin and 16 for dapagliflozin — showing that they effectively lowered hemoglobin A1c, a measure of average blood sugar level over the previous three months. A surprise effect on the waistline An added benefit is that SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with modest weight loss. For instance, patients shed from 2.8 percent to 5.7 percent of body weight in clinical studies of canagliflozin. “The weight loss is an appealing side effec Continue reading >>
High Blood Sugar Symptoms
If you’ve had diabetes for any length of time at all, you’ve probably seen lists of the signs and symptoms of high blood glucose dozens of times. Doctors and diabetes educators hand them out. Hundreds of websites reprint them. Most diabetes books list them. You likely know some of the items on the list by heart: thirst, frequent urination, blurry vision, slow healing of cuts, and more. But have you ever stopped to wonder why these symptoms occur? How does high blood glucose cause frequent urination, make your vision go blurry, or cause all of those other things to happen? Here are some answers to explain what’s going on in your body when you have high blood glucose. Setting the stage for high blood glucose High blood glucose (called hyperglycemia by medical professionals) is the defining characteristic of all types of diabetes. It happens when the body can no longer maintain a normal blood glucose level, either because the pancreas is no longer making enough insulin, or because the body’s cells have become so resistant to insulin that the pancreas cannot keep up, and glucose is accumulating in the bloodstream rather than being moved into the cells. What is high blood sugar? Blood glucose is commonly considered too high if it is higher than 130 mg/dl before a meal or higher than 180 mg/dl two hours after the first bite of a meal. However, most of the signs and symptoms of high blood glucose don’t appear until the blood glucose level is higher than 250 mg/dl. Some of the symptoms have a rapid onset, while others require a long period of high blood glucose to set in. It’s important to note that individuals differ in their sensitivity to the effects of high blood glucose: Some people feel symptoms more quickly or more strongly than others. But each sign or sympt Continue reading >>
Clinlab Navigator Information
Urinalysis begins with a macroscopic examination of the urine which describes the color and clarity of the urine. In healthy individuals urine color ranges from pale yellow to amber, depending on their state of hydration. Many factors affect urine color including fluid balance, diet, medications and disease. The following table includes a list of the most common causes of abnormal urine coloration. Color Pathologic Causes Food & Drug Causes Cloudy white Phosphorus, pyuria, chyluria, lipiduria, hyperoxaluria, uricosuria Diet high in purine-rich foods causing uricosuria, propofol, hypercalciuria, phosphaturia Brown Bile pigments, myoglobin, hemolytic anemia, porphyria Fava beans, rhubarb, Levodopa, metronidazole (Flagyl), nitrofurantoin, anti-malarial drugs, acetaminophen overdose Brownish-Black Bile pigments, melanin, methemoglobin, alcaptonuria, porphyria levodopa, methyldopa, Senna, Cascara, iron, methocarbamol, metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, sorbitol Green or Blue Pseudomonas UTI, biliverdin, Hartnup disease, herbicide poisoning Amitriptyline, indigo, carmine, IV cimetidine (Tagamet), IV promethazine (Phenergan), methylene blue, triamterene (Dyrenium), indomethacin, methocarbamol, metoclopramide, propofol, Zaleplon Orange Bile pigments, urinary tract infection Phenothiazines, phenazopyridine (Pyridium), isoniazid, sulfasalazine, riboflavin Red Hematuria, hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria, porphyria Beets, blackberries, rhubarb, Phenolphthalein, phenoazopyridine, rifampin, chloroquine, deferoxamine, hydroxycobalamin, warfarin Yellow Concentrated urine Carrots, Cascara Purple Urine bag syndrome due to gram negative bacteruria Aycock RD and Kass DA, Abnormal Urine Color. Southern Med J. 2012;105:43-37. Dipstick Testing Urine samples are initially screened with dipsticks. Per Continue reading >>
Urine Test Types: Ph, Ketones, Proteins, And Cells
Urine as a Diagnostic Tool A long time ago, disgusting as it may be, people used to actually taste and drink urine in order to try and diagnose a patient's disease! I'm not even kidding you. Thankfully, modern-day doctors do not have to resort to such disgusting and even dangerous methods. One of the reasons the doctor barbers of yesteryear used to drink their patient's urine was to see if it had a sweet taste, often indicative of diabetes mellitus. Finding the sweet-tasting glucose in the urine was covered in detail in another lesson, so we'll focus on other important measurements here instead. Interpreting Urine pH One value that can be measured in the urine is known as urine pH. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. If the pH is low, then it is acidic. If the pH is high, then it is basic, or alkaline. To remember which is which, I'll give you a little trick that has worked for me. If you grew up watching cartoons, you probably saw some comical ones where cartoonish robbers poured acid on the roof of a bank vault and waited while the acid ate its way downward into the vault, so the robbers could get down there to steal all the cash. If you can recall that acid likes to eat its way downward into things, then you'll remember that acidic substances go down the pH scale. That is to say, their pH numbers are lower than basic substances. Normal urine pH is roughly 4.6-8, with an average of 6. Urine pH can increase, meaning it will become more basic, or alkaline, due to: A urinary tract infection Kidney failure The administration of certain drugs such as sodium bicarbonate Vegetarian diets On the flip side, causes for a decreased, or acidic, urine pH, include: Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis, a complication of diabetes mellitus Continue reading >>
Urine Glucose Test
What Is a Urine Glucose Test? A urine glucose test is a quick and simple way to check for abnormally high levels of glucose in the urine. Glucose is a type of sugar that your body requires and uses for energy. Your body converts the carbohydrates you eat into glucose. Having too much glucose in your body can be a sign of a health problem. If you don’t receive treatment and your glucose levels remain high, you can develop serious complications. The test involves taking a sample of urine. Once you provide your sample, a small cardboard device known as a dipstick will measure your glucose levels. The dipstick will change color depending on the amount of glucose in your urine. If you have a moderate or high amount of glucose in your urine, your doctor will perform further testing to determine the underlying cause. The most common cause of elevated glucose levels is diabetes, a condition that affects the body’s ability to manage glucose levels. It’s important to monitor your glucose levels if you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, or if you show symptoms of prediabetes. These symptoms include excessive thirst, blurred vision, and fatigue. When left untreated, diabetes can lead to long-term complications, including kidney failure and nerve damage. A urine glucose test is often performed to check for diabetes. In addition, known diabetics can use the urine glucose test as a way of monitoring the degree of sugar control, or efficacy of treatments. Urine tests were once the main type of testing used to measure glucose levels in people who may have diabetes. However, they are far less common now that blood tests have become more accurate and easier to use. In some cases, a urine glucose test may also be done to check for kidney problems or a urinary tract infection. Continue reading >>
What Do Urine Tests Say About Diabetes?
When you have diabetes, you’re no stranger to tests that keep track of your disease. Most look at your blood, but there are others. Two simple ones that check your urine can help you and your doctor watch for kidney disease and severe high blood sugar. About one-third of people with diabetes have problems with their kidneys. But early and tight control of your blood sugar and blood pressure, plus help from certain medications, can keep these organs working like they should To check for problems, your doctor can do a test that measures the amount of protein in your urine, called microalbuminuria. It shows up when small amounts of albumin (the main protein in your blood) seep into your pee. Without treatment to slow the leak, your kidneys could be damaged and eventually fail. You should get this test every year starting as soon as you’re diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. That’s because high blood sugar is usually present many years before you find out you have the disease. If you have type 1 diabetes, you probably won’t get the test until you’ve been diagnosed for 5 years. If the test is positive, it means your kidneys can no longer filter the blood as well as they should. It also shows you have blood vessel disease that could lead to heart problems. Your doctor will probably suggest medications or lifestyle changes to help prevent these conditions: Kidney damage. You may start specific medicines to prevent further harm. If your microalbumin level is high, your doctor may suggest another type of test that requires you to collect samples for 24 hours. This can better tell the extent of damage to the organs and see how well they’re working. High blood sugar. Studies show tight control of your blood sugar can lower kidney damage, so your doctor may put you on more Continue reading >>
Urine Glucose Test
Test for glycosuria, the excretion of glucose in the urine. The test for urine glucose uses a small dipstick that changes color after it has been dipped in urine. Matching the color on the dipstick against a chart on the test package reveals whether there is glucose in the urine. Before people with diabetes started measuring blood glucose levels, urine glucose testing was the best way to monitor diabetes control. Some people still use urine glucose tests, but these tests are of dubious value in monitoring diabetes control for two reasons. First, the renal threshold — the blood glucose level at which the kidneys begin to excrete glucose in the urine — is relatively high. In healthy, nondiabetic individuals, the average renal threshold is at a blood glucose level of 160–180 mg/dl. In other words, only when the blood glucose level reaches 160–180 mg/dl will some glucose appear in the urine. Many people with diabetes have an even higher renal threshold, so glucose will not appear in their urine until blood glucose levels are very high — well above the normal range. Thus, a positive urine glucose test would indicate that the blood glucose level is very high, and a negative urine glucose test could mean that the level is low, normal, or slightly elevated. The second factor that limits the value of this test is that urine can remain in the bladder for several hours, which means that a positive urine glucose test may actually reflect a high blood glucose level from several hours ago, even if the current blood glucose level is actually normal. Continue reading >>
Glycosuria (glucose In Urine) Symptoms, Causes, And Potential Complications
Glycosuria, or glucose in the urine, is the presence of higher than normal levels of sugar in the urine and may be due to complications with your kidneys or diabetes. To learn more about this condition, including symptoms, causes, and prevention strategies, as well as what normal and abnormal levels of glucose in the urine are, continue reading. Glycosuria symptoms Glycosuria may occur with a host of other symptoms, including excessive hunger, fatigue, infections, frequent urination, irritability, increased thirst, issues with vision, slower healing of wounds, tingling sensation in hands and feet, unexplained weight loss, abdominal pain, and in some cases, high blood sugar levels. Difference between blood glucose and glucose in urine Blood glucose is regulated by insulin produced by the pancreas, though in patients with diabetes, the insulin is not produced or processed properly meaning they may need insulin injections to regulate their blood sugar. If left unmanaged, diabetes can cause blood glucose levels to rise and some may enter into the urine. Urine glucose may not always be due to diabetes, and can be a benign symptom that sometimes accompanies pregnancy. Glucose in urine causes Some of the most common causes of glucose in the urine include: Diabetes mellitus: The excess blood glucose levels of people with unmanaged diabetes make it difficult for your kidneys to properly reabsorb the glucose and can cause it to leak into the urine. Hyperthyroidism: Excessive thyroid hormones can cause decreased absorption of glucose that is then passed out of the body through the urine. High sugar diet: Consuming excessive sugar can raise your blood glucose past the level that your kidneys can properly reabsorb, which causes some glucose to be passed into the urine. Benign glycos Continue reading >>
Urine Sugar Levels Chart, What Does Sugar In Urine Mean?
what does it mean to have glucose in your urine if you are child, man, or woman? Should the one concerned about sugar in his/her urine? Does maple colored urine indicate sugar in urine? Please be patient and read carefully, comment with your question if you cannot find answer. What does glucosuria means? Medical term for sugar in the urine is Glycosuria or glucosuria, it is the excretion of excessive blood glucose into the urine filtrate. Is it normal to have sugar in your urine Ordinarily, urine contains no glucose because the kidneys are able to reclaim all of the filtered glucose back into the bloodstream. When you find a positive urine test for glucose, it means you have high level of sugar in your blood. What does too much glucose in urine mean? You can see glucose in your urine after the glucose in your blood exceeds 162 – 180 mg/dl which is the normal glucose threshold of the kidney. excess glucose in urine is usually not a healthy concern, and of course there is nothing to call it the normal glucose levels in urinalysis. sugar in the urine in diabetes mellitus type 2: the kidney cannot deal with great amount of sugar which increased above the normal threshold of glucose, and excrete it in the urinary fluid. In case of type 1 diabetes mellitus, the sugar drop in the urine as well as ketone bodies or “Acetone” in urine, the reasons behind acetone in urine is the consumption of fatty acids in the body to produce energy when the glucose is not available, remember that glucose in case of DM voided regularly through the urination while the body organs need the sugar for energy. Blood Sugar levels chart. 1+ glucose in urine test, is it normal? Even trace sugar in the urine is not clinically normal, 1+ means that the serum glucose is above 180 mg/dl and the urine Continue reading >>
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Glucose Screening And Glucose Tolerance Test
Nearly 1 in 10 women will develop gestational diabetes (GD or GDM) during pregnancy — which is why almost all practitioners screen for it in all their patients. Fortunately, gestational diabetes is also one of the most easily managed pregnancy complications. When blood sugar is closely controlled through diet, exercise and, if necessary, medication, women with gestational diabetes are likely to have perfectly normal pregnancies and healthy babies. When a glucose screening is done The glucose screen is usually done between week 24 of pregnancy and week 28 of pregnancy. Some practitioners may test earlier if you're at higher risk for the disorder, including if you're obese, 35 or older, have a family history of diabetes or had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy. How a glucose screening is done The glucose screening is simple, especially if you have a sweet tooth. First, you'll drink a very sweet glucose (aka sugar) drink, which usually tastes like flat orange soda. Then you'll wait for one hour before having some blood drawn and tested for glucose. Most women chug the stuff with no problem and no side effects; a few, especially those who don't have a taste for sweet liquids, feel a little queasy afterwards. How a glucose tolerance test is done If the results of your glucose screening show elevated levels of glucose in your blood, it's possible that you might not be producing enough insulin to process the extra glucose in your system. Your doctor may then order a glucose tolerance test. For this diagnostic test, you'll be asked to fast overnight. Your blood will be drawn in the morning, and then you'll drink a higher-concentration glucose mixture. Your blood will be drawn three more times, at one, two, and three hours later. If a glucose tolerance test diagnose Continue reading >>
Top 30 Doctor Insights On: 100 Mg Glucose In Urine
2 Not necessarily: Sounds like a urine dipstick was used. Not the preferred method of measuring glucose in the urine. Independent of this- pregnancy cannot be diagnosed or predicted using this data. You will need to wait until you have missed your next period. If that happens you may test for pregnancy though I recommend waiting 1 extra week since you may simply ...Read more Continue reading >>
For Parents & Visitors
Have you ever tried to fly a remote control airplane or helicopter? If you steer too sharply one way, your plane will crash into the ground. And if you go too far in the opposite direction, the plane will nose directly upward, making it difficult to control. For people with diabetes, controlling blood sugar levels (or blood glucose levels) is kind of like piloting that plane. To stay in the air and have the most fun, you have to keep blood sugar levels steady. Having a blood sugar level that's too high can make you feel lousy, and having it often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a sugar that comes from the foods we eat, and it's also formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the cells of our body, and it's carried to each cell through the bloodstream. Hyperglycemia (pronounced: hi-per-gly-SEE-me-uh) is the medical word for high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar levels happen when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells of the body where it can be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. Having too much sugar in the blood for long periods of time can cause serious health problems if it's not treated. Hyperglycemia can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, these health problems can Continue reading >>
Low and high blood glucose levels Fluctuating blood glucose levels in the form of mild hypoglycaemic episodes and slightly elevated blood glucose values are constant companions during insulin therapy. However, in order to prevent hypoglycaemic emergencies in a timely manner, it is important to be aware of your symptoms and treatment options. Hypoglycaemia – Low blood glucose Preventing hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose) is the greatest challenge to achieving the most physiologically normal blood glucose levels possible (like those of non-diabetics). It must be borne in mind here that a hypoglycaemic emergency can develop very quickly, within just a few minutes. If there is more insulin in the blood than is necessary in order to regulate the blood glucose value, then the blood glucose level will drop. A hypoglycaemic episode is considered an emergency starting at a value of 50 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L). Initial signs usually appear in advance, including Trembling Sweating Heart palpitations Sudden ravenous hunger Weakness Restlessness At the first sign of a hypoglycaemic episode and/or if blood glucose levels drop below 65 mg/dL (3.6 mmol/L) a rapid response is vital in order to prevent blood glucose levels from dropping even further. Always remember to remain calm and eat something first before you measure your blood glucose. Immediately consume some form of fast-acting sugar (20 g carbohydrates), such as glucose (available in tablet, liquid or chewable tablet form). Alternatively, consume a sweetened drink, such as orange juice or cola (100 mL = approx. 10 g carbohydrates). Measure your blood glucose level and then measure it again in 15 minutes. Then consume some long-acting carbohydrates, such as whole grain bread, bananas or yogurt to ensure that your blood glucose level Continue reading >>
I'm Pregnant And The Doctor Found Sugar In My Urine
At my check-up today, a small trace of sugar was present in my urine. The doctor pricked my finger and tested my blood and said the trace was fine (the reading was 5.8mmol/L) and that small traces of sugar are quite common in late pregnancy. The doctor didn't seem concerned, so I didn't ask any questions. Now I'm wondering if I should be taking any special precautions, such as changing my diet, or if I should be concerned that this is an indicator of potential problems. In pregnancy, the body changes the way it manages glucose and reacts to insulin. For some, the extent of these changes means a diagnosis of gestational diabetes (diabetes in pregnancy) is made. In some countries a short glucose tolerance test is done at around 28-weeks in all women to detect this. In the UK women are usually screened if they; develop glucose (sugar) in the urine, which is common and often doesn't develop into gestational diabetes have a large baby show signs of excess fluid around the baby. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes is usually made if the fasting blood sample is greater than 7mmol/l or if the two-hour level is greater than 11.1mmol/l. Cut off levels for diagnosis vary a little between different units. If someone is diagnosed with gestational diabetes, the mainstay of treatment is a diet with reduced fat, increased fibre and regulation of carbohydrate intake. Eliminating certain foods from your diet can lead to rapid improvement, for example high calorie drinks, snack foods and fresh orange juice. While the result of your blood test means there is no need for you to be concerned about diabetes, adhering to a lower fat, high fibre diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, and avoiding high calorie foods can only be a good thing. Yours sincerely The NetDoctor Medical Team Continue reading >>
Metrowest Veterinary Associates, Inc.
METROWEST VETERINARY ASSOCIATES, INC. 207 EAST MAIN STREET, MILFORD, MA 01757 (508) 478-7300 online @ www.mvavet.com Page 1 of 2 DIABETES: MONITORING URINE WITH KETO-DIASTIX The overall goal of treatment is to keep the petâ€™s blood sugar levels within the normal range for as much of the day as possible. This is accomplished primarily through the daily administration of insulin by injection to make up for the insulin that the animalâ€™s body is not producing on its own. When giving insulin, we must monitor the pet to tell when the insulin dose needs adjustment. While this may be accomplished with more accuracy by measuring blood sugar levels, for many it is more feasible to monitor the urine, using Keto-diastix to decide how and when to adjust the dose. Below are guidelines to help you: Keto-diastix can be purchased at most pharmacies. Make sure to get the specific product, which tests urine (not blood) for both glucose and ketones. Specific step by step instructions are presented on the back of this page. Collecting sample: At the time of testing, use a small dish to collect some urine. Only a small amount is needed. For cats, a urine collection kit may be used (in place of litter) to collect urine. The best way to get a sample may be by holding the keto-diastix in the urine stream while your pet is urinating, but if he/she has urinated on the floor, the keto-diastix may be placed directly into the urine to obtain a sample. Make sure that urine covers both squares on the stick. Reading the sample: ï¿½ As soon as you collect the sample on the stick, start counting seconds. ï¿½ The KETONE square should be read after 15 seconds. Compare the color of the square to the colors on the bottleâ€™s ketone chart, choosing the one that most closely matches the Continue reading >>