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Does The Liver Produce Insulin

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What Is Insulin?

Insulin is a hormone that is important for metabolism and utilization of energy from the ingested nutrients - especially glucose. Insulin chemistry and etymology Insulin is a protein chain or peptide hormone. There are 51 amino acids in an insulin molecule. It has a molecular weight of 5808 Da. Insulin is produced in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. The name insulin comes from the Latin ''insula'' for "island" from the cells that produce the hormone in the pancreas. Insulin's structure varies slightly between species of animal. Both porcine (from pigs) and bovine (from cows) insulin are similar to human insulin but porcine insulin resembles human insulin more closely. What does insulin do? Insulin has several broad actions including: It causes the cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be stored in the liver and muscles Insulin also prevents the utilization of fat as an energy source. In absence of insulin or in conditions where insulin is low glucose is not taken up by body cells, and the body begins to use fat as an energy source Insulin also controls other body systems and regulates the amino acid upt Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. kulkulkan

    Best marker/test for insulin resistance?

    What is the best, direct or indirect, marker for insulin resistance that can be easily tested and tracked over time? I see a number of ways it is done in research, but not sure how it is measured or tracked in real life by doctors (if at all). I am going to see my endo next month and will ask him as well.
    I understand that the insulin resistance may vary significantly in various parts of the body - more interested in finding out insulin resistance from muscle cells if possible (which takes up most of the glucose after say the brain) rather than hepatic insulin resistance.
    As a side note, I am on a very low carb ketogenic diet (which is less than 50g carb/day for me). I have read that ketosis increases peripheral insulin resistance (or hepatic insulin resistance in rat studies) - not sure how accurate is that but I am not too concerned with this if it is indeed a temporary physiological response to ketosis (as claimed), but in order to have more accurate test for insulin resistance, I think it just means I would need to be out of ketosis for a little while before testing.

  2. furball64801

    Originally Posted by kulkulkan
    What is the best, direct or indirect, marker for insulin resistance that can be easily tested and tracked over time? I see a number of ways it is done in research, but not sure how it is measured or tracked in real life by doctors (if at all). I am going to see my endo next month and will ask him as well.
    I understand that the insulin resistance may vary significantly in various parts of the body - more interested in finding out insulin resistance from muscle cells if possible (which takes up most of the glucose after say the brain) rather than hepatic insulin resistance.
    As a side note, I am on a very low carb ketogenic diet (which is less than 50g carb/day for me). I have read that ketosis increases peripheral insulin resistance (or hepatic insulin resistance in rat studies) - not sure how accurate is that but I am not too concerned with this if it is indeed a temporary physiological response to ketosis (as claimed), but in order to have more accurate test for insulin resistance, I think it just means I would need to be out of ketosis for a little while before testing. Ken or Lynn might have an idea on this, Ken seems to have some great info available.

  3. Lynnw

    An insulin test is the only thing I know of to measure insulin resistance (that we can get in a doctor's office). A high insulin level indicates that it is taking more than the normal amount of insulin to keep BG at whatever level is it, therefore indicating insulin resistance. The HOMA calculator uses insulin and glucose levels (taken at the same time) to assess insulin resistance and beta cell function. It is (I think) not very good, but it's the best we've got.
    The tests may be less meaningful if you are in ketosis. Your BG should be normal and your insulin should be low, so it won't tell you anything useful. But having BG and insulin both in the normal range is a Good Thing.

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