What Type Of Breathing Results In Acidosis

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A Delicate Balance: Understanding Acid-base Issues In Ems Patients

The human body has tremendous capacity to maintain internal balance, or homeostasis, in serious, prolonged situations. However, there are several situations in which an imbalance that is left uncorrected can cause serious harm. EMS providers are trained to recognize that a lack of oxygen or glucose will cause the patient to deteriorate in short order. While harder to detect in the field, derangements in the body's acid-base balance can also be catastrophic. However, a basic understanding of this critical concept can help develop a working field diagnosis and promote early interventions that could reduce morbidity. What are acids and bases? Like all organisms, humans live within a water-based environment. Water contains hydrogen and oxygen (H20). Water freely separates, or dissociates, into positively charged hydrogen ions (H+) and negatively charged hydroxide ions (OH-). Hydrogen ions are a weak acid that interacts with a variety of chemical processes. The number of hydrogen ions within a water solution is expressed through a measurement called the power of hydrogen, or pH. pH is measured using a negative logarithmic scale. This means two things. First, the smaller the pH number, t Continue reading >>

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  1. TSHELTON2005

    you will find some information and links in this thread:
    http://allnurses.com/forums/f205/pat...es-145201.html - pathophysiology/a & p/fluid & electrolyte resources (in nursing student assistant forum)
    respiratory acidosis: big symptom to remember is the patients have a lot of trouble breathing because of pulmonary congestion, but note the symptoms of the breathing compared to the breathing symptoms of respiratory alkalosis. you'll hear them say things like, "i can't catch my breath." you see this when there has been chest trauma, airway obstruction, pulmonary edema, drug overdose, neuromuscular diseases and in copd. the basic pathophysiology of this is that the patient is not clearing carbon dioxide from their body. hypoventilation (reduced rate and depth of breathing) causes an increase in carbon dioxide throughout the cells and tissues of the body. the hypoventilation results in pulmonary congestion and airway obstruction which leads to all the breathing difficulties.
    symptoms are:
    ph below 7.35 and pco2 over 45mmhg
    rapid, shallow respirations
    elevated blood pressure
    elevated cardiac output
    muscle weakness

    respiratory alkalosis: hyperventilation, rapid rate of breathing, causes too much carbon dioxide to be exhaled and the ph of the body rises. the cardinal sign of respiratory alkalosis is the deep, rapid breathing, more than 40 breaths per minute, that is similar to kussmaul's respirations (seen in metabolic acidosis). this kind of breathing leads to neuromuscular and central nervous system disturbances. this will occur in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, as well as in pregnancy, fever, at high altitudes and with acute anxiety. think of the things that would cause a person to breathe very rapidly and cause large losses of carbon dioxide.
    symptoms are:
    ph elevated above 7.45 and pco2 below 35mmhg
    rapid, deep breathing

    tingling of the extremitieshope this helps.

  2. TexasTac

    the rome mnemonic has always been helpful to me:
    r respiratory
    o opposite
    ph up pco2 down = alkalosis
    ph down pco2 up = acidosis
    m metabolic
    e equal
    ph up hco2 up = alkalosis
    ph down hcos down = acidosis

  3. Beech1184

    The main thing to remember is that the lungs are the major way we dispose of acid products of metabolism in the form of CO2 and water vapor or CO3. 13,000 meq of acid are excreted versus 50 meq for the kidneys in 24 hrs. Anything that causes hypoventilation will thus cause acidosis. It can be life threatening especially in the very young and the old.
    Respratory alkalosis is usually self limiting and much less common. The most common cause is hysteria.

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