? ? ? ? . BUN Urea nitrogen is a waste product created in liver; blood urea nitrogen test is used to evaluate the functioning of liver and kidneys. Dr. Ankush describes about blood urea nitrogen test in Hindi, its procedure and what information can be obtained from the test results.
Glucose: Reference Range, Interpretation, Collection And Panels
Postprandial plasma glucose at 2 hours: Less than 140 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Less than 140 mg/dL Serum glucose values are 1.15% lower than plasma glucose values. [ 1 ] Values for diabetes mellitus are as follows: Fasting plasma glucose: Greater than 125 mg/dL Random plasma glucose: Greater than 200 mg/dL Postprandial glucose at 2 hours: Greater than 200 mg/dL Impaired fasting glucose: Fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL Impaired glucose tolerance testing: Postprandial glucose at 2 hours of 140-200 mg/dL The value for hypoglycemia is as follows: Collect 0.5-1 ml of blood in gray-top tube containing sodium fluoride. For serum glucose, a red-top tube can be used. Serum is separated within 45 minutes of collection. For fasting glucose testing, collect the blood sample in the morning after an overnight or 8-hour fast. For postprandial glucose testing, collect the blood sample 2 hours after a regular meal. For oral glucose tolerance testing, after oral intake of 75 g of glucose, collect blood samples at 1 hour and 2 hours. For gestational diabetes testing, parameters are 1 hour after 50 g of glucose and 2 hours after 100 g of glucose. Glucose is a monosaccharide and is a primary meta
What is SERUM ALBUMIN? What does SERUM ALBUMIN mean? SERUM ALBUMIN meaning, definition & explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood. Human serum albumin is encoded by the ALB gene. Other mammalian forms, such as bovine serum albumin, are chemically similar. Serum albumin is produced by the liver, occurs dissolved in blood plasma and is the most abundant blood protein in mammals. Albumin is essential for maintaining the oncotic pressure needed for proper distribution of body fluids between blood vessels and body tissues; without albumin, the high pressure in the blood vessels would force more fluids out into the tissues. It also acts as a plasma carrier by non-specifically binding several hydrophobic steroid hormones and as a transport protein for hemin and fatty acids. Too much or too little circulating serum albumin may be harmful. Albumin in the urine usually denotes the presence of kidney disease. Occasionally albumin appears in the urine of normal persons following long standing (postural albuminuria). Albumin functions primarily as a carrier protein for steroids, fatty acids, and thyroid hormones in the blood and plays a major role in stabilizing extracellular fluid volume by contributing to oncotic pressure (known also as colloid osmotic pressure) of plasma. Because smaller animals (for example rats) function at a lower blood pressure, they need less oncotic pressure to balance this, and thus need less albumin to maintain proper fluid distribution. Albumin is synthesized in the liver as preproalbumin which has an N-terminal peptide that is removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The product, proalbumin, is in turn cleaved in the Golgi vesicles to produce the secreted albumin.
[fasting Serum Glucose And Subsequent Liver Cancer Risk In A Korean Prospectivecohort].
1. J Prev Med Public Health. 2007 Jan;40(1):23-8. [Fasting serum glucose and subsequent liver cancer risk in a Korean prospectivecohort]. Gwack J(1), Hwang SS, Ko KP, Jun JK, Park SK, Chang SH, Shin HR, Yoo KY. (1)Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine. OBJECTIVES: Chronic infections with hepatitis B or C and alcoholic cirrhosis are three well-known major risk factors for liver cancer. Diabetes has also beensuggested as a potential risk factor. However, the findings of previous studieshave been controversial in terms of the causal association. Therefore, the aim ofthis study was to evaluate the association between serum glucose levels and livercancer development in a Korean cohort.METHODS: Thirty-six liver cancer cases were identified in the Korean Multi-CenterCancer Cohort (KMCC). Baseline information on lifestyle characteristics wasobtained via questionnaire. Serum glucose levels were measured at the study'senrollment. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazardregression model. The adjusting variables included age, gender, smoking history, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs
In this video I discuss what is fructose, fructose metabolism, and fructose in sugar. Transcript (partial) Fructose is a monosaccharide, which are the most basic units of carbs. Pure, dry fructose is very sweet, white, and odorless. It is found in honey, fruits, vegetables, sugar cane, and sugar beets. Usually fructose is separated from glucose in a sucrose molecule. It can then be added as a stand alone ingredient. Because pure fructose is sweeter than sugar, less of it can be used to achieve the same level of sweetness, which translates to lower calorie foods. 1 teaspoon of Pure dry fructose has 15 calories, which equates to 4.2g of carbs. How does the body use fructose? Most of the cells in our body cant process fructose, so,it is almost completely metabolized in the liver through a process called fructolysis. Essentially the liver converts fructose to energy, but, this energy cant leave because of its molecular makeup. The liver does burn off some of this energy . If there is any excess fructose after the energy conversion, the liver stores it as glycogen, which can be broken down into glucose and sent to other cells for use. But the liver can only store so much glycogen, once it is fully stocked in glycogen, the extra fructose is used to create triglycerides, which can be moved outside the liver for long term storage as fat. So, based on this, fruits must be bad? Actually, No, not at all. Fruits are loaded with water, fiber, and other nutrients, so, they take a while to eat and digest so, their fructose hits the liver slowly. The amount of fructose contained in fruit is much smaller than the added sugar in a soft drink for instance. Bottom linefructose is not unhealthy, depending on the source it came from. When that source is a natural food, like fruits and vegetables great, when that source is in the form of added sugar, not so great.
Effects Of Several Simple Sugars On Serum Glucose And Serum Fructose Levels In Normal And Diabetic Subjects.
Effects of several simple sugars on serum glucose and serum fructose levels in normal and diabetic subjects. Kim HS, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1988. Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Korea. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1988 Apr 6;4(4):281-7. Fructose has a reaction constant 7.5 times as high as that of glucose in its nonenzymatic reaction with protein in vitro. The effects of glucose, sucrose and fructose ingestion on serum fructose and glucose levels were studied to evaluate the overall biohazard, i.e., the probability of their altering proteins while circulating in the blood. Normal and diabetic subjects were given either 75 g glucose, 75 g fructose, 75 g sucrose, or 112.5 g fructose after fasting, and their serum levels of sugars were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h. In normal subjects, fructose ingestion produced significantly lower serum glucose levels and significantly higher serum fructose levels than did glucose ingestion, while sucrose produced intermediate results. The glycemic effect was found to be lowest for fructose and highest for glucose. The calculated overall biohazard was, however, highest for fructose and lowest for glucose in normal
Anyone with diabetes will be familiar with finger-prick testing for monitoring blood glucose to see how well they are managing their disease. This kind of regular testing is essential for most people with diabetes, but what role does an occasional hemoglobin A1C blood test play in controlling blood sugars, and how does it work? Contents of this article: What is the A1C test? The abbreviation A1C is used in the US (sometimes with a lower-case 'c' ...
In my hospital nurses were required to order a stat lab serum glucose whenever they had a critically High or Low Fingerstick result. My question was...Why? Ordering a Stat Serum Glucose to Confirm Glucometer (Fingerstick) Reading This is a case where the policy did not seem to make sense. At my facility, the blood glucose monitoring procedure called for the nurse to order a stat serum glucose in the event of a critically low or high fingerstick ...
Abstract Cinnamon (肉桂 ròu guì) has in vitro insulin potentiating activity, and proanthocyanidins from cinnamon prevent in vitro formation of advanced glycation end products. Some human studies were equivocal, but several have shown beneficial effects of cinnamon supplementation on circulating glucose, lipids, and/or insulin. This placebo-controlled double-blind trial tested the effects of a dried water extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia ...
Diabetes has two forms. In the type that develops early in childhood (type 1), the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas are destroyed (probably by a viral infection), and blood levels of insulin drop nearly to zero. However, in type 2 diabetes (usually developing in adults) insulin remains plentiful, but the body does not respond normally to it. (This is only an approximate description of the difference between the two types.) In both forms o ...
Inaccuracy of Venous Point-of-Care Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study Affiliations: Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, So Paulo, SP, Brazil, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG, Brazil Affiliation: Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, So Paulo, SP, Brazil Affiliation: Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, So Paulo, ...
Effects of several simple sugars on serum glucose and serum fructose levels in normal and diabetic subjects. Kim HS, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1988. Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Korea. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1988 Apr 6;4(4):281-7. Fructose has a reaction constant 7.5 times as high as that of glucose in its nonenzymatic reaction with protein in vitro. The effects of glucose, sucrose and fructose ingestio ...