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Where Are Insulin And Glucagon Synthesized

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Exam 4

1. Which of the following is true for ACTH? A. it is formed from cholesterol B. is the major mineralocorticoid C. it has glucocorticoid activity D. all of the above * E. none of the above 2. Which of the following has the greatest affect on glucocorticoid activity in the body? A. insulin B. glucagon * C. cortisol D. aldosterone E. testosterone 3. Which of the following is the major regulator of the rate of cortisol secretion? A. potassium B. angiotensin II * C. cortisol D. sodium E. ionized calcium 4. If both adrenal glands of a person are severely damaged by disease, which of the following hormones will increase in the blood? A. aldosterone * B. ACTH C. corticosterone D. cortisol E. all of the above 5. Which of the following is not a result of excessive aldosterone secretion? A. Na retention, but only for a period of time B. K excretion C. blood pressure elevation * D. production of adrenal androgens E. weight gain 6. Problems concentrating, overeating, smoking, and disorganization would be considered what type of response to stress? A. emotional * B. behavioral C. physiological D. social E. personal 7. What is the primary physiological stimulator of CRH? A. plasma osmolarity * B. Continue reading >>

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  1. aashkab

    Two very intertwining hormones that can be confusing at times, and I think the NBME likes to exploit it, so lets straighten this out because I've seen tons of inconsistencies from the sources I've used.
    Glucagon -
    1. promotes gluconeogenesis (via fructose 2, 6 bisphosphatase)
    2. promotes glycogenolysis (via phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase kinase)
    3. inhibits glycogen synthase
    4. promotes insulin secretion (IS THIS RIGHT? I saw it somewhere and wrote it down)
    Insulin -
    From FA -
    1. increases glucose transport
    2. increases glycogen synthesis/storage
    3. increases triglyceride synthesis/storage
    4. increases cellular uptake of K+
    5. increase protein synthesis
    6. increases sodium retention (don't really know how this happens)
    Not in FA -
    7. Inhibits Glucagon
    I'm really disappointed at the lack of glucagon emphasis in FA. It deserves its own half page at least. Anyways, if you guys can please see what is right /wrong and add your own idea of what the heck is going, it'd help out. I'm mainly very unsure of the INTERACTION between the two. I thought for a while they both inhibited each other, now it seems like only insulin inhibits.
    Thanks!

  2. vr123

    aashkab said: ↑
    Two very intertwining hormones that can be confusing at times, and I think the NBME likes to exploit it, so lets straighten this out because I've seen tons of inconsistencies from the sources I've used.
    Glucagon -
    1. promotes gluconeogenesis (via fructose 2, 6 bisphosphatase)
    2. promotes glycogenolysis (via phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase kinase)
    3. inhibits glycogen synthase
    4. promotes insulin secretion (IS THIS RIGHT? I saw it somewhere and wrote it down)
    Insulin -
    From FA -
    1. increases glucose transport
    2. increases glycogen synthesis/storage
    3. increases triglyceride synthesis/storage
    4. increases cellular uptake of K+
    5. increase protein synthesis
    6. increases sodium retention (don't really know how this happens)
    Not in FA -
    7. Inhibits Glucagon
    I'm really disappointed at the lack of glucagon emphasis in FA. It deserves its own half page at least. Anyways, if you guys can please see what is right /wrong and add your own idea of what the heck is going, it'd help out. I'm mainly very unsure of the INTERACTION between the two. I thought for a while they both inhibited each other, now it seems like only insulin inhibits.
    Thanks!
    Click to expand... Yes, glucagon stimulates a little insulin release because insulin-dependent tissues need it to take up glucose. If glucagon makes a whole lot of glucose via glycogenolysis, gluconeogeneis, etc but there isn't any insulin around, then the glucose won't be able to get into the cells. So that's why this seemingly contradictory effect occurs.

  3. XRanger

    yea i believed glucagon promotes insulin release to prevent wide fluctuation or glucose level getting too high.
    insulin also promotes acetyl-coa carboxylase which leads to increased malonyl coa

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