What Is The Cause Of Respiratory Acidosis?

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Respiratory Acidosis.

Abstract Respiratory acidosis, or primary hypercapnia, is the acid-base disorder that results from an increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs with acute (Type II) respiratory failure, which can result from any sudden respiratory parenchymal (eg, pulmonary edema), airways (eg, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma), pleural, chest wall, neuromuscular (eg, spinal cord injury), or central nervous system event (eg, drug overdose). Chronic respiratory acidosis can result from numerous processes and is typified by a sustained increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, resulting in renal adaptation, and a more marked increase in plasma bicarbonate. Mechanisms of respiratory acidosis include increased carbon dioxide production, alveolar hypoventilation, abnormal respiratory drive, abnormalities of the chest wall and respiratory muscles, and increased dead space. Although the symptoms, signs, and physiologic consequences of respiratory acidosis are numerous, the principal effects are on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Treatment for respiratory acidosis may include invasive or noninvasive ventilatory s Continue reading >>

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  1. TSHELTON2005

    you will find some information and links in this thread:
    http://allnurses.com/forums/f205/pat...es-145201.html - pathophysiology/a & p/fluid & electrolyte resources (in nursing student assistant forum)
    respiratory acidosis: big symptom to remember is the patients have a lot of trouble breathing because of pulmonary congestion, but note the symptoms of the breathing compared to the breathing symptoms of respiratory alkalosis. you'll hear them say things like, "i can't catch my breath." you see this when there has been chest trauma, airway obstruction, pulmonary edema, drug overdose, neuromuscular diseases and in copd. the basic pathophysiology of this is that the patient is not clearing carbon dioxide from their body. hypoventilation (reduced rate and depth of breathing) causes an increase in carbon dioxide throughout the cells and tissues of the body. the hypoventilation results in pulmonary congestion and airway obstruction which leads to all the breathing difficulties.
    symptoms are:
    ph below 7.35 and pco2 over 45mmhg
    rapid, shallow respirations
    elevated blood pressure
    elevated cardiac output
    muscle weakness

    respiratory alkalosis: hyperventilation, rapid rate of breathing, causes too much carbon dioxide to be exhaled and the ph of the body rises. the cardinal sign of respiratory alkalosis is the deep, rapid breathing, more than 40 breaths per minute, that is similar to kussmaul's respirations (seen in metabolic acidosis). this kind of breathing leads to neuromuscular and central nervous system disturbances. this will occur in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, as well as in pregnancy, fever, at high altitudes and with acute anxiety. think of the things that would cause a person to breathe very rapidly and cause large losses of carbon dioxide.
    symptoms are:
    ph elevated above 7.45 and pco2 below 35mmhg
    rapid, deep breathing

    tingling of the extremitieshope this helps.

  2. TexasTac

    the rome mnemonic has always been helpful to me:
    r respiratory
    o opposite
    ph up pco2 down = alkalosis
    ph down pco2 up = acidosis
    m metabolic
    e equal
    ph up hco2 up = alkalosis
    ph down hcos down = acidosis

  3. Beech1184

    The main thing to remember is that the lungs are the major way we dispose of acid products of metabolism in the form of CO2 and water vapor or CO3. 13,000 meq of acid are excreted versus 50 meq for the kidneys in 24 hrs. Anything that causes hypoventilation will thus cause acidosis. It can be life threatening especially in the very young and the old.
    Respratory alkalosis is usually self limiting and much less common. The most common cause is hysteria.

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