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1 Hour Postprandial Blood Sugar Normal Range

Glucose Tolerance Test

Glucose Tolerance Test

Glucose tolerance test, procedure to assess the ability of the body to metabolize glucose , the principal type of sugar found in the blood . In persons with normal or slightly elevated blood-sugar levels, the body tolerance to sugar is measured in a stressful situation induced by administering a large amount of glucose. The most common procedure is to take an initial blood sample from a fasting individual, have the individual empty his or her bladder , and then administer orally 50–100 grams of glucose (usually 1 gram of glucose per kilogram of ideal body weight) dissolved in water. Samples of blood and urine for glucose determination are obtained 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours later. Normally the concentration of glucose in the blood will rise to about 140 mg/100 ml within 45–60 minutes and will return in 1 1/2–2 1/2 hours to the normal range of 80–120 mg/100 ml. The most valuable diagnostic point is 2 hours, when the value should be less than 120 mg/100 ml. A fasting glucose tolerance test can convey important information about decreased tolerance to sugar in persons suffering from an impairment of sugar metabolism, such as diabetes mellitus . In these individuals a decreased tolerance to sugar is manifested by a blood-sugar-level curve that rises higher than, and returns more slowly to, normal. This type of curve may also be seen in nondiabetic persons during acute illness, after trauma, or when on a low- carbohydrate diet; it may also be observed in elderly persons with hardening of the arteries or heart disease and in middle-aged persons who are markedly overweight. An oral glucose tolerance test is used to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus when a fasting blood glucose test result is not definitive (i.e., greater than the uppe Continue reading >>

Euglycemia - What Is It And What Does It Mean For You?

Euglycemia - What Is It And What Does It Mean For You?

Ever hear of the word euglycemia? It's a term that typically is used in medical research papers, but is not common vernacular in everyday talk. The American Diabetes Association defines euglycemia, (you-gly-SEEM-ee-uh) as "a normal level of sugar in the blood." Sugar, or glucose, is used by the body as fuel. Your normal level of glucose will depend on whether or not you have diabetes. And even if you have diabetes, your normal blood sugar targets will be set based on other variables, such as age/life expectancy, duration of diabetes, other medical conditions, diabetes complications, hypoglycemia unawareness, and individual patient considerations. When Do We Check Blood Sugar? Typically, we can determine blood sugar levels by checking the blood sugar in a fasting state (when you haven't eaten for 8 hours) in response to a meal or after a carbohydrate load, or we can do a blood test that measures your sugar over the course of three months—this is a test called Hemoglobin A1C (Hba1c) test. These numbers demonstrate how your body is processing sugar, both overnight and in response to food. These tests can also help us to determine risk for diabetes and a diabetes diagnosis. What About Self Blood Sugar Monitoring? If you are someone who has been diagnosed with diabetes, then you are probably familiar with blood sugar testing. Checking your blood sugar daily helps you determine what factors influence your blood sugars and how you can keep them at target. Two times of day that you are likely to check are in the morning before you've eaten anything (fasting) and two hours after a meal. Diet, exercise, stress, illness, and medications are all factors that can influence your blood sugars. Your targets will be individualized based on a variety of factors but, for most non-pregna Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar

Blood Sugar

Contents 1 What is normal blood sugar level 1.4 Blood sugar test What is normal blood sugar level Blood sugar and blood sugar are interchangeable terms, and both are crucial to the health of the body; especially for people with diabetes. Blood glucose is the primary energy source for the body’s cells and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system. A steady supply must be available for use, and a relatively constant level of glucose must be maintained in the blood. A few different protocols may be used to evaluate the blood sugar (glucose level) in the blood. See “Blood sugar test” for more information on these. Sometimes, glucose may be tested in urine. Blood glucose typically varies from 70.2 mg/dL to 99 mg/dL (3.5 mmol/L to 5.5 mmol/L) for people without diabetes. During digestion, fruits, vegetables, breads and other dietary sources of carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (and other nutrients); they are absorbed by the small intestine and circulated throughout the body. Using glucose for energy production depends on insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin facilitates transport of glucose into the body’s cells and directs the liver to store excess energy as glycogen for short-term storage and/or as triglycerides in adipose (fat) cells. For the majority of healthy individuals, normal blood sugar levels are as follows: Fasting: between 70.2 to 99 mg/dL (3.9 to 5.5 mmol/L) 2 hours after eating: up to 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) Normally, blood glucose rises slightly after a meal and insulin is released by the pancreas into the blood in response, with the amount corresponding to the size and content of the meal. As glucose moves into the cells and is metabolized, the level in the blood drops and the pancreas responds by slowing, then sto Continue reading >>

Reference Values During Pregnancy

Reference Values During Pregnancy

perinatology.com Please enable JavaScript to view all features on this site. Activated partial thromboplastin time Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT)AlbuminAldosteroneAlkaline phosphataseAlpha-1-antitrypsin Alpha-fetoproteinAmylase Angiotensin converting enzyme Anion gapAntithrombin III, functionalApolipoprotein A-1Apolipoprotein BAspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT)Basophil countBicarbonateBile acidsBilirubin,conjugated (direct) Bilirubin,unconjugated (indirect) Bilirubin,totalCA -125Calcium,ionizedCalcium,totalCeruloplasminChlorideCholesterol,HDLCholesterol,LDLCholesterol,VLDLCholesterol,total Complement C3 Complement C4 CopperCortisol C-reactive protein CreatinineCreatine kinaseD-dimerDehydroepiandrosterone sulfateEosinophil countErythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)ErythropoietinEstradiolFactor VFactor VIIFactor VIIIFactor IXFactor XIFactor XIIFerritin Fibrinogen Folate,red cellFolate,serumGamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)Glucose,fasting HematocritHemoglobin Hemoglobin A1CHomocysteineImmunoglobulin A (IgA)Immunoglobulin G (IgG)Immunoglobulin M (IgM)IronLactate dehydrogenase (LDH)LipaseLymphocyte countMagnesiumMean corpuscular volume (MCV)Mean corpuscular hemoglobinMean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration Mean platelet volume (MPV)Monocyte count Neutrophil countOsmolalityParathyroid hormoneParathyroid hormone-related proteinPhosphatePlatelet countPotassiumPrealbuminProgesteroneProlactinProtein, totalProtein C activityProtein S activityProtein S freeProtein S totalProthrombin timeRed blood cell count (RBC)Red cell distribution width (RDW)SeleniumSex hormone binding globulinSodiumTestosteroneThyroxine-binding globulinThyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH)Thyroxine, freeThyroxine, totalTissue plasminogen activatorTissue plasminogen activator Continue reading >>

Q&a: How To Lower Your Blood Sugar When It’s Over 200 Mg/dl

Q&a: How To Lower Your Blood Sugar When It’s Over 200 Mg/dl

Q: How do I lower my blood sugar when it goes over 200 mg/dl? I have Type 2 diabetes. A: An excellent question, but a complicated one to answer. Your doctor or nurse educator should be contacted any time your blood sugar runs consistently higher than 250 mg/dl for more than two days. When a person with Type 2 diabetes encounters a high blood sugar, the strategy used in bringing it down will vary from individual to individual. This is because of the differences in treatment concerning diet, exercise, and medication. It will also depend upon the guidelines for glucose control that you and your doctor have mutually agreed upon. When high blood sugars do occur, there are a number of strategies that can be employed to adjust the glucose level back down to a normal range. These might include: 1) Eating less food at the next meal, eliminating a snack and/or eating foods with a lower glycemic index. A general rule of thumb to follow is decreasing 15 grams of carbohydrate (the amount found in one starch exchange, one fruit exchange, or one cup skim milk exchange) will lower blood glucose by 30 mg/dl. If you test your blood sugar at 182 mg/dl before a meal or snack, then eliminate one starch and one cup milk at the next meal to bring the glucose value as close to 120 mg/dl as a baseline. Although people with diabetes will respond differently to this adjustment, it provides a basic guideline to start with. For persons with Type 2 diabetes who are overweight, the loss of only 5% to 10% of total weight loss can dramatically improve blood glucose values (so just cutting calories moderately can achieve better blood glucose control). Lastly, choosing foods with a lower glycemic index, i.e., foods that do not raise blood sugar as quickly or dramatically, can help to bring blood glucose Continue reading >>

Managing Your Blood Sugar

Managing Your Blood Sugar

Blood glucose (sugar) is the amount of glucose in your blood at a given time. It is important to check your blood glucose (sugar) levels, because it will: Provide a quick measurement of your blood glucose (sugar) level at a given time; Determine if you have a high or low blood glucose (sugar) level at a given time; Show you how your lifestyle and medication affect your blood glucose (sugar) levels; and Help you and your diabetes health-care team to make lifestyle and medication changes that will improve your blood glucose (sugar) levels. How often should you check your blood glucose (sugar) levels? How frequently you check your blood glucose (sugar) levels should be decided according to your own treatment plan. You and your health-care provider can discuss when and how often you should check your blood glucose (sugar) levels. Checking your blood glucose (sugar) levels is also called Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). How do you test your blood glucose levels? A blood glucose (sugar) meter is used to check your blood glucose (sugar) at home. You can get these meters at most pharmacies or from your diabetes educator. Talk with your diabetes educator or pharmacist about which one is right for you. Once you receive a meter, ensure you receive the proper training before you begin to use it. Ask your health-care provider about: How and where to draw blood How to use and dispose of lancets (the device that punctures your skin) The size of the drop of blood needed The type of blood glucose (sugar) strips to use How to clean the meter How to check if the meter is accurate How to code your meter (if needed) Note: Your province or territory may subsidize the cost of blood glucose (sugar) monitoring supplies. Contact your local Diabetes Canada branch to find out if this appli Continue reading >>

Diabetes Care...what You Need To Know

Diabetes Care...what You Need To Know

Please remember to consult with your diabetes care team before making any changes to your diabetes care. Information provided is for your consideration only and is not meant to be taken as medical advice in any way. You may also be interested in our Diabetes Terms section. Blood Glucose Testing Testing can be done using the tips of the fingers, as well as Alternate Site Testing (AST) on such places as the sides of the hands, the forearm and the leg. When in doubt or if a low is suspected always use the finger tip for most reliable results. While most people do not find a time lag when using AST, current research recommends that lows be monitored through finger testing. Why is it important to test? In order to properly control your diabetes, it is important to know what you blood glucose levels are. Too high or too low can lead to disastrous complications. When to test? This depends on if you have Type 1 Diabetes or not and how active you are. Current Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice guidelines suggest testing blood glucose levels at least four times per day. Many doctors suggest testing before each meal, before, after and during strenuous physical activity, and before bed. It may also be preferable to test at least once throughout the night to ensure that night-time basal insulins are working properly. Please consult with your diabetes team to see how often you should test your blood glucose levels. But what does "blood glucose testing" mean? Glucose is a type of sugar. The body forms glucose when it breaks down the food we eat into a useable form of energy. Glucose is the body's main source of energy. Measuring the amount of glucose found in your blood helps to show how the body is breaking down food into energy, as well as how the liver is working. Bloo Continue reading >>

Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels Chart [printable]

Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels Chart [printable]

JUMP TO: Intro | Blood sugar vs blood glucose | Diagnostic levels | Blood sugar goals for people with type 2 diabetes | Visual chart | Commonly asked questions about blood sugar Before Getting Started I was talking to one of my clients recently about the importance of getting blood sugar levels under control. So before sharing the diabetes blood sugar levels chart, I want to OVER EMPHASIZE the importance of you gaining the best control of your blood sugar levels as you possibly can. Just taking medication and doing nothing else is really not enough. You see, I just don’t think many people are fully informed about why it is so crucial to do, because if you already have a diabetes diagnosis then you are already at high risk for heart disease and other vascular problems. Maybe you've been better informed by your doctor but many people I come across haven't. So if that's you, it's important to know that during your pre-diabetic period, there is a lot of damage that is already done to the vascular system. This occurs due to the higher-than-normal blood sugar, that's what causes the damage. So now that you have type 2 diabetes, you want to prevent any of the nasty complications by gaining good control over your levels. Truly, ask anyone having to live with diabetes complications and they’ll tell you it’s the pits! You DO NOT want it to happen to you if you can avoid it. While medications may be needed, just taking medication alone and doing nothing is really not enough! Why is it not enough even if your blood sugars seem reasonably under control? Well, one common research observation in people with diabetes, is there is a slow and declining progression of blood sugar control and symptoms. Meaning, over time your ability to regulate sugars and keep healthy gets harder. I Continue reading >>

Blood Glucose Monitoring

Blood Glucose Monitoring

One of the main aims of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels within a specified target range. The key is balancing your food with your activity, lifestyle and diabetes medicines. Blood glucose monitoring can help you understand the link between blood glucose, food, exercise and insulin. Over time your readings will provide you and your health professionals with the information required to determine the best management strategy for your diabetes. Maintaining good blood glucose control is your best defence to reduce the chances of developing complications from diabetes. Self-blood glucose monitoring allows you to check your blood glucose levels as often as you need to or as recommended by your doctor or Credentialled Diabetes Educator. To test blood glucose levels, you need: A blood glucose meter A lancet device with lancets Test strips. Blood glucose meters are usually sold as kits giving you all the equipment you need to start. There are many different types, offering different features and at different prices to meet individual needs. Most of these are available from Diabetes Australia in your state or territory, pharmacies and some diabetes centres. Your doctor or Credentialled Diabetes Educator can help you choose the meter that’s best for you, and your Credentialled Diabetes Educator or pharmacist can show you how to use your meter to get accurate results. To test your blood glucose levels, you prick your finger with the lancet and add a small drop of blood onto a testing strip. This strip is then inserted into the meter, which reads the strip and displays a number – your blood glucose level. When and how often you should test your blood glucose levels varies depending on each individual, the type of diabetes and the tablets and/or insulin being us Continue reading >>

What Are The Ideal Levels Of Blood Sugar?

What Are The Ideal Levels Of Blood Sugar?

A blood sugar or blood glucose chart identifies ideal blood sugar levels throughout the day, including before and after meals. Doctors use blood sugar charts to set target goals and monitor diabetes treatment plans. Blood sugar charts also help those with diabetes assess and self-monitor blood sugar test results. What is a blood sugar chart? Blood sugar charts act as a reference guide for blood sugar test results. As such, blood sugar charts are important tools for diabetes management. Most diabetes treatment plans involve keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal or target goals as possible. This requires frequent at-home and doctor-ordered testing, along with an understanding of how results compare to target levels. To help interpret and assess blood sugar results, the charts outline normal and abnormal blood sugar levels for those with and without diabetes. In the United States, blood sugar charts typically report sugar levels in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). In the United Kingdom and many other countries, blood sugar is reported in millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A1C blood sugar recommendations are frequently included in blood sugar charts. A1C results are often described as both a percentage and an average blood sugar level in mg/dL. An A1C test measures the average sugar levels over a 3-month period, which gives a wider insight into a person's overall management of their blood sugar levels. Blood sugar chart guidelines Appropriate blood sugar levels vary throughout the day and from person to person. Blood sugars are often lowest before breakfast and in the lead up to meals. Blood sugars are often highest in the hours following meals. People with diabetes will often have higher blood sugar targets or acceptable ranges than those without the condition. These Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar: Fasting Vs. Postprandial

Blood Sugar: Fasting Vs. Postprandial

Peter's fasting blood glucose: 89 mg/dl--perfect. After one whole wheat bagel, apple, black coffee: 157 mg/dl--diabetic-range. How common is this: Normal fasting blood sugar with diabetic range postprandial (after-eating) blood sugar? It is shockingly common. The endocrinologists have known this for some years, since a number of studies using oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) have demonstrated that fasting glucose is not a good method of screening people for diabetes or pre-diabetes, nor does it predict the magnitude of postprandial glucose. (In an OGTT, you usually drink 75 grams of glucose as a cola drink, followed by blood sugar checks. The conventional cut off for "impaired glucose tolerance" is 140-200 mg/dl; diabetes is 200 mg/dl or greater.) People with glucose levels during OGTT as high as 200 mg/dl may have normal fasting values below 100 mg/dl. High postprandial glucose values are a coronary risk factor. While conventional guidelines say that a postprandial glucose (i.e., during OGTT) of 140 mg/dl or greater is a concern, coronary risk starts well below this. Risk is increased approximately 50% at 126 mg/dl. Risk may begin with postprandial glucoses as low as 100 mg/dl. For this reason, postprandial (not OGTT) glucose checks are becoming an integral part of the Track Your Plaque program. We encourage postprandial blood glucose checks, followed by efforts to reduce postprandial glucose if they are high. More on this in future. Continue reading >>

Normal Blood Sugar (glucose) Levels

Normal Blood Sugar (glucose) Levels

Most of the people use the description” blood sugar level” to tell their blood glucose level. We take all different sugar types like glucose, fructose and lactose with foods and our body converts all sugar types to glucose for energy production in the body. Blood sugar level or blood glucose level measurement is one of the commonly requested laboratory tests. Blood glucose test can be done after fasting, after a meal ( postprandial blood sugar test) also blood sugar can be measured after glucose loading ( oral glucose tolerance test) to your body. All these are different conditions for your body and all these blood glucose measurement tests have different results and evaluation. Here you can see the blood sugar test types and normal values; Fasting blood sugar test Fasting blood sugar test means blood glucose measurement after 8-12 hours of fasting. Fasting blood sugar normal value: 70-100 mg/dL Postprandial blood glucose test Postprandial blood glucose test measures the sugar ( glucose) level 2 hours after starting a meal. The test is done to see your body’s response to carbohydrates. Postprandial blood glucose level should be done less than 140 mg/dL. Oral glucose tolerance test 10-12 hours of fasting is needed You will be requested to drink a liquid that contains 75 grams of glucose Your blood will be drawn after 2 hours and blood glucose level will be measured Your blood glucose level should be measured less than 140 mg/dL. Oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy Pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may be done by 2 different ways. Test is done 10-12 hours of fasting In one-step OGTT, 75 grams of glucose containing liquid is used In two-step OGTT, 50 grams of glucose containing liquid is used One step OGGT normal values (75 grs glucose) Fasting blood Continue reading >>

Diabetes The Basics: Blood Sugars: The Nondiabetic Versus The Diabetic

Diabetes The Basics: Blood Sugars: The Nondiabetic Versus The Diabetic

BLOOD SUGARS: THE NONDIABETIC VERSUS THE DIABETIC Since high blood sugar is the hallmark of diabetes, and the cause of every long-term complication of the disease, it makes sense to discuss where blood sugar comes from and how it is used and not used. Our dietary sources of blood sugar are carbohydrates and proteins. One reason the taste of sugar—a simple form of carbohydrate—delights us is that it fosters production of neurotransmitters in the brain that relieve anxiety and can create a sense of well-being or even euphoria. This makes carbohydrate quite addictive to certain people whose brains may have inadequate levels of or sensitivity to these neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers with which the brain communicates with itself and the rest of the body. When blood sugar levels are low, the liver, kidneys, and intestines can, through a process we will discuss shortly, convert proteins into glucose, but very slowly and inefficiently. The body cannot convert glucose back into protein, nor can it convert fat into sugar. Fat cells, however, with the help of insulin, do transform glucose into fat. The taste of protein doesn’t excite us as much as that of carbohydrate— it would be the very unusual child who’d jump up and down in the grocery store and beg his mother for steak or fish instead of cookies. Dietary protein gives us a much slower and smaller blood sugar effect, which, as you will see, we diabetics can use to our advantage in normalizing blood sugars. The Nondiabetic In the fasting nondiabetic, and even in most type 2 diabetics, the pancreas constantly releases a steady, low level of insulin. This baseline, or basal, insulin level prevents the liver, kidneys, and intestines from inappropriately converting bodily proteins (muscle, vital organs) into g Continue reading >>

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

What Are Blood Sugar Target Ranges? What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level?

Understanding blood sugar target ranges to better manage your diabetes As a person with diabetes, you may or may not know what your target ranges should be for your blood sugars first thing in the morning, before meals, after meals, or at bedtime. You may or may not understand what blood sugar ranges are for people without diabetes. You may or may not understand how your A1C correlates with your target ranges. How do you get a clear picture of what is going on with your blood sugar, and how it could be affecting your health? In this article, we will look at what recommended blood sugar target ranges are for people without diabetes. We will look at target ranges for different times of the day for people with diabetes. We will look at target ranges for Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Is there a difference? We will also look at what blood sugars should be during pregnancy for those with gestational diabetes. We will look at other factors when determining blood sugar targets, such as: Age Other health conditions How long you’ve had diabetes for Stress Illness Lifestyle habits and activity levels We will see how these factors impact target ranges for your blood sugars when you have diabetes. We will learn that target ranges can be individualized based on the factors above. We will learn how target ranges help to predict the A1C levels. We will see how if you are in your target range, you can be pretty sure that your A1C will also be in target. We will see how you can document your blood sugar patterns in a notebook or in an “app,” and manage your blood sugars to get them in your target ranges. First, let’s look at the units by which blood sugars are measured… How is blood sugar measured? In the United States, blood sugar is measured in milligrams per deciliter (by w Continue reading >>

Blood Sugar Level Chart And Information

Blood Sugar Level Chart And Information

A - A + Main Document Quote: "A number of medical studies have shown a dramatic relationship between elevated blood sugar levels and insulin resistance in people who are not very active on a daily or regular basis." A doctor might order a test of the sugar level in a person's blood if there is a concern that they may have diabetes, or have a sugar level that is either too low or too high. The test, which is also called a check of blood sugar, blood glucose, fasting blood sugar, fasting plasma glucose, or fasting blood glucose, indicates how much glucose is present is present in a person's blood. When a person eats carbohydrates, such as pasta, bread or fruit, their body converts the carbohydrates to sugar - also referred to as glucose. Glucose travels through the blood to supply energy to the cells, to include muscle and brain cells, as well as to organs. Blood sugar levels usually fluctuate depending upon what a person eats and how long it has been since they last ate. However; consistent or extremely low levels of glucose in a person's blood might cause symptoms such as: Anxiety Sweating Dizziness Confusion Nervousness Warning signs of dangerously high levels of blood sugar include sleepiness or confusion, dry mouth, extreme thirst, high fever, hallucinations, loss of vision, or skin that is warm and dry. A blood sugar test requires a finger prick or needle stick. A doctor might order a, 'fasting,' blood glucose test. What this means is a person will not be able to drink or eat for 8-10 hours before the test, or the doctor may order the test for a random time or right after the person eats. If a woman is pregnant, her doctor might order a, 'glucose-tolerance test,' which involves drinking glucose solution and having blood drawn a specified amount of time later. The re Continue reading >>

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