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Diabetic Ketoacidosis Pathophysiology Diagram

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Sickly Sweet: Understanding Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life threatening condition that can occur to people with diabetes. It is observed primarily in people with type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent), but it can occur in type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) under certain circumstances. The reason for why it is not often seen in people with type 2 diabetes is because their body is still able to produce insulin, so the pathophysiology explained in the flowchart below is not as dramatic as compared to people with type 1 diabetes who do not make any insulin at all. There are various symptoms associated with DKA including: Hyperglycaemia Polyphagia (increased appetite and hunger) Polydipsia (increased thirst) Polyuria (increased urination) Glycosuria (glucose in the urine) Ketonuria (ketones in urine) Ketones in blood Sweet, fruity breath Tachypnoea leading to Kussmaul breathing (deep and laboured breathing pattern) The body tries to compensate for the ketone bodies (acid) by eliminating carbon dioxide (also an acid) thereby attempting to make the body more alkalotic to normalise the pH The compensation between the metabolic and respiratory system can be read about in this article Decreased bica Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Expat

    Hello Everyone,
    I have been diabetic for 8 years, following a bout of acute Pancreatitis. For the first 5 years I was on pills. The type and strength of the pills increased until 2.5 years ago I was put on Insulin - Humalog 50/50 before Breakfast and Dinner. Last autumn I lost control of my blood glucose levels (My A1c went to 8.6!). I had lots of tests. My senior doctor said I had stopped producing Insulin and put me on a different insulin plan. Nova Rapid before meals. Dose is 8 - 14 units depending on what I will eat. In addition I take Lantus before going to bed. Now my daytime blood sugar levels go up and down between the target ranges set for me. No problem here. My Base level is stubbornly high. I was told to increase the dose of Lantus by 2 units at a time until my Waking blood sugar was 90-120. Up till now 40 units of Lantus appeared to do the job, but the last 2 nights I have hypoed (BS 48 and 54) at about 2.00 am at night. Of course I got up and ate something (a small mandarin + half a slice of brown toast). Problem is now my Waking Blood sugar is 140 - 150, much too high!
    Now my question! Should I lower my evening dose of Lantus or should I split the dose? It takes a while to see the senior doctor who speaks perfect English but mt Turkish is not good enough to explain this to the nurse. I would appreciate your advice.

  2. noblehead

    Start with some basal testing:
    http://www.salforddiabetescare.co.uk/index2.php?nav_id=1007

  3. s.sollis

    I'm on latus and have been told it's not licensed for two doses.

  4. -> Continue reading
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