Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus Quizlet

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Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus And Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Mellitus It is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar level), glycosuria (glucose in urine), polyuria ( increased volume of urine due to the osmotic effect of glucose), polydipsia (excessivie thirst), polyphagia (excessive appetite). It is due to the hyposecretion of insulin or lack of insulin. It is of two types:- Diabetes Type I and Diabetes Type II. Diabetes Type I (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, IDDM): It is cased due to deficient insulin production by pancreas because either beta cells of islets of Langerhans are not able to produce insulin or beta cells are absent. Diabetes Type II (Insulin Independent or Non insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, NIDDM): It is an inherited recessive autosomal disorder appearing after the age of 40 years in which the cells fail to take up insulin from blood. It results in deficient passage of glucose form blood into the cell surfaces for storage or for direct consumption. It may occur due to defective insulin receptors over cell surfaces or abnormality on plasma protein amylin. The phenomenon is called insulin resistance. This type of diabetes mellitus accounts for 80-90% of all cases of diabetes. It is kept under contr Continue reading >>

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  1. Lara Sophia

    What a fantastic question!! Oh big pharma, here we go again. These pharm companies will work any sort of magic to keep their drugs branded (or extend their drug patent).
    Soo let's break it down..
    What we know (factoids):
    Basaglar has the same protein sequence and a similar glucose-lowering effect (compared to Lantus)
    Basaglar was released as a new source for patients looking for a lower cost alternative to Lantus.
    The FDA does not call it a “biosimilar” OR the generic drug for Lantus for regulatory reasons, BUT it can essentially be thought of as an alternative form of Lantus.
    Legally we CANT call it generic even though Basaglar has an amino acid sequence identical to Lantus AND in Europe it was approved by the EMA as the first insulin biosimilar under the brand name Abasria in 2014.
    In the US the product has been deemed a Lantus ‘follow-on,’ neither a biosimilar nor a generic but a branded biopharmaceutical in its own right.

    Basaglar can not be substituted for the generic of Lantus (in the US). Meaning if you have been getting Lantus you need a whole new script for Basaglar!
    In recent news the FDA passed a new law allowing more competitive into the market place.
    So how did this happen? In September 2015 the manufacture of Lantus (Sanofi) came to a settlement with Eli Lily (manufacturers of Basaglar).
    In this settlement Lilly agreed to pay royalties to Sanofi in exchange for a patent license. Lilly also pledged to wait to sell its pen-packaged biosimilar version of Lantus until December 15, 2016. (Wow! Way to help consumers, eye roll)
    Keep in mind, Lantus is Sanofi's best-selling product, with more than $7 billion dollars of sale in 2015.
    So what we really know: (???)
    None of this answers your question
    Big pharma will use any slew of wording to rebrand or in this case limit the competition (even at the cost of consumers)
    We don't know yet if in the US there will be great discounts for Basaglar products due to the greater cost to manufacture this drug (factor in now royalties!)

    Some retailers are fitting back against this nonsense. See what CVS is doing in response:
    Cvs is removing Lantus and Toujeo from its Caremark formularies and will start only covering Basaglar.
    Last note:
    So in a sense there is now a ‘generic’ alternative to Lantus on the market. The brands will always remain on the market so consumers can have more options for their care. And yes people come in all the time asking only for these uber expensive brands.

    Speak to your MD or awesome pharmacist to see if they can help you switch over!

  2. Steve Rapaport

    Insulin is an interesting thing. Blood sugar can vary from dangerously high to dangerously low in just an hour or two, and insulin’s job is to keep it level and in safe range.
    Keep in mind that if not diabetic, your blood sugar normally goes quite high (around 140) after a meal, and then is carefully brought back down to normal by small, carefully controlled doses of insulin made “on demand” by your pancreas’s beta cells. They need to sense your blood sugar level, your upcoming demands for energy, and to some extent, the amount of sugar you are digesting now that will soon reach your blood, so as to dose you correctly.
    The natural insulin that does all this has a very fast action, working within about 20 minutes and being totally used up in an hour or so. This type of insulin, known as Insulin R (Regular) went generic a long time ago. But for everyday diabetic use, it is usually very undesirable. Think about it. Do you wish to monitor your blood sugar every 15 minutes and then inject the exact appropriate amount of fast-acting insulin for the next hour? Including when you sleep? That is what your pancreas would do.
    You are relatively clumsy with insulin injections, and as a diabetic you generally do them less often. So you need a slow action insulin for the whole day, plus often another faster acting dose at mealtimes to handle the peak demand. Making the slow-acting dose have a very flat, consistent action over the entire day is a huge technical challenge and has only recently (2003 or so) become feasible. And the ones from 2003 (Lantus and later Levemir) are pretty good but not ideal. They have a definite peak time (which can be dangerous if mistimed) and a definite tailing off of action, meaning your blood sugar may be rising for some time before you can take more. They can also be inconsistent day to day, making that peak and tail-off time even more dangerous as they are unpredictable.
    So the race is on to make better, smoother, more consistent insulin action profiles for long-acting insulins. That takes research and lots of experiments and passing FDA tests, which is mucho expensive.

    Treating diabetics in hospital with ketoacidosis or pretty much any life-threatening condition may also require super-fast acting insulins, which also require research.

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