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1 Gram Of Glucose Equals How Many Calories

Energy Levels Under Ketosis – Fats, Carbs, And Atp

Energy Levels Under Ketosis – Fats, Carbs, And Atp

Update 2017: This post has been deprecated (not in line with my current thoughts. Read more on the ‘about’ page) Ever since I started my ketogenic lifestyle I’ve been experiencing higher energy levels. Basically I have the same increased energy from the minute I wake up at ~7 A.M. up until I go to sleep at 2 A.M. at night. No post-prandial (after-meal) fatigue and no sleepiness during the day. It’s been quite amazing because during my entire life I was kind of suffering of moments of tiredness throughout the day. As I began researching what happens inside the body under high-fat-very-low-carb nutrition, I wanted to know what could be the possible explanation of the higher energy levels. I’ve learned that carbohydrate metabolism yields lower amounts of ATP compared to beta-oxidation (fat metabolism). Carbohydrate Metabolism It basically starts with glycolysis which has the purpose of converting 1 molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvic acids (pyruvates). Glycolysis yields 4 ATPs, but it requires 2 ATPs to be completed, so the net gain of energy is 2 ATPs. After glycolysis, the 2 pyruvates react with Coenzyme A to form 2 molecules of Acetyl-CoA, which will later go into the TCA Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle). In the TCA Cycle there are series of chemical reactions which lead to the release of more ATPs (yet, very decent amounts), CO2, CoA, and H+. So far, we’ve only gained 4 ATPs, 2 from glycolysis and 2 from the TCA Cycle. The next step is oxidative phosporylation or the Electron Transport Chain. This is where the hydrogen made available in the early stages of glucose metabolism will be oxidized. This is also where the most energy in the form of ATP is created. The ETC gives roughly 30 ATPs, yet there are 4 hydrogen atoms remaining which are Continue reading >>

How Many Calories Are Released When 1 Gram Of Protein Is Completely Broken Down In The Presence Of Oxygen?

How Many Calories Are Released When 1 Gram Of Protein Is Completely Broken Down In The Presence Of Oxygen?

How many calories are released when 1 gram of glucose is completely broken down in the presence of oxygen? How many calories are released when 1 gram of glucose is completely broken down in the presence of oxygen? Would you like to merge this question into it? already exists as an alternate of this question. Would you like to make it the primary and merge this question into it? Biologically the answer is 4. And 9 per gram of fat. But I don't know the exact quantum answer. Biologically the answer is 4. And 9 per gram of fat. But I don't know the exact quantum answer. The complete breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen yieldsabout 36 to 38 ATP. Other functions yield different numbers of ATP. How many calories are released when 1 molecule of glucose is completely broken down in the presence of oxygen? I'm pretty sure the answer is 285Kcal. 686Kcal is the possible energy yield of a glucose molecule. 263Kcal is the energy available to a cell as a result of cellular respiration usually (36 ATP molecules); cellular respiration is about 39% efficient. Yes, it can in a process called anaerobic respiration. In 1 gram of what? 1 gram of carbohydrate is 4 calories. 1 gram of protein is 4 calories. 1 gram of fat is 9 calories and 1 gram of alcohol is 7 calories. When carbon is burned in the presence of oxygen the carbon and oxygen combine to prodon dioxide if you start w 6 grams of carbon and 16 grams of oxygen and they react completely how many grams of car? the equation of this reaction is C + O2 = CO2 (s) (g) (g) according to this reaction 1mol of Carbon react with same number of moles of Oxygen. and this combination gives 1mol of CO2 as result. so first we have to find the number of moles in the weight we are going to use. 12 grams of carbon contains 1mol so 6 grams of Continue reading >>

The Energy Released By 1 Gram Of Glucose Is

The Energy Released By 1 Gram Of Glucose Is

The energy released by 1 gram of glucose is What is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle called? Answer & Explanation Answer: B) Sarcomere The myofibrils are composed of actin and myosin filaments, repeated in units called sarcomeres, which are the basic functional units of theskeletal muscle. Why are yeast cells frequently used as hosts for cloning? C) only yeast cells allow the gene to be cloned C) only yeast cells allow the gene to be cloned Answer & Explanation Answer: A) they are eukaryotic cells If you were to produce a protein in bacterial cloning systems, you would not get the same post transcriptional and post translational modifications because the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems work differently on the modifications. Thus human recombinant protein genes are usually cloned in yeast cells. Also since they have a short generation time, they can be easily culture. Answer & Explanation Answer: C) Binary Fission Most bacteria divide by binary fission, a form of cell division in which DNA replication and segregation occur simultaneously. This process involves active partitioning of the single bacterial chromosome and positioning of the site of septation. Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. In this process the bacterium, which is a single cell, divides into two identical daughter cells. Binary fission begins when the DNA of the bacterium divides into two replicates. The bacterial cell then elongates and splits into two daughter cells each with identical DNA to the parent cell. Each daughter cell is a clone of the parent cell. Which of the following is an example of polygenic inheritance? Answer & Explanation Answer: A) Skin pigmentation in humans Polygenic inheritance involves the determination of a particular phenotypic characteristic by many genes, called Continue reading >>

How Many Calories Are In One Gram Of Sugar?

How Many Calories Are In One Gram Of Sugar?

How Many Calories Are in One Gram of Sugar? Andrea Cespedes is a professionally trained chef who has focused studies in nutrition. With more than 20 years of experience in the fitness industry, she coaches cycling and running and teaches Pilates and yoga. She is an American Council on Exercise-certified personal trainer, RYT-200 and has degrees from Princeton and Columbia University. Curbing added sugar can help you lose weight.Photo Credit: Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images Americans eat over 355 extra calories a day from added sugar, says the American Heart Association. One gram of sugar contains 3.87 calories. Understanding how many calories are in a gram of sugar can help you when reading nutrition labels. Nutrition labels list sugar in grams, under the main header of carbohydrates. Multiply the number of sugar grams by 3.87 to find out the total number of sugar calories a product contains. The Institute of Medicine recommends limiting added sugar to less than 25 percent of total calories. The American Heart Association recommends just 6 teaspoons, or 24 g, of added sugar daily for women and nine teaspoons, or 38 g, daily for men. Foods such as soda, energy drinks, sweetened fruit juices, pastries, candy and baked goods are some of the most common sources of added sugar. Sugar is also present in processed breads, soups, salad dressings, condiments and pasta sauces. Lose Weight. Feel Great!Change your life with MyPlate by LIVESTRONG.COM Continue reading >>

Demystifying Sugar

Demystifying Sugar

People with diabetes can enjoy sugar with a balanced diet. Contrary to popular opinion, people with diabetes can eat sugars and still meet their blood sugar goals. In the past, people with diabetes were told to avoid sugar as a way to control diabetes. And even today, you may hear someone you know tell you the same information. But the truth is, research has shown that people with diabetes can enjoy sugar and sugar-containing foods, in the context of a balanced diet. This section demystifies sugars. In this section, you will learn about: Understanding sugars Contrary to popular opinion, people with diabetes can eat sugars and still meet their blood sugar goals. Research shows that the total amount of carbohydrate you eat has the biggest effect on your blood sugar level. So how does sugar fit in the picture? Sugar is found in: Table sugar Brown sugar Molasses Honey Powdered sugar Cane sugar Raw sugar Agave nectar Syrups, like corn syrup and maple syrup Other names of sugar you might read are glucose, fructose, dextrose, maltose and sucrose Sugar, like all carbohydrates, contains food energy. Every gram of carbohydrate has about 4 calories. One teaspoon of sugar has about 5 grams of carbohydrate, and 20 calories. One tablespoon of sugar has about 15 grams of carbohydrate, and 60 calories. So it may be no surprise that sugar and sugar-containing foods still have an impact on your blood sugar and body weight, just like other carbohydrate foods. Can I include sugar in my meal plan? You can occasionally eat sugar and sugar-containing foods. Just like other carbohydrate foods, count the grams of carbohydrates in your sweets, and be sure to stay within your carbohydrate budget for the meal or snack. Sweets or desserts will need to replace another carbohydrate choice in order to Continue reading >>

How Many Calories Are In Your Blood?

How Many Calories Are In Your Blood?

Any idea? Here is a helpful comment by SixtiesLibber on the SLD forums: When you get your fasting blood sugar tested, it’s supposed to be below 100. And it should almost never go above 200. Well, I finally checked and found what what those numbers mean, that’s 100 milligrams per deciliter. That’s kind of a weird measurement but it’s actually the same as 1000 milligrams per liter or 1 gram per liter. In other words, normally your blood has only 1 gram of glucose (sugar) per liter. (A liter is almost the same as a quart.) Adults have something like 5 quarts of blood in their bodies. So at any one time you only have about 5 grams of glucose circulating in your blood. That’s the equivalent of about 1 teaspoon of sugar or one-third of a piece of “squishy white bread.” Answer: Not many. Continue reading >>

How To Convert Grams To Calories

How To Convert Grams To Calories

Edit Article Three Methods:Converting Fat Grams to CaloriesConverting Grams of Carbohydrates and Proteins to CaloriesUnderstanding Grams vs. CaloriesCommunity Q&A Learning how to count calories is a great way to help you achieve a healthy diet. While most food labels list the number of calories contained in their products, they often times do not list the breakdown of which specific nutrients those calories come from. By understanding the difference between calories and grams, and learning the conversion rate, you can easily calculate how many calories are in specific nutrients. 1 Look at the nutrition label. Most food labels will list how many grams of fat there are for each serving of that specific product. This is how you will calculate the calories. 2 Multiply the fat grams by nine. Every gram of fat contains nine calories. To figure out how many calories there are in the fat content, simply multiple the fat grams by nine. For example, if there are ten grams of fat, you would multiple ten grams of fat by nine calories, for a total of 90 calories. This is how many calories there are in the fat grams. 3 Calculate how many calories there are in the entire product. To figure out how many total calories there are in the fat content of a product, multiply the original number you received before, by the amount of servings there are on the label. If a label states there are three servings, you would then multiply 90 by three, for a total of 270 calories. 1 Know that a carbohydrate is an organic compound. Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They always contain calories (4 per gram), but calories do not automatically mean there are carbohydrates, because calories are in other macro-nutrients.[1] 2 Check the nutrition label. You will see how many grams of c Continue reading >>

Counting Carbohydrates Like A Pro

Counting Carbohydrates Like A Pro

Practical Tips for Accurate Counts Let’s get this straight: There is no such thing as a “pro” when it comes to carbohydrate counting. There is no master’s degree or PhD in Carbohydrate Science at any major university, nor is there a course focusing on counting carbohydrates in any dietetics or nutrition science program. And I’ve yet to meet anyone at a circus or carnival who, for a mere dollar, will “guess the carbohydrates” in your favorite food item, lest you win a valuable prize. So why would anyone with diabetes want to count carbohydrates “like a pro”? Simple. When it comes to keeping blood glucose levels in control, carbohydrate counting works better than any other system. Better than counting calories. Better than avoiding sugar. And certainly better (and simpler) than the exchange system. Carbohydrate is what raises blood glucose level abruptly after meals. Not fat or protein or vitamins or minerals. Just carbohydrate. Counting and managing the amount of carbohydrate in your diet has important benefits. If you take multiple daily injections of insulin or use an insulin pump, carbohydrate counting allows you to match doses of mealtime rapid-acting insulin to the foods you eat. This allows for almost unlimited dietary flexibility and helps to prevent post-meal highs and lows. If you control your diabetes with diet and exercise, pills, or just one or two insulin injections a day, you can also use carbohydrate counting to improve your control. Researchers at the University of Texas School of Allied Health Sciences in Galveston found that consistent carbohydrate intake (eating the same amount of carbohydrate at the same meals every day) in people with Type 2 diabetes leads to improvements in blood glucose control, whether or not a person also loses Continue reading >>

A Beginner’s Guide To Carbohydrate Counting

A Beginner’s Guide To Carbohydrate Counting

Pia has a Bachelors Degree in Clinical Nutrition from Cornell University and a Masters of Science in Nutrition from New York University. She completed a dietetic internship at the Bronx Veterans Medical Center in order to become a registered dietitian. Prior to joining BD, Pia educated people with diabetes about medical nutrition therapy in a private physicians office, an outpatient clinic at a hospital and a nursing home where she counseled patients one-on-one and in group classes. This slide show explains: • What foods contain carbohydrates • How much of these foods you can eat • Where to look up the carb content of foods Next slide This is not true! Carbohydrates (carbs) have the greatest effect on your blood sugar. 90 to 100 percent of the carbs you eat appear in your bloodstream as blood glucose within minutes to hours after you have eaten. You may be asked to count the carbs that you eat. The carbs you will need to count are both: • starches that break down slowly into sugar • simple sugars that break down into blood glucose almost right away Many people believe that a diabetes meal plan means that you just have to cut back on sugar. Previous slide Next slide Products made from grains, such as pasta, bread, rolls, bagels, crackers, cereals and baked goods Starches include certain vegetables, all grains, and products made from grains All of these foods contain starches: Starchy Vegetables Regular and sweet potatoes, corn, fresh peas and lima beans Legumes Dried beans and peas Grains Grains like wheat, oats, barley, and rice Sugars include the natural sugars in fruit and milk, plus certain sweeteners added to prepared foods and drinks Fruit and fruit juices Foods that contain fruit or fruit juices such as jams, jellies, and fruit smooth Continue reading >>

Still Believe 'a Calorie Is A Calorie'?

Still Believe 'a Calorie Is A Calorie'?

Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. 02/27/2013 05:02 pm ETUpdatedApr 29, 2013 If you do, you fly in the face of mounting and incontrovertible evidence that some calories -- in particular, "sugar calories" -- are jeopardizing both your and your family's health. Physicians and politicians who cling to the dogma that "all calories should be treated equally" imperil our country's health care system, food supply and standing in the world for the next hundred years. A calorie is a measurement of energy (a matter of physics), not a value judgment on where that energy goes (a matter of biochemistry). As my book Fat Chance explains, you get sick from inappropriate energy storage (in your liver and muscle), not defective energy balance (bigger love handles). Nonetheless, "a calorie is a calorie" continues to be promulgated by the food industry as their defense against their culpability for the current epidemic of obesity and chronic metabolic disease. But it is as dishonest as a three-dollar bill. Here are just four examples that refute this dogma: Fiber. You eat 160 calories in almonds, but you absorb only 130 . The fiber in the almonds delays absorption of calories into the bloodstream, delivering those calories to the bacteria in your intestine, which chew them up. Because a calorie is not a calorie. Protein. When it comes to food, you have to put energy in to get energy out. You have to put twice as much energy in to metabolize protein as you do carbohydrate; this is called the thermic effect of food. So protein wastes more energy in its processing. Plus protein reduces hunger better than carbohydrate. Because a calorie is not a calorie. Fat. All fats release nine calories per gram when burned. But omega-3 fats are heart-healthy an Continue reading >>

Each Gram Of Protein & Carbohydrates Contains How Many Kilocalories?

Each Gram Of Protein & Carbohydrates Contains How Many Kilocalories?

Each Gram of Protein & Carbohydrates Contains How Many Kilocalories? Written by Erin Coleman, R.D., L.D.; Updated July 20, 2017 Protein and carbohydrates each contain 4 calories per gram. How to Convert Carbohydrate Percent to Grams Consuming the right balance of protein, carbohydrates and fat can help you maintain a healthy weight and optimize your energy levels. Protein and carbohydrates both contain 4 calories per gram, while fat provides 9 calories per gram. Calculating your calorie needs can help you determine how many grams of protein, carbohydrates and fat you should consume each day. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans estimates women need 1,600 to 2,000 calories, while men generally require 2,000 to 3,000 calories each day to maintain a healthy weight. Harvard Medical School suggests adults need 13 to 18 calories per pound of body weight each day to maintain their weight. Therefore, a 125-pound woman needs 1,625 to 2,250 calories each day and a 165-pound man requires 2,145 to 2,970 calories per day, depending on their activity level. Safe and effective weight loss diets for men and women usually contain 1,200 to 1,600 calories per day, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Institute of Medicine recommends adults consume 45 to 65 percent of their daily calories from carbohydrates. Since carbohydrates contain 4 calories in each gram, calculate your carb requirements by dividing 45 to 65 percent of your calorie needs by four. For example, if you require 2,000 calories per day aim to eat 900 to 1,300 calories from carbohydrates, or 225 to 325 grams of carbs each day. Healthy, nutrient-dense carbohydrates are found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, low-fat milk, low-fat yogurt, nuts and seeds. Adults should consume 10 Continue reading >>

Calories From Starch Vs. Sugar

Calories From Starch Vs. Sugar

Carbohydrates and Calories Both starch and sugar offer 4 calories in each gram. Because they’re the ideal fuel source for cells, most of the calories in your diet should come from them. About 45 percent to 65 percent of the calories you consume should be from carbs -- a combination of both starches and sugars, the publication "Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010" advises. Having a 2,000-calorie diet means that you can have anywhere from 900 to 1,300 calories from carbohydrates every day. Just divide by the 4 calories you’ll get from each gram of carbohydrate to convert calories to grams. In this case, 225 to 325 grams of total carbs should be your target. Starch in Your Diet Wheat bread, grains, beans, potatoes, bran cereal, corn, squash and peas are just a few healthy foods known for having a high starch content. You’ll also get starch from processed foods -- these are the carbs you should avoid. White breads, pastas and white-flour crackers are some high-starch foods that are almost like junk foods. Even though each gram of starch from natural foods has the same number of calories as a gram of starch in those processed foods, the junk foods don’t offer as much fiber or as many vitamins and minerals. You usually won't see starch grams on the label. Just subtract sugar and fiber grams from the total carb grams; you're left with starch. Sugars to Avoid Some sugars are natural, such as fructose from fruits and lactose from milk. Don’t let the sugar in these natural foods concern you, since you’ll also get vitamins, minerals and even fiber in some cases. Added sugars from baked goods, candies and sodas are the big concern. These manufactured foods often have few nutrients to offer, other than calories from glucose. Read the nutrition facts label and watch ou Continue reading >>

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats supply 90% of the dry weight of the diet and 100% of its energy. All three provide energy (measured in calories), but the amount of energy in 1 gram (1/28 ounce) differs: These nutrients also differ in how quickly they supply energy. Carbohydrates are the quickest, and fats are the slowest. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested in the intestine, where they are broken down into their basic units: The body uses these basic units to build substances it needs for growth, maintenance, and activity (including other carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Carbohydrates Depending on the size of the molecule, carbohydrates may be simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates: Various forms of sugar, such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), are simple carbohydrates. They are small molecules, so they can be broken down and absorbed by the body quickly and are the quickest source of energy. They quickly increase the level of blood glucose (blood sugar). Fruits, dairy products, honey, and maple syrup contain large amounts of simple carbohydrates, which provide the sweet taste in most candies and cakes. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of long strings of simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates are larger molecules than simple carbohydrates, they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates before they can be absorbed. Thus, they tend to provide energy to the body more slowly than simple carbohydrates but still more quickly than protein or fat. Because they are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates, they are less likely to be converted to fat. They also increase blood sugar levels more slowly and to lower levels than simple carbohydrates but for a longer time. Complex carbohydrates include starches and fib Continue reading >>

Parenteral Nutrition Formula Calculations And Monitoring Protocols

Parenteral Nutrition Formula Calculations And Monitoring Protocols

Macronutrient Concentrations in PN Solutions Macronutrient concentrations (%) = the grams of solute/100 ml of fluid D70 has 70 grams of dextrose per 100 ml. 10% amino acid solution has 10 grams amino acids/100 ml of solution 20% lipids has 20 grams of lipid/100 ml of solution Protein Content Calculations To calculate the grams of protein supplied by a TPN solution, multiply the total volume of amino acid solution (in ml*) supplied in a day by the amino acid concentration. Example Protein Calculation 1000 ml of 8% amino acids: 1000 ml x 8 g/100 ml = 80g Or 1000 x .08 = 80 g Calculation of Dextrose Calories Calculate grams of dextrose: Multiply the total volume of dextrose soln (in ml) supplied in a day by the dextrose concentration. This gives you grams of dextrose supplied in a day. Multiply the grams of dextrose by 3.4 (there are 3.4 kcal/g dextrose) to determine kcalories supplied by dextrose in a day. Calculation of Lipid Content To determine kcalories supplied by lipid*, multiply the volume of 10% lipid (in ml) by 1.1; multiply the volume of 20% lipid (in ml) by 2.0. If lipids are not given daily, divide total kcalories supplied by fat in one week by 7 to get an estimate of the average fat kcalories per day. *|Lipid emulsions contain glycerol, so lipid emulsion does not have 9 kcal per gram as it would if it were pure fat. Some use 10 kcal/gm for lipid emulsions. Source: Example Lipid Calculation for 2-in-1 500 ml of 10% lipid 500 ml x 1.1 kcal/ml = 550 kcal 500 ml 20% lipid 500 ml x 2.0 kcal/ml = 1000 kcal Or, alternatively, 500 ml of 10% lipid = 50 grams lipid x 10 kcal/g or 500 kcal Source: Calculation of Dextrose/AAÂ with Piggyback Lipids (2-in-1) Determine patient's kcalorie, protein, and fluid needs. Determine lipid volume and rate for "piggy back" administra Continue reading >>

Food Energy

Food Energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration may either involve the chemical reaction of food molecules with molecular oxygen[1] (aerobic respiration) or the process of reorganizing the food molecules without additional oxygen (anaerobic respiration). Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles. Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water represent virtually all the weight of food, with vitamins and minerals making up only a small percentage of the weight. (Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins comprise ninety percent of the dry weight of foods.[2]) Organisms derive food energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins as well as from organic acids, polyols, and ethanol present in the diet.[3] Some diet components that provide little or no food energy, such as water, minerals, vitamins, cholesterol and fiber, may still be necessary to health and survival for other reasons. Water, minerals, vitamins, and cholesterol are not broken down (they are used by the body in the form in which they are absorbed) and so cannot be used for energy. Fiber cannot be completely digested by most animals, including humans. However, ruminants can extract food energy from the respiration of cellulose because of bacteria in their rumens. Using the International System of Units, researchers measure energy in joules (J) or in its multiples; the kilojoule (kJ) is most often used for food-related quantities. An older metric system unit of energy, still widely used in food-related contexts, is the calorie; more precisely, the "food calorie", "larg Continue reading >>

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