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Ketoacidosis Turbid Definition

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Pseudohyponatremia

Measurement of plasma/serum sodium concentration is one of the most frequently requested blood tests in clinical practice. Although usually performed in the laboratory, the test is also available at the point of care using technology incorporated into blood gas and other point-of-care analyzers. In health, sodium concentration is maintained between 135 and 145 mmol/L, so that hyponatremia (reduction in plasma sodium) is diagnosed if the concentration falls below 135 mmol/L. Effective, safe correction of plasma sodium depends on establishing the cause. Initial assessment of the hyponatremic patient should include due consideration of the rare possibility that the result is spuriously low: that this is not true hyponatremia but so-called "pseudo"hyponatremia. The main purpose of this article is to outline how some laboratory methods can, in certain well-defined clinical situations, give rise to a falsely low plasma sodium concentration, and thereby a diagnosis of pseudohyponatremia. Indicators that help establish a diagnosis of pseudohyponatremia will be discussed, and with the help of two published case histories, the danger of failing to recognize pseudohyponatremia will be highlig Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. zackly

    Diabetic eating low carb but not losing weight

    I've been reducing carbs since last summer but have been really trying to eat a maximum of 75 or less grams daily since Jan. I. I've done this to get better control of my out of control Type 2 diabetes. I've done well dropping my A1C from almost 9 to about 6.5. My endocrinologist is pleased with my progress. What has surprised me is that I have't lost weight. Oh, maybe a couple of pounds in the first few weeks but that's all. I'm not that disappointed because getting my diabetes under control was and will continue to be Job#1 but I see all these claims of dramatic weight loss on low carb diets. I do not count calories or limit portion size. The calories from reduced carbs have been replaced by more protein & fat. Why am I not losing weight? I take a considerable amount of insulin and live a fairly sedentary life. Is it still all about calories or am I missing something? Thanks for your help!

  2. linguafood

    Hm. Good question. I know when I first jumped on the low-carb wagon, back in 04 or whenever that South Beach diet was all the rage, I lost nothing. Zip. Zilch. While friends around me were dropping poundage like crazy, I'd lose a couple one week and then gain them back the next. Drove me positively nuts, as I was following that idiotic induction phase to the tee and was eating scrambled eggs for breakfast every goddamn day.
    So I understand your frustration.
    For some reason, when I cut out starches again a couple of years ago (but also cutting down on portion sizes), I lost about 16-18 lbs. over the course of a year.
    Not fast, but effectively gone. Maybe it just takes longer than you thought it would?

  3. zackly

    I've never been good @ eating a lesser amount of food than what satisfies me. There's a point where, if I eat one mouthful more or less, I feel uncomfortably stuffed or famished. Are all people wired this way? It seems that some people's appetites shut off @ a point that cause them to store minimal fat while other people are not sated until they eat an amount that causes them to store a lot of fat?

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