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Where Are Insulin And Glucagon Synthesized

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The Endocrine Pancreas

Cells and Secretions of the Pancreatic Islets The pancreatic islets each contain four varieties of cells: The alpha cell produces the hormone glucagon and makes up approximately 20 percent of each islet. Glucagon plays an important role in blood glucose regulation; low blood glucose levels stimulate its release. The beta cell produces the hormone insulin and makes up approximately 75 percent of each islet. Elevated blood glucose levels stimulate the release of insulin. The delta cell accounts for four percent of the islet cells and secretes the peptide hormone somatostatin. Recall that somatostatin is also released by the hypothalamus (as GHIH), and the stomach and intestines also secrete it. An inhibiting hormone, pancreatic somatostatin inhibits the release of both glucagon and insulin. The PP cell accounts for about one percent of islet cells and secretes the pancreatic polypeptide hormone. It is thought to play a role in appetite, as well as in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine secretions. Pancreatic polypeptide released following a meal may reduce further food consumption; however, it is also released in response to fasting. Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. aashkab

    Two very intertwining hormones that can be confusing at times, and I think the NBME likes to exploit it, so lets straighten this out because I've seen tons of inconsistencies from the sources I've used.
    Glucagon -
    1. promotes gluconeogenesis (via fructose 2, 6 bisphosphatase)
    2. promotes glycogenolysis (via phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase kinase)
    3. inhibits glycogen synthase
    4. promotes insulin secretion (IS THIS RIGHT? I saw it somewhere and wrote it down)
    Insulin -
    From FA -
    1. increases glucose transport
    2. increases glycogen synthesis/storage
    3. increases triglyceride synthesis/storage
    4. increases cellular uptake of K+
    5. increase protein synthesis
    6. increases sodium retention (don't really know how this happens)
    Not in FA -
    7. Inhibits Glucagon
    I'm really disappointed at the lack of glucagon emphasis in FA. It deserves its own half page at least. Anyways, if you guys can please see what is right /wrong and add your own idea of what the heck is going, it'd help out. I'm mainly very unsure of the INTERACTION between the two. I thought for a while they both inhibited each other, now it seems like only insulin inhibits.
    Thanks!

  2. vr123

    aashkab said: ↑
    Two very intertwining hormones that can be confusing at times, and I think the NBME likes to exploit it, so lets straighten this out because I've seen tons of inconsistencies from the sources I've used.
    Glucagon -
    1. promotes gluconeogenesis (via fructose 2, 6 bisphosphatase)
    2. promotes glycogenolysis (via phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase kinase)
    3. inhibits glycogen synthase
    4. promotes insulin secretion (IS THIS RIGHT? I saw it somewhere and wrote it down)
    Insulin -
    From FA -
    1. increases glucose transport
    2. increases glycogen synthesis/storage
    3. increases triglyceride synthesis/storage
    4. increases cellular uptake of K+
    5. increase protein synthesis
    6. increases sodium retention (don't really know how this happens)
    Not in FA -
    7. Inhibits Glucagon
    I'm really disappointed at the lack of glucagon emphasis in FA. It deserves its own half page at least. Anyways, if you guys can please see what is right /wrong and add your own idea of what the heck is going, it'd help out. I'm mainly very unsure of the INTERACTION between the two. I thought for a while they both inhibited each other, now it seems like only insulin inhibits.
    Thanks!
    Click to expand... Yes, glucagon stimulates a little insulin release because insulin-dependent tissues need it to take up glucose. If glucagon makes a whole lot of glucose via glycogenolysis, gluconeogeneis, etc but there isn't any insulin around, then the glucose won't be able to get into the cells. So that's why this seemingly contradictory effect occurs.

  3. XRanger

    yea i believed glucagon promotes insulin release to prevent wide fluctuation or glucose level getting too high.
    insulin also promotes acetyl-coa carboxylase which leads to increased malonyl coa

  4. -> Continue reading
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