How Do You Know If Its Respiratory Or Metabolic Acidosis?

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Interpretation Of Arterial Blood Gas

Go to: Introduction Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is an essential part of diagnosing and managing a patient’s oxygenation status and acid–base balance. The usefulness of this diagnostic tool is dependent on being able to correctly interpret the results. Disorders of acid–base balance can create complications in many disease states, and occasionally the abnormality may be so severe so as to become a life-threatening risk factor. A thorough understanding of acid–base balance is mandatory for any physician, and intensivist, and the anesthesiologist is no exception. The three widely used approaches to acid–base physiology are the HCO3- (in the context of pCO2), standard base excess (SBE), and strong ion difference (SID). It has been more than 20 years since the Stewart’s concept of SID was introduced, which is defined as the absolute difference between completely dissociated anions and cations. According to the principle of electrical neutrality, this difference is balanced by the weak acids and CO2. The SID is defined in terms of weak acids and CO2 subsequently has been re-designated as effective SID (SIDe) which is identical to “buffer base.” Similarly, Stewart’ Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions


    Sounds like "KETOSIS" in one of my old adkins books
    there was a chapter about your body burning off fats and protein and there being a strong odor...even goes into dipping some type of urine test strips in your urine that change color and tell you when you are in ketosis...I dont remember it all...Hold on...Let me do a quick search....Ok
    Here is what ABOUT.com says about it...
    Question: What is Ketosis?
    Answer: A lot of people are confused by the term "ketosis." You may read that it is a "dangerous state" for the body, and it does sound abnormal to be "in ketosis." But ketosis merely means that our bodies are using fat for energy. Ketones (also called ketone bodies) are molecules generated during fat metabolism, whether from the fat in the guacamole you just ate or fat you were carrying around your middle. When our bodies are breaking down fat for energy, most of the it gets converted more or less directly to ATP. (Remember high school biology? This is the "energy molecule.") But ketones are also produced as part of the process.
    When people eat less carbohydrate, their bodies turn to fat for energy, so it makes sense that more ketones are generated. Some of those ketones (acetoacetate and ß-hydroxybutyrate) are used for energy; the heart muscle and kidneys, for example, prefer ketones to glucose. Most cells, including the brain cells, are able to use ketones for at least part of their energy. But there is one type of ketone molecule, called acetone, that cannot be used and is excreted as waste, mostly in the urine and breath (sometimes causing a distinct breath odor).
    If enough acetone is in our urine, it can be detected using a dipstick commonly called by the brand name Ketostix (though there are other brands, as well). Even though everyone is generating ketones continuously, this detection in the urine is what is commonly called "ketosis."
    The higher the concentration of ketones in the urine, the more purple the sticks will turn. The Atkins Diet, in particular, advises people to monitor ketosis as an indication of fat burning. Other reduced carbohydrate diets don't pay much attention to this, or aren't low enough in carbs to make much of an impression on the sticks. (The latter type of diet is sometimes called a "nonketogenic" low-carb diet.)
    Why do some people think ketosis is a bad thing?
    There is an assumption that if a body is burning a lot of fat for energy, it must not be getting "enough" glucose. However, there is no indication, from studying people on reduced carbohydrate diets, that this is the case (though there is usually a short period of adjustment -- less than a week, in most cases). Although it's true that our bodies can't break fat down into glucose (though, interestingly, they easily use glucose to make fat), our bodies can convert some of the protein we eat into glucose. Indeed, this works well for people who don't tolerate a lot of sugar, because this conversion happens slowly so it doesn't spike blood glucose.
    A dangerous condition called ketoacidosis can develop in those with type 1 diabetes, and it is sometimes confused with normal ketosis. The body usually avoids this state by producing insulin, but people with type 1 diabetes are unable to produce insulin. Even most people with type 2 diabetes who inject insulin usually produce enough insulin of their own to prevent ketoacidosis.

  2. RENA1965

    agree with [email protected] on this one. I also smell it when people eat 1200 calories or less working with the elderly..
    You can't cover this smell up even brushing your teeth and a doctor would note this detail and be asking serious questions about your nutrition. I eat balanced but because my body consumes all my calories from body building I went over to whey protein but only the days I train.. I don't have this smell when sweating or breathing, but physically just loss all the fat padding around my eyes cheek bones and places we need it to look healthy. If I don't use a suppliment this smell will come as my body uses more energy than I have on my frame and muscle protein is what is left..

  3. LAURIE5658

    OMG! I thought I was either the only one that experienced this or I was losing my mind. This is a very interesting post. Who woulda thunk?

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