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Uncompensated Respiratory Acidosis

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Respiratory Acidosis

LABORATORY TESTS The following lab tests can be used to interpret and explain acidosis and alkalosis conditions. All are measured on blood samples. 1. pH: This measures hydrogen ions - Normal pH = 7.35-7.45 2. pCO2= Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide: Although this is a pressure measurement, it relates to the concentration of GASEOUS CO2 in the blood. A high pCO2 may indicate acidosis. A low pCO2 may indicate alkalosis. 3. HCO3- = Bicarbonate: This measures the concentration of HCO3- ion only. High values may indicate alkalosis since bicarbonate is a base. Low values may indicate acidosis. 4. CO2 = Carbon Dioxide Content: This is a measure of ALL CO2 liberated on adding acid to blood plasma. This measure both carbon dioxide dissolved and bicarbonate ions and is an older test. Do not confuse with pCO2 Typically, dissolved carbon dioxide = l.2-2.0 mmoles/L and HCO3- = 22-28 mmoles/L Therefore, although it is listed as CO2 content, the lab test really reflects HCO3- concentration. Respiratory Acidosis .ABNORMAL pH IN THE BODY: ACIDOSIS AND ALKALOSIS: INTRODUCTION: Normal blood pH is maintained between 7.35 and 7.45 by the regulatory systems. The lungs regulate the amount of carbon dio Continue reading >>

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  1. dietcherry

    THE DANGERS OF DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS

    This serious complication, the result of acid buildup in the blood, can lead to coma or even death.
    If you have type 1 diabetes, one of the serious complications you may face is a condition known as ketoacidosis. In diabetic ketoacidosis, acids called ketones build up in your blood and could eventually lead to diabetic coma or death.
    But by vigilantly controlling your diabetes and watching for early signs of ketoacidosis, you can help prevent it from happening to you.
    What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?
    "When blood sugars get elevated and there is not enough insulin, your fat cells start to break down their storage sites of energy, which are called ketones," says Jay Cohen, MD, medical director of the Endocrine Clinic and clinical assistant professor in the department of family medicine at the University of Tennessee. Ketones are acidic, and that acid builds up in your blood.
    Diabetic ketoacidosis is found more often in younger people than older people, and more often in women than in men. At least 20 percent of people learn they have diabetes after seeking medical care for complaints that turn out to be symptoms of ketoacidosis.
    Common Causes of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    The three common causes of ketoacidosis are:
    Not enough insulin. This can happen if you don’t inject enough insulin or if your insulin needs increase in response to an illness such as a cold or the flu. Blood glucose can’t be used for energy without enough insulin to help in the process, so the body breaks down fat for energy and high ketone levels result.
    "Elevated blood sugars could be due to an infection or any other physical or emotional stress — good or bad," says Dr. Cohen. Unexpected increases in your blood glucose levels can increase your insulin needs. "You may have a certain amount of insulin that you usually use, but if you have an infection, you may need more insulin to help your body to improve blood sugars," Cohen explains.
    Not enough food intake. If you don’t eat enough, your body has to break down fat for energy, producing high ketone levels. This is particularly common in people who are sick and don't feel like eating.
    Low blood glucose levels. This situation can force your body to break down fat to use as energy, resulting in ketone production.
    Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms
    Symptoms of ketoacidosis usually progress relatively slowly. But since diabetic ketoacidosis can be a life-threatening condition, it is important to seek medical help immediately if you experience any of its symptoms. These include:
    Excessive thirst
    Dry mouth
    Frequent urination
    Elevated blood glucose levels
    Elevated ketones in the urine
    Persistent fatigue
    Skin that is dry or flushed
    Nausea or vomiting
    Pain in your abdomen
    Shortness of breath
    A fruity smell to your breath (the result of elevated ketone levels)
    Inability to concentrate
    Confused state
    Preventing Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    Ask your endocrinologist how you can reduce your risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. It is often a good idea to use a home dipstick test to check for ketones in your urine when your blood glucose levels are high (over 240 milligrams per deciliter) and when you have an infection.
    Diabetes education also helps. One study found that hospital stays for ketoacidosis were reduced among a group of people who attended diabetes education classes.
    Managing Diabetic Ketoacidosis
    If think you may have ketoacidosis, it is essential to contact your doctor or get to the emergency room immediately.
    "If we can catch it early, with medicine and IV fluids, we can stop the diabetic ketoacidosis from progressing to severe dehydration," says Cohen. "Diabetic ketoacidosis, if severe and not treated aggressively, has about a 5 percent death rate, so you really want to get a handle on it rapidly."
    Remember that regularly monitoring your blood glucose levels, performing urine ketone tests as recommended, and recognizing symptoms that might indicate your ketone levels are high is the best approach to reducing your risk of diabetic ketoacidosis.
    From Everyday Health

  2. Gem93

    I recently had a friend that got DKA she only had ketones for a day and was bring violently sick she couldn't test for ketones as her strips were left at her uni campus and went home to visit her family for the weekend her mum was just about to leave to go get the strips when she said I don't feel well take me to hospital betime she got to hospital ( which is a 10 min drive from where she lives) her vains had short down and the only vain left was the one to her heart they had to cut her throat open to put in an insulin drip immediately and was put in intensive care her family was told she might not make it and that was from having ketone symptoms for just a few hours / day at the most .. This has woken me up to life alot Snd made me realise what can happen if you don't look after yourself

  3. dietcherry

    OMG Can you get her to join here so we may talk to her?

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