Pathophysiology Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Ppt

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) A state of absolute or relative insulin deficiency aggravated by ensuing hyperglycemia, dehydration, and acidosis-producing derangements in intermediary metabolism, including production of serum acetone. Can occur in both Type I Diabetes and Type II Diabetes In type II diabetics with insulin deficiency/dependence The presenting symptom for ~ 25% of Type I Diabetics. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HHS) An acute metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus characterized by impaired mental status and elevated plasma osmolality in a patient with hyperglycemia. Occurs predominately in Type II Diabetics A few reports of cases in type I diabetics. The presenting symptom for 30-40% of Type II diabetics. Diagnostic Criteria for DKA and HHS Mild DKA Moderate DKA Severe DKA HHS Plasma glucose (mg/dL) > 250 > 250 > 250 > 600 Arterial pH 7.25-7.30 7.00-7.24 < 7.00 > 7.30 Sodium Bicarbonate (mEq/L) 15 – 18 10 - <15 < 10 > 15 Urine Ketones Positive Positive Positive Small Serum Ketones Positive Positive Positive Small Serum Osmolality (mOsm/kg) Variable Variable Variable > 320 Anion Gap > 10 > 12 > 12 variable Mental Status Alert Alert/Drowsy Stupor/Coma Stupo Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Helen Tam-Semmens

    Dairy is very bad for your health. The tryptophan in milk can help you sleep. But you can get tryptophan from soy milk and all kinds of nuts and seeds too, and without the nasty side-effects of milk. Scientific studies show that Dairy increases the risk of cancer, heart disease, dementia, bone fracture in children, osteoporosis and bone loss in adults, diabetes, anemia in infants and toddlers, infant apnea and crib death, diabetes, postpartum psychosis, circulatory disorders, food allergies, etc. Following are supporting scientific papers.
    Eating meat, eggs and dairy is ‘just as bad as smoking’, link to early death and cancer
    Meat and cheese may be as bad as smokin
    Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people.
    Dairy increase risk of cancer due to hormones:
    Hormones in milk can be dangerous
    The possible role of female sex hormones in milk from pregnant cows in the development of breast, ovarian and corpus uteri cancers.
    Milk, dairy intake and risk of endometrial cancer: a 26-year follow-up.
    Low-fat milk promotes the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz(A)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors in rats.
    Dairy causes infant apnea and crib death:
    Cow’s Milk Casomorphin, Crib Death, and Autism | NutritionFacts.org
    Cow's-milk-induced infant apnoea with increased serum content of bovine β-casomorphin-5.
    Dairy causes anemia in infants and toddlers (prevents absorption of iron in other dietary source):
    Prevention of Iron Deficiency in Infants and Toddlers
    Dairy milk is singled out as the biggest dietary cause of osteoporosis
    Dairy milk is singled out as the biggest dietary cause of osteoporosis
    Dairy associated with higher rate of dying and higher rate of hip fractures:
    High milk intake may increase risk of bone fractures in women: Study
    "Consumption of dairy products, particularly at age 20 years, was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in old age."
    Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly.
    In 1990, the Journal of Pediatrics (Vol. 116) reported:
    "Cow's milk can cause blood loss from the intestinal tract,
    which over time, reduces the body's iron stores. Blood loss
    may be a reaction to cow's milk proteins."
    Eight years earlier, Pediatrics (1982; 89 ) reported:
    "Babies who are fed whole cow's milk during the second six
    months of life may experience a 30% increase in intestinal
    blood loss and a significant loss of iron in their stools."
    Dairy increases risk of autism. "The opiate-like casomorphins liberated from the cow’s milk protein, casein, are also accused of participating in the cause of other conditions including type I diabetes, postpartum psychosis, circulatory disorders, food allergies, and autism", Michael Greger M.D:
    Cow’s Milk Casomorphin and Autism | NutritionFacts.org
    Beta-casomorphins-7 in infants on different type of feeding and different levels of psychomotor development.
    Humans have no need of cow's milk. Bone fracture rates highest in countries that consume milk:
    ".. results showed that active children who consumed the largest quantities of milk actually had more bone fractures than those who consumed less."
    Got Truth? The Dairy Industry���s Junk Science

  2. Thomas Clark

    Benefit of milk before bed:
    Protein foods such as milk and milk products contain tryptophan. Tryptophan is an amino acid (or building block of protein) that promotes sleep and is found in small amounts in all protein foods. Tryptophan needs to enter the brain to have an effect, and research shows that eating carbohydrates and protein in the same meal makes tryptophan more available to the brain. Eating protein foods, such as milk or milk products, together with a carbohydrate-rich food may therefore promote relaxation.
    Thank you!

  3. Jithendra Gurumurthy

    There is no sleep inducing benefits as said by others, proof here: @6 Remedies for Sleep Problems-Do They Work?
    As far as I know, they fill the stomach and keep your appetite in check until next morning for break fast.

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